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  1. The Neurochemistry of Psychedelic Experiences.Michael Lyvers - 2003 - Science and Consciousness Review 1.
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    Who has Subjectivity?Michael Lyvers - 1999 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 5.
    Carruthers' case against animal consciousness employs deeply flawed reasoning and is contradicted by both empirical and introspective evidence. Although in principle we cannot objectively establish for certain that anyone -- human or otherwise -- is phenomenally conscious, results of animal research on consciousness-changing drugs are uninterpretable unless one assumes that non-human animals have discriminable subjective states. Carruthers tries to argue that higher-order thoughts are the basis of subjective experiences, but the former are derived from the latter, not the other way (...)
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