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Michael Gorman
Catholic University of America
  1. The Essential and the Accidental.Michael Gorman - 2005 - Ratio 18 (3):276–289.
    The distinction between the essential and the accidental characteristics of a thing should be understood not in modal terms (the received view) nor in definitional terms (Fine’s recent proposal) but as follows: an essential characteristic of a thing is one that is not explained by any other of that thing’s characteristics, and an accidental characteristic of a thing is one that is so explained. Various versions of this proposal can be formulated.
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  2. Simulating Science Heuristics, Mental Models, and Technoscientific Thinking.Michael E. Gorman - 1992
  3. Ethical and Environmental Challenges to Engineering.Michael E. Gorman, Matthew M. Mehalik & Patricia Hogue Werhane - 2000
     
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  4.  22
    Societal Dimensions of Nanotechnology as a Trading Zone: Results From a Pilot Project.Michael E. Gorman, James F. Groves & Jeff Shrager - 2004 - In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios. pp. 63--77.
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  5.  43
    Intellectual Property Rights, Moral Imagination, and Access to Life-Enhancing Drugs.Michael Gorman - 2005 - Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (4):595-613.
    Although the idea of intellectual property (IP) rights—proprietary rights to what one invents, writes, paints, composes or creates—is firmlyembedded in Western thinking, these rights are now being challenged across the globe in a number of areas. This paper will focus on one of these challenges: government-sanctioned copying of patented drugs without permission or license of the patent owner in the name of national security, in health emergencies, or life-threatening epidemics. After discussing standard rights-based and utilitarian arguments defending intellectual property we (...)
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  6.  40
    Moral Imagination, Trading Zones, and the Role of the Ethicist in Nanotechnology.Michael E. Gorman, Patricia H. Werhane & Nathan Swami - 2009 - NanoEthics 3 (3):185-195.
    The societal and ethical impacts of emerging technological and business systems cannot entirely be foreseen; therefore, management of these innovations will require at least some ethicists to work closely with researchers. This is particularly critical in the development of new systems because the maximum degrees of freedom for changing technological direction occurs at or just after the point of breakthrough; that is also the point where the long-term implications are hardest to visualize. Recent work on shared expertise in Science & (...)
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  7. Independence and Substance.Michael Gorman - 2006 - International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (2):147-159.
    The paper takes up a traditional view that has also been a part of some recent analytic metaphysics, namely, the view that substance is to be understood in terms of independence. Taking as my point of departure some recent remarks by Kit Fine, I propose reviving the Aristotelian-scholastic idea that the sense in which substances are independent is that they are non-inherent, and I do so by developing a broad notion of inherence that is more usable in the context of (...)
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  8.  20
    Classical Theism, Classical Anthropology, and the Christological Coherence Problem.Michael Gorman - 2016 - Faith and Philosophy 33 (3):278-292.
    The traditional claim that Christ is one person who is both divine and human might seem inconsistent with classical conceptions of understanding divinity and humanity. For example, the classical understanding of divinity would seem to require us to hold that divine beings are immaterial, while the classical understanding of humanity would seem to require us to hold that human beings are material, leaving us unable to speak consistently of one person who is divine and human both. This paper argues that (...)
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  9.  95
    Personhood, Potentiality, and Normativity.Michael Gorman - 2011 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 85 (3):483-498.
    The lives of persons are valuable, but are all humans persons? Some humans—the immature, the damaged, and the defective—are not capable, here and now, of engaging in the rational activities characteristic of persons, and for this reason, one might call their personhood into question. A standard way of defendingit is by appeal to potentiality: we know they are persons because we know they have the potentiality to engage in rational activities. In this paper I develop acomplementary strategy based on normativity. (...)
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  10. Incarnation.Michael Gorman - 2011 - In Brian Davies & Eleonore Stump (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Aquinas. Oxford University Press.
    According to Christian belief, Jesus Christ is a divine person who became “incarnate,” i.e., who became human. A key event in the second act of the drama of creation and redemption, the incarnation could not have failed to interest Aquinas, and he discusses it in a number of places. A proper understanding of what he thought about it is thus part of any complete understanding of his work. It is, furthermore, a window into his ideas on a variety of other (...)
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  11.  1
    Christological Consistency and the Reduplicative Qua.Michael Gorman - 2014 - Journal of Analytic Theology 2:86-100.
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  12.  51
    Two Types of Features: An Aristotelian Approach.Michael Gorman - 2014 - Ratio 27 (2):140-154.
    A certain theory of substance, one that grows out of Aristotelian philosophy but which has adherents today as well, draws a distinction between the features a substance has by instantiating a universal and the features it has by possessing a trope. An adherent of this theory might say that a certain cat is red because it possesses a redness-trope, but that it is a cat because it instantiates the universal CAT. A problem that must be faced by philosophers who hold (...)
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  13. Christ as Composite According to Aquinas.Michael Gorman - 2000 - Traditio 55:143-157.
    In this paper I explain Thomas Aquinas's view that Christ is a composite person, and then I explain the role of Christ's compositeness in Thomas‘s solutions to a range of Christological problems. On the topics I will be discussing, Thomas‘s views did not change significantly over the course of his career; for the sake of simplicity, then, I will focus on texts from the Summa theologiae, citing parallels in the notes.
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  14.  27
    Confirmation, Disconfirmation, and Invention: The Case of Alexander Graham Bell and the Telephone.Michael E. Gorman - 1995 - Thinking and Reasoning 1 (1):31 – 53.
  15. Levels of Expertise and Trading Zones: Combining Cognitive and Social Approaches to Technology Studies.Michael E. Gorman - 2005 - In M. Gorman, R. Tweney, D. Gooding & A. Kincannon (eds.), Scientific and Technological Thinking. Erlbaum. pp. 287--302.
     
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  16.  12
    Using History to Teach Invention and Design: The Case of the Telephone.Michael E. Gorman & J. Kirby Robinson - 1998 - Science & Education 7 (2):173-201.
  17. Talking About Intentional Objects.Michael Gorman - 2006 - Dialectica 60 (2):135-144.
    Discusses the old problem of how to characterize apparently intentional states that appear to lack objects. In tandem with critically discussing a recent proposal by Tim Crane, I develop the line of reasoning according to which talking about intentional objects is really a way of talking about intentional states—in particular, it’s a way of talking about their satisfaction-conditions.
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  18.  59
    Substance and Identity-Dependence.Michael Gorman - 2006 - Philosophical Papers 35 (1):103-118.
    There is no consensus on how to define substance, but one popular view is that substances are entities that are independent in some sense or other. E. J. Lowe’s version of this approach stresses that substances are not dependent on other particulars for their identity. I develop the meaning of this proposal, defend it against some criticisms, and then show that others do require that the theory be modified.
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  19.  25
    Using Trading Zones and Life Cycle Analysis to Understand Nanotechnology Regulation.Ahson Wardak & Michael E. Gorman - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (4):695-703.
    This article reviews the public health and environmental regulations applicable to nanotechnology using a life cycle model from basic research through end-of-life for products. Given nanotechnology's immense promise and public investment, regulations are important, balancing risk with the public good. Trading zones and earth systems engineering management assist in explaining potential solutions to gaps in an otherwise complex, overlapping regulatory system.
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  20.  16
    Using Trading Zones and Life Cycle Analysis to Understand Nanotechnology Regulation.Ahson Wardak & Michael E. Gorman - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (4):695-703.
    Productive work on societal implications needs to be engaged with the research from the start. Ethicists need to go into the lab to understand what's possible. Scientists and engineers need to engage with humanists to start thinking about this aspect of their work. Only thus, working together in dialog, will we make genuine progress on the societal and ethical issues that nanotechnology poses.Davis Baird, in testimony before the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, May 1, 2003Federal funding of the (...)
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  21.  27
    Doing Science, Technology and Society in the National Science Foundation: Commentary On: “Engaged, Embedded, Enjoined: Science and Technology Studies in the National Science Foundation”.Michael E. Gorman - 2011 - Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (4):839-849.
    The author describes his efforts to become a participant observer while he was a Program Director at the NSF. He describes his plans for keeping track of his reflections and his goals before he arrived at NSF, then includes sections from his reflective diary and comments after he had completed his two-year rotation. The influx of rotators means the NSF has to be an adaptive, learning organization but there are bureaucratic obstacles in the way.
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  22.  10
    Talking About Intentional Objects.Michael Gorman - 2006 - Dialectica 60 (2):135-144.
    Tim Crane has recently defended the view that all intentional states have objects, even when these objects do not exist. In this note I first set forth some crucial elements of Crane’s view: his reasons for accepting intentional objects, his rejection of certain ways of thinking about them, and his distinction between the ‘substantial’ and the ‘schematic’ notion of an object. I then argue that while Crane’s account successfully explains what intentional objects are not, it leaves unexplained how it could (...)
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  23.  43
    Trading Zones, Moral Imagination and Socially Sensitive Computing.Michael E. Gorman - 2008 - Foundations of Science 13 (1):89-97.
    As computating technologies become ubiquitous and at least partly autonomous, they will have increasing impact on societies, both in the developed and developing worlds. This article outlines a framework for guiding emerging technologies in directions that promise social as well as technical progress. Multiple stakeholders will have to be engaged in dialogues over new technological directions, forming trading zones in which knowledge and resources are exchanged. Such discussions will have to incorporate cultural and individual values.
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  24. A Matter of Faith? Christoph Scheiner, Jesuit Censorship, and the Trial of Galileo.Michael John Gorman - 1996 - Perspectives on Science 4:283-320.
  25.  86
    Hume's Theory of Belief.Michael M. Gorman - 1993 - Hume Studies 19 (1):89-101.
    The paper defends Hume's theory of belief against charges of inconsistency (but does not argue that Hume's theory is correct). It is noted that his statements about belief are actually statements about three different questions: the nature of belief, the effects of belief, and the causes of belief. The question of the nature of belief is analyzed in the most detail. Hume has two theories, which I call his "manner of conception theory" and his "feeling theory," but on Humean assumptions, (...)
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  26. Categories and Normativity.Michael Gorman - 2004 - In Sanford Gorman (ed.), Categories. The Catholic University of America Press.
    Anyone who tries to understand categories soon runs into the problem of giving an account of the unity of a category. Call this the “unity problem.” In this essay, I describe a distinctive and under-studied version of the unity problem and discuss how it might be solved. First, I describe various versions of the unity problem. Second, I focus on one version and argue that it is best dealt with by thinking of at least some categories as “norm-constituted,” in a (...)
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  27.  27
    Personal Unity and the Problem of Christ’s Knowledge.Michael Gorman - 2000 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 74:175-186.
    According to the orthodox Christian belief expressed most famously at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, Jesus Christ is one person who is both divine and human. Not surprisingly, many have wondered at this, for it seems impossible for one person to have both divine and human characteristics. There are different versions of this difficulty, which correspond to different human and divine characteristics. In this article, I will defend traditional Christology against an argument that bases itself on one particular difficulty. (...)
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  28.  1
    Turning Good Into Gold: A Comparative Study of Two Environmental Invention Networks.Matthew M. Mehalik & Michael E. Gorman - 2002 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 27 (4):499-529.
    This article proposes three states in an actor-network and a global/local distinction among actants. This theoretical framework is applied to two invention networks: one created by an inventor of solar heating systems and another created by a designer who wanted to create an environmentally sustainable furniture fabric. Both solar inventor and fabric designer wanted to develop technologies that would improve the environment and also make money. The article concludes by considering whether invention networks that intend to turn “good into gold” (...)
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  29.  16
    Can Experiments Be Used to Study Science?Michael Gorman & Bernard Carlson - 1989 - Social Epistemology 3 (2):89 – 106.
  30.  46
    Logical and Metaphysical Form: Lessons From the Theory of Dependence.Michael Gorman - 1995 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 69:217-226.
    Metaphysicians have not always been sufficiently attentive to the problem of dependence. Those who have paid attention to it have disagreed over what depends on what: do minds depend on brains, or vice versa? accidents on substances? creatures on God? Even less attention, however, has been paid to the question of what dependence actually is; usually, some answer to this question is taken for granted, and consideration is given only to the subsequent questions of which things depend on which. The (...)
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  31.  63
    Ontological Priority and John Duns Scotus.Michael M. Gorman - 1994 - Philosophical Quarterly 44 (173):460-471.
    The philosophical literature understands ontological priority in two ways, in terms of dependence, and in terms of degrees-of-being. These views are not reconcilable in any straightforward manner. However, they can be reconciled indirectly, if both are seen as instances of higher-level concept that is a modification of John Duns Scotus' notion of essential order. The result is a theory of ontological priority that takes the form of a list of membership criteria for the class of "ontological priority relations", of which (...)
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  32. Error and Scientific Reasoning.Michael E. Gorman - 1989 - In Steve Fuller (ed.), The Cognitive Turn: Sociological and Psychological Perspectives on Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
     
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  33.  13
    Male Homosexual Desire: Neurological Investigations and Scientific Bias.Michael R. Gorman - 1994 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 38 (1):61.
  34.  14
    Heuristics, Hypotheses, and Social Influence: A New Approach to the Experimental Simulation of Social Epistemology.Robert Rosenwein & Michael Gorman - 1995 - Social Epistemology 9 (1):57 – 69.
  35.  6
    Personal Unity and the Problem of Christ’s Knowledge.Michael Gorman - 2000 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 74:175-186.
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  36.  11
    Simulating Social Epistemology.Michael Gorman & Robert Rosenwein - 1995 - Social Epistemology 9 (1):71 – 79.
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  37.  9
    Book Reviews of The Renaissance Computer: Technology in the First Age of Print, Book Marketing and Promotion: A Handbook of Good Practice, Libraries in the Ancient World, The Memory of Mankind: The Story of Libraries Since the Dawn of History, Jerusalem: City of the Book: 40 Years of the Jerusalem International BookFair. [REVIEW]Richard Abel, Henry Chakava, Michael Gorman, Maurice Line & Herbert Lottman - 2001 - Logos. Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España] 12 (4):225-232.
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  38.  36
    Responses to 'Computationalism'.1Imre Balogh, Brian Beakley, Paul Churchland, Michael Gorman, Stevan Harnad, David Mertz, H. H. Pattee, William Ramsey, John Ringen, Georg Schwarz, Brian Slator, Alan Strudler & Charles Wallis - 1990 - Social Epistemology 4 (2):155 – 199.
  39. The Business of Consumption: Environmental Ethics and the Global Economy.George G. Brenkert, Donald A. Brown, Rogene A. Buchholz, Herman E. Daly, Richard Dodd, R. Edward Freeman, Eric T. Freyfogle, R. Goodland, Michael E. Gorman, Andrea Larson, John Lemons, Don Mayer, William McDonough, Matthew M. Mehalik, Ernest Partridge, Jessica Pierce, William E. Rees, Joel E. Reichart, Sandra B. Rosenthal, Mark Sagoff, Julian L. Simon, Scott Sonenshein & Wendy Warren - 1998 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    At the forefront of international concerns about global legislation and regulation, a host of noted environmentalists and business ethicists examine ethical issues in consumption from the points of view of environmental sustainability, economic development, and free enterprise.
     
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  40. Think Through History.Jamie Byrom, Christine Consell, Michael Gorman, Michael Riley & Andrew Wrenn - forthcoming - Minds and Machines.
     
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  41. Interpreting Invention as a Cognitive Process: The Case of Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison, and the Telephone.W. Bernard Carlson & Michael E. Gorman - 1990 - Science, Technology and Human Values 15 (2):131-164.
    Historians of technology have provided important accounts of technological innovation, but they rarely employ concepts which permit a rigorous analysis ofinvention as a mental or cognitive process. This article seeks to address this theoretical lacuna by using concepts adapted from cognitive psychology to compare the mental processes of two telephone inventors, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison. Specifically, we suggest that invention may be seen as a process in which inventors combine ideas with objects, or what we call mental models (...)
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  42.  10
    Book Reviews of the No Trespassing: Authorship, Intellectual Property Rights, and the Boundaries of Globalization, Library: An Unquiet History, The Spinster and the Prophet. [REVIEW]Graham P. Cornish, Michael Gorman & Gordon Graham - 2004 - Logos. Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España] 15 (4):219-223.
  43.  9
    9.3 Response.R. Konyndyk DeYoung, Michael Torre, Michael Gorman & Russell Pannier - 2002 - Logos: A Journal of Catholic Thought and Culture 5 (1):164-184.
    DeYoung responds to James Rachels' article "Moral Philosophy and as a Subversive Activity.".
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    Response.R. Konyndyk DeYoung, Michael Torre, Michael Gorman & Russell Pannier - 2002 - Logos: A Journal of Catholic Thought and Culture 5 (1):164-184.
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  45.  3
    The Moral Imagination of Patricia Werhane: A Festschrift.R. Edward Freeman, Sergiy Dmytriyev, Andrew C. Wicks, James R. Freeland, Richard T. De George, Norman E. Bowie, Ronald F. Duska, Edwin M. Hartman, Timothy J. Hargrave, Mark S. Schwartz, W. Michael Hoffman, Michael E. Gorman, Mollie Painter-Morland, Carla J. Manno, Howard Harris, David Bevan & Patricia H. Werhane - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
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  46.  8
    Imaginative Design Challenges to “Do We Consume Too Much?”.Michael E. Gorman - 2000 - The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 2:135-141.
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  47.  18
    Using Expert Elicitation to Prioritize Resource Allocation for Risk Identification for Nanosilver.Emma Fauss, Michael E. Gorman & Nathan Swami - 2009 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 37 (4):770-780.
    This article introduces a method to identify risks through expert elicitation, using silver nanotechnology as a case study. Unique features of the method include supplying experts with a list of silver nanotechnology products, and conducting the elicitation in an extended interview format that captures the experts' reasoning. The end result is a series of graphical representations of expert thinking from which high-risk scenarios and knowledge gaps can be reliably inferred. This methodology, combined with other approaches to expert elicitation, can help (...)
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  48. Error and Scientific Reasoning: An Experimental Inquiry.Michael E. Gorman - 1989 - In Steve Fuller (ed.), The Cognitive Turn: Sociological and Psychological Perspectives on Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 13--41.
  49. A Carolingian Epitome Of St Augustine's De Genesi Ad Litteram.Michael Gorman - 1983 - Revue d' Etudes Augustiniennes Et Patristiques 29 (1-2):137-144.
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  50. A Framework for Strategic Network Design Assessment, Decision Making, and Moral Imagination.Michael E. Gorman & Matthew M. Mehalik - 2006 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 31 (3):289-308.
    This article presents a framework for practitioners who may be interested in maintaining adaptive stability of sociotechnical networks. The framework is developed from assembling several concepts that are useful for assessing and for drawing on appropriate moral reasoning strategies as sociotechnical networks are designed, constructed, and adapted. One such strategy involves the ability to assess degrees of perspective sharing and trading relationships in networks using moral imagination. The article uses the case of the design of an environmentally sustainable fabric to (...)
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