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Michael Levin [102]Michael E. Levin [35]Michael Eric Levin [1]Michael L. Levin [1]
  1.  17
    Blindspots.Michael Levin - 1991 - Noûs 25 (3):389-392.
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  2.  27
    On Having No Head: Cognition Throughout Biological Systems.František Baluška & Michael Levin - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  3.  8
    The Computational Boundary of a “Self”: Developmental Bioelectricity Drives Multicellularity and Scale-Free Cognition.Michael Levin - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
  4.  20
    Scale‐Free Biology: Integrating Evolutionary and Developmental Thinking.Chris Fields & Michael Levin - 2020 - Bioessays 42 (8):1900228.
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  5. Is the Generality Problem Too General?Michael Levin - 2002 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (1):87 - 97.
    Reliabilism holds that knowledge is true belief reliably caused. Reliabilists should say something about individuating processes; critics deny that the right degree of generality can be specified without arbitrariness. It is argued that this criticism applies as well to processes mentioned in scientific explanations. The gratuitous puzzles created thereby show that the “generality problem” is illusory.
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  6. What Kind of Explanation is Truth.Michael Levin - 1984 - In J. Leplin (ed.), Scientific Realism. University of California. pp. 124--139.
     
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  7.  7
    Competitive and Coordinative Interactions Between Body Parts Produce Adaptive Developmental Outcomes.Richard Gawne, Kenneth Z. McKenna & Michael Levin - 2020 - Bioessays 42 (8):1900245.
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  8.  73
    On Theory-Change and Meaning-Change.Michael E. Levin - 1979 - Philosophy of Science 46 (3):407-424.
    I argue against the currently popular view that a radical change in theory affects the meaning of theoretical terms, and hence render pre- and post-shift theories incomparable. I first show how to pose the meaning-change issue without appeal to meanings reified. I contend that arguments against theory-neutral observation languages are faulty, but that even if they were sound, there are semantic devices that allow a theory to refer to the factual basis of a competitor. This suggests a picture of science (...)
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  9. Kripke's Argument Against the Identity Thesis.Michael E. Levin - 1975 - Journal of Philosophy 72 (March):149-67.
  10.  24
    Metaphysics and the Mind-Body Problem.Michael E. Levin - 1979 - Oxford University Press.
  11.  94
    Responses to Race Differences in Crime.Michael Levin - 1992 - Journal of Social Philosophy 23 (1):5-29.
  12.  5
    How Do Living Systems Create Meaning?Chris Fields & Michael Levin - 2020 - Philosophies 5 (36):36-0.
    Meaning has traditionally been regarded as a problem for philosophers and psychologists. Advances in cognitive science since the early 1960s, however, broadened discussions of meaning, or more technically, the semantics of perceptions, representations, and/or actions, into biology and computer science. Here, we review the notion of “meaning” as it applies to living systems, and argue that the question of how living systems create meaning unifies the biological and cognitive sciences across both organizational and temporal scales.
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  13. Gettier Cases Without False Lemmas?Michael Levin - 2006 - Erkenntnis 64 (3):381-392.
    Examples cited by Feldman, Lehrer and others of true beliefs that are justified, but not by false lemmas, turn out under scrutiny to involve false lemmas after all. In each case there is an EG inference whose conclusion is unwarranted unless its base instance is false. A shift to non-deductive justification does not avert the difficulty. The relation of this result to non-inferential Gettier cases is suggested.
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  14.  84
    Virtue Epistemology: No New Cures.Michael Levin - 2004 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (2):397–410.
    One version of virtue epistemology defines knowledge as belief whose truth arises from, or is explained by, the motives that produced it. This version is also intended to solve the Gettier problem, by shielding properly caused beliefs from double accidents. Unfortunately, there is no notion of "explains" or "arises from" which explains in the intended sense the truth of true beliefs.
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  15.  24
    Molecular Bioelectricity in Developmental Biology: New Tools and Recent Discoveries.Michael Levin - 2012 - Bioessays 34 (3):205-217.
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  16.  10
    On the Generalization of Habituation: How Discrete Biological Systems Respond to Repetitive Stimuli.Mattia Bonzanni, Nicolas Rouleau, Michael Levin & David Lee Kaplan - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (7):1900028.
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  17. Why Homosexuality is Abnormal.Michael Levin - 1984 - The Monist 67 (2):251-283.
    This paper defends the view that homosexuality is abnormal and hence undesirable—not because it is immoral or sinful, or because it weakens society or hampers evolutionary development, but for a purely mechanical reason. It is a misuse of bodily parts. Clear empirical sense attaches to the idea of the use of such bodily parts as genitals, the idea that they are for something, and consequently to the idea of their misuse. I argue on grounds involving natural selection that misuse of (...)
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  18.  12
    Scientific Realism and the Plasticity of Mind.Michael E. Levin - 1982 - Noûs 16 (3):461-466.
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  19. Controversies in Feminism.James P. Sterba, Claudia Card, Jane Flax, Virginia Held, Ellen Klein, Janet Kournay, Michael Levin, Martha Nussbaum & Rosemarie Tong - 2000 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Feminism was born in controversy and it continues to flourish in controversy. The distinguished contributors to this volume provide an array of perspectives on issues including: universal values, justice and care, a feminist philosophy of science, and the relationship of biology to social theory.
     
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  20.  1
    Mental Content.Michael Levin - 1993 - Noûs 27 (1):137-139.
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  21. Compatibilism and Special Relativity.Michael Levin - 2007 - Journal of Philosophy 104 (9):433-463.
  22.  13
    Past, Present and Future.Michael E. Levin - 1971 - Journal of Philosophy 68 (10):313-319.
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  23. Why We Believe in Other Minds.Michael Levin - 1984 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 44 (March):343-59.
  24.  24
    The Extensionality of Causation and Causal-Explanatory Contexts.Michael E. Levin - 1976 - Philosophy of Science 43 (2):266-277.
    I argue that 'c' occurs extensionally in 'c caused e' and 'D' occurs extensionally in 'c caused e because c is D'. I claim that this has been insufficiently appreciated because the two contexts are often run together and because it has not been clear that the description D of c is among the referents of an explanatory argument. I argue as well that Hume's analysis of causation is consistent with taking causation to be a relation between single events, and (...)
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  25.  39
    Demons, Possibility and Evidence.Michael Levin - 2000 - Noûs 34 (3):422–440.
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  26.  51
    Equality of Opportunity.Michael E. Levin - 1981 - Philosophical Quarterly 31 (123):110-125.
  27. A Hobbesian Minimal State.Michael Levin - 1982 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 11 (4):338-353.
  28.  36
    Plantinga on Functions and the Theory of Evolution.Michael Levin - 1997 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 75 (1):83 – 98.
  29.  43
    The Race Concept: A Defense.Michael Levin - 2002 - Behavior and Philosophy 30:21 - 42.
    It is argued against critics that the concept of race is well-formed. The issue is formulated in terms of the classic sense/reference distinction and shown that "race" has a sense specified in terms of geographic ancestry, and thereby a reference. Excessive constraints on "race," for instance that races must by definition have signature genes, are rejected. Empirical validation is considered, although the emphasis here is to place empirical validation in a philosophical context, not answer the empirical questions themselves. At several (...)
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  30.  51
    Reverse Discrimination, Shackled Runners, and Personal Identity.Michael E. Levin - 1980 - Philosophical Studies 37 (2):139 - 149.
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  31. You Can Always Count on Reliabilism.Michael Levin - 1997 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (3):607 - 617.
    This article considers some recent objections to reliabilism, particularly those of Susan Haack in Evidence and Inquiry. Haack complains that reliabilism solves the "ratification" problem trivially, making it analytic that evidence relates to truth; this paper defends an analytic solution to this problem. It argues as well that reliabilism is not tacitly committed to "evidentialism." Familiar counterexamples to and repairs of reliabilism are reviewed, with an eye to finding their rationale. Finally, it suggests that the underlying dispute between reliabilism and (...)
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  32. Phenomenal Properties.Michael E. Levin - 1981 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 42 (March):42-58.
  33.  63
    Putnam on Reference and Constructible Sets.Michael Levin - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (1):55-67.
    Putnam argues that, by ‘reinterpretation’, the Axiom of Constructibility can be saved from empirical refutation. This paper contends that this argument fails, a failure which leaves Putnam's sweeping appeal to the Lowenheim –Skolem Theorem inadequately motivated.
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  34.  40
    Negative Liberty.Michael Levin - 1984 - Social Philosophy and Policy 2 (1):84.
    Philosophers have articulated six notions of human freedom. Four are metaphysical. According to one, a man acts freely when he is doing what he wants to ; according to the second, he acts freely when he is not being compelled by outside forces ; according to the third, he acts freely when the prior state of the universe was not a sufficient cause of what he is doing; according to the fourth, he acts freely when he, not any preceding event, (...)
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  35. Is Racial Discrimination Special?Michael E. Levin - 1981 - Journal of Value Inquiry 15 (3):225-234.
  36.  9
    Explanation and Prediction in Grammar (and Semantics).Michael Levin - 1977 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 2 (1):128-137.
  37.  12
    Motor Protein Control of Ion Flux is an Early Step in Embryonic Left-Right Asymmetry.Michael Levin - 2003 - Bioessays 25 (10):1002-1010.
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  38.  5
    Tortuous Dualism.Michael Levin - 1995 - Journal of Philosophy 92 (6):314.
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  39.  75
    Tortuous Dualism.Michael Levin - 1995 - Journal of Philosophy 92 (6):313-22.
  40.  33
    Left–Right Patterning From the Inside Out: Widespread Evidence for Intracellular Control.Michael Levin & A. Richard Palmer - 2007 - Bioessays 29 (3):271-287.
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  41.  39
    Rigid Designators: Two Applications.Michael Levin - 1987 - Philosophy of Science 54 (2):283-294.
    I argue that kripke's reviews about scientific reduction and identity merely restate familiar empiricist theses in somewhat paradoxical language. I reconstruct a kripkean argument for natural necessity and conclude that it too restates empiricist orthodoxy in paradoxical language. I suggest that this difficulty is endemic to modern essentialism.
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  42.  29
    Comments on Risse and Lever.Michael Levin - 2007 - Criminal Justice Ethics 26 (1):29-35.
  43.  8
    On the Ascription of Functions to Objects, with Special Reference to Inference in Archaeology.Michael E. Levin - 1976 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 6 (3):227-234.
  44.  47
    The Bell Curve Case for Heredity.Max Hocutt & Michael Levin - 1999 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 29 (3):389-415.
    City College of New York The hereditarian theory of race differences in IQ was briefly revived with the appearance of The Bell Curve but then quickly dismissed. The authors attempt a defense of it here, with an eye to conceptual and logical issues of special interests to philosophers, such as alleged infirmities in the heritability concept. At the same time, some relevant post-Bell Curve empirical data are introduced.
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  45.  29
    Quine’s View(s) of Logical Truth.Michael E. Levin - 1978 - Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 9 (2):45-67.
  46.  18
    Still a Horse-Race.Michael Levin - 1992 - History and Philosophy of Logic 13 (1):111-114.
  47.  11
    Reply to Pennock.Michael Levin - 1984 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 13 (3):263-267.
  48. The Modal Confusion in Rawls' Original Position.Michael E. Levin & Margarita Levin - 1979 - Analysis 39 (2):82 - 87.
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  49. Understanding the Euthyphro Problem.Michael Levin - 1989 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 25 (2):83 - 97.
  50.  61
    J.S. Mill on Civilization and Barbarism.Michael Levin - 2004 - Frank Cass.
    John Stuart Mill's best-known work is On Liberty. In it he declared that Western society was in danger of coming to a standstill. This was an extraordinarily pessimistic claim in view of Britain's global dominance at the time and one that has been insufficiently investigated in the secondary literature. The wanting model was that of China, a once advanced civilization that had apparently ossified. To understand how Mill came to this conclusion requires one to investigate his notion of the stages (...)
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