25 found
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  1.  30
    How Prescriptive Norms Influence Causal Inferences.Jana Samland & Michael R. Waldmann - 2016 - Cognition 156 (C):164-176.
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  2. Conditionals and the Hierarchy of Causal Queries.Niels Skovgaard-Olsen, Simon Stephan & Michael R. Waldmann - 2021 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 1 (12):2472-2505.
    Recent studies indicate that indicative conditionals like "If people wear masks, the spread of Covid-19 will be diminished" require a probabilistic dependency between their antecedents and consequents to be acceptable (Skovgaard-Olsen et al., 2016). But it is easy to make the slip from this claim to the thesis that indicative conditionals are acceptable only if this probabilistic dependency results from a causal relation between antecedent and consequent. According to Pearl (2009), understanding a causal relation involves multiple, hierarchically organized conceptual dimensions: (...)
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  3.  45
    Lying Despite Telling the Truth.Alex Wiegmann, Jana Samland & Michael R. Waldmann - 2016 - Cognition 150 (C):37-42.
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  4.  38
    Transfer Effects Between Moral Dilemmas: A Causal Model Theory.Alex Wiegmann & Michael R. Waldmann - 2014 - Cognition 131 (1):28-43.
  5.  24
    Preemption in Singular Causation Judgments: A Computational Model.Simon Stephan & Michael R. Waldmann - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 10 (1):242-257.
    Causal queries about singular cases are ubiquitous, yet the question of how we assess whether a particular outcome was actually caused by a specific potential cause turns out to be difficult to answer. Relying on the causal power framework, Cheng and Novick () proposed a model of causal attribution intended to help answer this question. We challenge this model, both conceptually and empirically. We argue that the central problem of this model is that it treats causal powers that are probabilistically (...)
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  6.  16
    Moral Judgment.Michael R. Waldmann, Jonas Nagel & Alex Wiegmann - 2012 - The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning.
    The past decade has seen a renewed interest in moral psychology. A unique feature of the present endeavor is its unprecedented interdisciplinarity. For the first time, cognitive, social, and developmental psychologists, neuroscientists, experimental philosophers, evolutionary biologists, and anthropologists collaborate to study the same or overlapping phenomena. This review focuses on moral judgments and is written from the perspective of cognitive psychologists interested in theories of the cognitive and affective processes underlying judgments in moral domains. The review will first present and (...)
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  7.  11
    Time and Singular Causation—A Computational Model.Simon Stephan, Ralf Mayrhofer & Michael R. Waldmann - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (7).
    Causal queries about singular cases, which inquire whether specific events were causally connected, are prevalent in daily life and important in professional disciplines such as the law, medicine, or engineering. Because causal links cannot be directly observed, singular causation judgments require an assessment of whether a co‐occurrence of two events c and e was causal or simply coincidental. How can this decision be made? Building on previous work by Cheng and Novick (2005) and Stephan and Waldmann (2018), we propose a (...)
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  8.  34
    Causal Reasoning Through Intervention.York Hagmayer, Steven A. Sloman, David A. Lagnado & Michael R. Waldmann - 2007 - In Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.), Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press.
  9.  25
    Agents and Causes: Dispositional Intuitions As a Guide to Causal Structure.Ralf Mayrhofer & Michael R. Waldmann - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (1):65-95.
    Currently, two frameworks of causal reasoning compete: Whereas dependency theories focus on dependencies between causes and effects, dispositional theories model causation as an interaction between agents and patients endowed with intrinsic dispositions. One important finding providing a bridge between these two frameworks is that failures of causes to generate their effects tend to be differentially attributed to agents and patients regardless of their location on either the cause or the effect side. To model different types of error attribution, we augmented (...)
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  10.  4
    Structure Induction in Diagnostic Causal Reasoning.Björn Meder, Ralf Mayrhofer & Michael R. Waldmann - 2014 - Psychological Review 121 (3):277-301.
  11.  19
    Causal Models and the Acquisition of Category Structure.Michael R. Waldmann, Keith J. Holyoak & Angela Fratianne - 1995 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 124 (2):181.
  12.  23
    Beyond Covariation.David A. Lagnado, Michael R. Waldmann, York Hagmayer & Steven A. Sloman - 2007 - In Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.), Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press.
  13.  2
    How to Weigh Lives. A Computational Model of Moral Judgment in Multiple-Outcome Structures.Neele Engelmann & Michael R. Waldmann - 2022 - Cognition 218 (C):104910.
  14.  10
    Estimating Causal Strength: The Role of Structural Knowledge and Processing Effort.Michael R. Waldmann & York Hagmayer - 2001 - Cognition 82 (1):27-58.
  15. A Double Causal Contrast Theory of Moral Intuitions in Trolley Dilemmas.Michael R. Waldmann & Alex Wiegmann - 2010 - In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 2589--2594.
     
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  16. Causal Learning in Rats and Humans: A Minimal Rational Model.Michael R. Waldmann, Patricia W. Cheng, York Hagmeyer & Blaisdell & P. Aaron - 2008 - In Nick Chater & Mike Oaksford (eds.), The Probabilistic Mind: Prospects for Bayesian Cognitive Science. Oxford University Press.
     
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  17.  24
    On Having Very Long Arms: How the Availability of Technological Means Affects Moral Cognition.Jonas Nagel & Michael R. Waldmann - 2016 - Thinking and Reasoning 22 (2):184-208.
    ABSTRACTModern technological means allow for meaningful interaction across arbitrary distances, while human morality evolved in environments in which individuals needed to be spatially close in order to interact. We investigate how people integrate knowledge about modern technology with their ancestral moral dispositions to help relieve nearby suffering. Our first study establishes that spatial proximity between an agent's means of helping and the victims increases people's judgement of helping obligations, even if the agent is constantly far personally. We then report and (...)
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  18.  11
    Indicators of Causal Agency in Physical Interactions: The Role of the Prior Context.Ralf Mayrhofer & Michael R. Waldmann - 2014 - Cognition 132 (3):485-490.
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  19.  11
    Combining Versus Analyzing Multiple Causes: How Domain Assumptions and Task Context Affect Integration Rules.Michael R. Waldmann - 2007 - Cognitive Science 31 (2):233-256.
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  20.  63
    Category Transfer in Sequential Causal Learning: The Unbroken Mechanism Hypothesis.York Hagmayer, Björn Meder, Momme von Sydow & Michael R. Waldmann - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (5):842-873.
    The goal of the present set of studies is to explore the boundary conditions of category transfer in causal learning. Previous research has shown that people are capable of inducing categories based on causal learning input, and they often transfer these categories to new causal learning tasks. However, occasionally learners abandon the learned categories and induce new ones. Whereas previously it has been argued that transfer is only observed with essentialist categories in which the hidden properties are causally relevant for (...)
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  21.  12
    Causal Learning in Rats and Humans: A Minimal Rational Model.Michael R. Waldmann, Patricia W. Cheng, York Hagmayer & Aaron P. Blaisdell - 2008 - In Nick Chater & Mike Oaksford (eds.), The Probabilistic Mind: Prospects for Bayesian Cognitive Science. Oxford University Press.
  22.  22
    Sufficiency and Necessity Assumptions in Causal Structure Induction.Ralf Mayrhofer & Michael R. Waldmann - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (8):2137-2150.
    Research on human causal induction has shown that people have general prior assumptions about causal strength and about how causes interact with the background. We propose that these prior assumptions about the parameters of causal systems do not only manifest themselves in estimations of causal strength or the selection of causes but also when deciding between alternative causal structures. In three experiments, we requested subjects to choose which of two observable variables was the cause and which the effect. We found (...)
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  23.  7
    How Causal Structure, Causal Strength, and Foreseeability Affect Moral Judgments.Neele Engelmann & Michael R. Waldmann - 2022 - Cognition 226 (C):105167.
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  24. Neurath's Ship: The Constitutive Relation Between Normative and Descriptive Theories of Rationality.Michael R. Waldmann - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):273-274.
    I defend the claim that in psychological theories concerned with theoretical or practical rationality there is a constitutive relation between normative and descriptive theories: Normative theories provide idealized descriptive accounts of rational agents. However, we need to resist the temptation to collapse descriptive theories with any specific normative theory. I show how a partial separation is possible.
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  25. The Role of Mechanism Knowledge in Singular Causation Judgments.Simon Stephan & Michael R. Waldmann - 2022 - Cognition 218 (C):104924.
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