Results for 'Michael S. Brownstein'

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  1.  5
    Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volumes 1 and 2: Metaphysics and Epistemology.Michael S. Brownstein & Jennifer Mather Saul (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Implicit Bias and Philosophy brings the work of leading philosophers and psychologists together to explore core areas of psychological research on implicit bias, as well as the ramifications of implicit bias for core areas of philosophy. Volume I: Metaphysics and Epistemology addresses key metaphysical and epistemological questions on implicit bias, including the effect of implicit bias on scientific research, gender stereotypes in philosophy, and the role of heuristics in biased reasoning. Volume 2: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics explores the (...)
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  2.  5
    Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volumes 1 and 2: Metaphysics and Epistemology; Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics. [REVIEW]Michael S. Brownstein & Jennifer Mather Saul (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press.
    Most people show unconscious bias in their evaluations of social groups, in ways that may run counter to their conscious beliefs. Volume 1 addresses key metaphysical and epistemological questions on this kind of implicit bias, while Volume 2 turns to the themes of moral responsibility and injustice.
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  3. Doing Without Believing: Intellectualism, Knowledge-How, and Belief-Attribution.Michael Brownstein & Eliot Michaelson - 2016 - Synthese 193 (9):2815–2836.
    We consider a range of cases—both hypothetical and actual—in which agents apparently know how to \ but fail to believe that the way in which they in fact \ is a way for them to \. These “no-belief” cases present a prima facie problem for Intellectualism about knowledge-how. The problem is this: if knowledge-that entails belief, and if knowing how to \ just is knowing that some w is a way for one to \, then an agent cannot both know (...)
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  4. What Do Implicit Measures Measure?Michael Brownstein, Alex Madva & Bertram Gawronski - 2019 - WIREs Cognitive Science:1-13.
    We identify several ongoing debates related to implicit measures, surveying prominent views and considerations in each debate. First, we summarize the debate regarding whether performance on implicit measures is explained by conscious or unconscious representations. Second, we discuss the cognitive structure of the operative constructs: are they associatively or propositionally structured? Third, we review debates whether performance on implicit measures reflects traits or states. Fourth, we discuss the question of whether a person’s performance on an implicit measure reflects characteristics of (...)
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  5. The Normativity of Automaticity.Michael Brownstein & Alex Madva - 2012 - Mind and Language 27 (4):410-434.
    While the causal contributions of so-called ‘automatic’ processes to behavior are now widely acknowledged, less attention has been given to their normative role in the guidance of action. We develop an account of the normativity of automaticity that responds to and builds upon Tamar Szabó Gendler's account of ‘alief’, an associative and arational mental state more primitive than belief. Alief represents a promising tool for integrating psychological research on automaticity with philosophical work on mind and action, but Gendler errs in (...)
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  6. Ethical Automaticity.Michael Brownstein & Alex Madva - 2012 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 42 (1):68-98.
    Social psychologists tell us that much of human behavior is automatic. It is natural to think that automatic behavioral dispositions are ethically desirable if and only if they are suitably governed by an agent’s reflective judgments. However, we identify a class of automatic dispositions that make normatively self-standing contributions to praiseworthy action and a well-lived life, independently of, or even in spite of, an agent’s reflective judgments about what to do. We argue that the fundamental questions for the "ethics of (...)
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  7. Conceptuality and Practical Action: A Critique of Charles Taylor’s Verstehen Social Theory.Michael Brownstein - 2010 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 40 (1):59-83.
    In their recent debate, Hubert Dreyfus rejects John McDowell’s claim that perception is permeated with "mindedness" and argues instead that ordinary embodied coping is largely "nonconceptual." This argument has important, yet largely unacknowledged consequences for normative social theory, which this article demonstrates through a critique of Charles Taylor’s Verstehen thesis. If Dreyfus is right that "the enemy of expertise is thought," then Taylor is denied his defense against charges of relativism, which is that maximizing the interpretive clarity of social practices (...)
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  8.  11
    The Normativity of Automaticity.Alex Madva Michael Brownstein - 2012 - Mind and Language 27 (4):410-434.
    While the causal contributions of so‐called ‘automatic’ processes to behavior are now widely acknowledged, less attention has been given to their normative role in the guidance of action. We develop an account of the normativity of automaticity that responds to and builds upon Tamar Szabó Gendler's account of ‘alief’, an associative and arational mental state more primitive than belief. Alief represents a promising tool for integrating psychological research on automaticity with philosophical work on mind and action, but Gendler errs in (...)
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  9. Philosophy’s Other Climate Problem.Michael Brownstein & Neil Levy - forthcoming - Journal of Social Philosophy.
    Journal of Social Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  10.  75
    Taking Social Psychology Out of Context.Michael Brownstein, Daniel Kelly & Alex Madva - forthcoming - Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
    We endorse Cesario’s call for more research into the complexities of “real-world” decisions and the comparative power of different causes of group disparities. Unfortunately, these reasonable suggestions are overshadowed by a barrage of non sequiturs, misdirected criticisms of methodology, and unsubstantiated claims about the assumptions and inferences of social psychologists.
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  11.  38
    Review of The Evolution of Moral Progress: A Biocultural Theory by Allen Buchanan and Russell Powell. [REVIEW]Michael Brownstein & Daniel Kelly - 2019 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science Review of Books 1:1-14.
    Allen Buchanan and Russel Powell’s The Evolution of Moral Progress (EMP) is likely to become a landmark. It adeptly builds on much of the recent empirical work, weaving it together with philosophical material drawn from a series of essays published by the two authors. EMP makes the case that moral progress is not only consistent with human psychology but—under some conditions—likely. At its heart is a careful, well-developed rebuttal to the idea that there are evolved constraints endogenous to human minds (...)
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  12.  33
    The Gettier Problem and Legal Proof: Michael S. Pardo.Michael S. Pardo - 2010 - Legal Theory 16 (1):37-57.
    This article explores the relationships between legal proof and fundamental epistemic concepts such as knowledge and justification. A survey of the legal literature reveals a confusing array of seemingly inconsistent proposals and presuppositions regarding these relationships. This article makes two contributions. First, it reconciles a number of apparent inconsistencies and tensions in accounts of the epistemology of legal proof. Second, it argues that there is a deeper connection between knowledge and legal proof than is typically argued for or presupposed in (...)
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  13. Causation and Responsibility*: MICHAEL S. MOORE.Michael S. Moore - 1999 - Social Philosophy and Policy 16 (2):1-51.
    In various areas of Anglo-American law, legal liability turns on causation. In torts and contracts, we are each liable only for those harms we have caused by the actions that breach our legal duties. Such doctrines explicitly make causation an element of liability. In criminal law, sometimes the causal element for liability is equally explicit, as when a statute makes punishable any act that has “ caused … abuse to the child….” More often, the causal element in criminal liability is (...)
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  14. Choice, Character, and Excuse*: MICHAEL S. MOORE.Michael S. Moore - 1990 - Social Philosophy and Policy 7 (2):29-58.
    Freud justified his extensive theorizing about dreams by the observation that they were “the royal road” to something much more general: namely, our unconscious mental life. The current preoccupation with the theory of excuse in criminal law scholarship can be given a similar justification, for the excuses are the royal road to theories of responsibility generally. The thought is that if we understand why we excuse in certain situations but not others, we will have also gained a much more general (...)
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  15.  86
    Emotional Insight: The Epistemic Role of Emotional Experience.Michael S. Brady - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Michael S. Brady offers a new account of the role of emotions in our lives. He argues that emotional experiences do not give us information in the same way that perceptual experiences do. Instead, they serve our epistemic needs by capturing our attention and facilitating a reappraisal of the evaluative information that emotions themselves provide.
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  16.  50
    Suffering and Virtue.Michael S. Brady - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
    Suffering, in one form or another, is present in all of our lives. But why do we suffer? On one reading, this is a question about the causes of physical and emotional suffering. But on another, it is a question about whether suffering has a point or purpose or value. In this ground-breaking book, Michael Brady argues that suffering is vital for the development of virtue, and hence for us to live happy or flourishing lives. After presenting a distinctive (...)
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  17. R. S. Peters' Normative Conception of Education and Educational Aims.Michael S. Katz - 2009 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 43 (s1):97-108.
    This article aims to highlight why R. S. Peters' conceptual analysis of ‘education’ was such an important contribution to the normative field of philosophy of education. In the article, I do the following: 1) explicate Peters' conception of philosophy of education as a field of philosophy and explain his approach to the philosophical analysis of concepts; 2) emphasize several (normative) features of Peters' conception of education, while pointing to a couple of oversights; and 3) suggest how Peters' analysis might be (...)
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  18.  30
    The End of History and the Last Man.Michael S. Roth & Francis Fukuyama - 1993 - History and Theory 32 (2):188.
  19.  51
    A Bird's Eye View: Biological Categorization and Reasoning Within and Across Cultures.Jeremy N. Bailenson, Michael S. Shum, Scott Atran, Douglas L. Medin & John D. Coley - 2002 - Cognition 84 (1):1-53.
    Many psychological studies of categorization and reasoning use undergraduates to make claims about human conceptualization. Generalizability of findings to other populations is often assumed but rarely tested. Even when comparative studies are conducted, it may be challenging to interpret differences. As a partial remedy, in the present studies we adopt a 'triangulation strategy' to evaluate the ways expertise and culturally different belief systems can lead to different ways of conceptualizing the biological world. We use three groups (US bird experts, US (...)
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  20.  99
    Causation and Responsibility: An Essay in Law, Morals, and Metaphysics.Michael S. Moore - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    The concept of causation is fundamental to ascribing moral and legal responsibility for events. Yet the precise relationship between causation and responsibility remains unclear. This book clarifies that relationship through an analysis of the best accounts of causation in metaphysics, and a critique of the confusion in legal doctrine.
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  21.  2
    Causation and Responsibility: An Essay in Law, Morals, and Metaphysics.Michael S. Moore - 2008 - Oxford University Press UK.
    The concept of causation is fundamental to ascribing moral and legal responsibility for events. Yet the precise relationship between causation and responsibility remains unclear. This book clarifies that relationship through an analysis of the best accounts of causation in metaphysics, and a critique of the confusion in legal doctrine. The result is a powerful argument in favour of reforming the moral and legal understanding of how and why we attribute responsibility to agents.
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  22. Placing Blame: A Theory of the Criminal Law.Michael S. Moore - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    Originally published: Oxford: Clarendon, 1997.
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  23.  8
    Darwin's Vertical Thinking: Mountains, Mobility, and the Imagination in 19th‐Century Geology.Michael S. Reidy - 2020 - Centaurus 62 (4):631-646.
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  24. The Cognitive Neurosciences.Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.) - 1995 - MIT Press.
  25.  6
    Relating Neuroscience to Responsibility: Comments on Hirstein, Sifferd, and Fagan’s Responsible Brains.Michael S. Moore - forthcoming - Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-16.
    The article explores the agreements and disagreements between the author and the authors of Responsible Brains on how neuroscience relates to moral responsibility. The agreements are fundamental: neuroscience is not the harbinger of revolutionary revision of our views of when persons are morally responsible for the harms that they cause. The disagreements are in the details of what is needed for neuroscience to be the helper of the moral sciences.
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  26.  52
    The Destruction of the World Trade Center and the Law on Event-Identity: Michael S. Moore.Michael S. Moore - 2004 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 55:259-342.
    September 11, 2001 brought to legal awareness an issue that has long puzzled metaphysicians. The general issue is that of event-identity, drawing the boundaries of events so that we can tell when there is one event and when there are two. The September 11th version of that issue is: how many occurrences of insured events were there on September 11, 2001 in New York? Was the collapse of the two World Trade Center Towers one event, despite the two separate airliners (...)
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  27.  11
    Greater Advaita Vedānta: The Case of Niścaldās.Michael S. Allen - 2017 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 21 (3):275-297.
    To understand the history of Advaita Vedānta and its rise to prominence, we need to devote more attention to what might be termed “Greater Advaita Vedānta,” or Advaita Vedānta as expressed outside the standard canon of Sanskrit philosophical works. Elsewhere I have examined the works of Niścaldās, whose Hindi-language Vicār-sāgar was once referred to by Swami Vivekananda as the most influential book of its day. In this paper, I look back to one of Niścaldās’s major influences: Sundardās, a well-known Hindi (...)
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  28.  78
    Painfulness, Desire, and the Euthyphro Dilemma.Michael S. Brady - 2018 - American Philosophical Quarterly 55 (3):239-250.
    The traditional desire view of painfulness maintains that pain sensations are painful because the subject desires that they not be occurring. A significant criticism of this view is that it apparently succumbs to a version of the Euthyphro Dilemma: the desire view, it is argued, is committed to an implausible answer to the question of why pain sensations are painful. In this paper, I explain and defend a new desire view, and one which can avoid the Euthyphro Dilemma. This new (...)
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  29. The Irrationality of Recalcitrant Emotions.Michael S. Brady - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 145 (3):413 - 430.
    A recalcitrant emotion is one which conflicts with evaluative judgement. (A standard example is where someone is afraid of flying despite believing that it poses little or no danger.) The phenomenon of emotional recalcitrance raises an important problem for theories of emotion, namely to explain the sense in which recalcitrant emotions involve rational conflict. In this paper I argue that existing ‘neojudgementalist’ accounts of emotions fail to provide plausible explanations of the irrationality of recalcitrant emotions, and develop and defend my (...)
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  30.  84
    Moore’s Truths About Causation and Responsibility: A Reply to Alexander and Ferzan. [REVIEW]Michael S. Moore - 2012 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 6 (3):445-462.
    In this response to the review of Moore, Causation and Responsibility, by Larry Alexander and Kimberly Ferzan, previously published in this journal, two issues are discussed. The first is whether causation, counterfactual dependence, moral blame, and culpability, are all scalar properties or relations, that is, matters of more-or-less rather than either-or. The second issue discussed is whether deontological moral obligation is best described as a prohibition against using another as a means, or rather, as a prohibition on an agent strongly (...)
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  31. Mill's Moral Theory and the Problem of Preference Change.Michael S. McPherson - 1982 - Ethics 92 (2):252-273.
    A reconsideration of mill's theory of "higher pleasures," construed as a way of evaluating changes in preferences or character that result from changes in social environment. mill's account is criticized and partly reconstructed in light of modern preference theory, but viewed favorably as an illuminating attempt to address a fundamental problem in moral evaluation of social institutions. mill's advocacy of the higher pleasures is defended in particular against the charge that it is incompatible with his commitment to liberty.
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  32. Curiosity and the Value of Truth.Michael S. Brady - 2009 - In Adrian Haddock, Alan Millar & Duncan Pritchard (eds.), Epistemic Value. Oxford University Press. pp. 265-284.
    This chapter focuses on the question of whether true belief can have final value because it answers our ‘intellectual interest’ or ‘natural curiosity’. The idea is that sometimes we are interested in the truth on some issue not for any ulterior purpose, but simply because we are curious about that issue. It is argued that this approach fails to provide an adequate explanation of the final value of true belief, since there is an unbridgeable gap between our valuing the truth (...)
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  33. Virtue, Emotion and Attention.Michael S. Brady - 2010 - Metaphilosophy 41 (1-2):115-131.
    The perceptual model of emotions maintains that emotions involve, or are at least analogous to, perceptions of value. On this account, emotions purport to tell us about the evaluative realm, in much the same way that sensory perceptions inform us about the sensible world. An important development of this position, prominent in recent work by Peter Goldie amongst others, concerns the essential role that virtuous habits of attention play in enabling us to gain perceptual and evaluative knowledge. I think that (...)
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  34.  9
    Placing Blame a General Theory of the Criminal Law.Michael S. Moore - 1997 - Oxford University Press, Usa.
    Originally published: Oxford: Clarendon, 1997.
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  35.  8
    The Epistemic Life of Groups: Essays in the Epistemology of Collectives.Michael S. Brady & Miranda Fricker (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Groups engage in epistemic activity all the time--whether it be the active collective inquiry of scientific research groups or crime detection units, or the evidential deliberations of tribunals and juries, or the informational efforts of the voting population in general--and yet in philosophy there is still relatively little epistemology of groups to help explore these epistemic practices and their various dimensions of social and philosophical significance. The aim of this book is to address this lack, by presenting original essays in (...)
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  36.  54
    Safety Vs. Sensitivity: Possible Worlds and the Law of Evidence.Michael S. Pardo - 2018 - Legal Theory 24 (1):50-75.
    ABSTRACTThis article defends the importance of epistemic safety for legal evidence. Drawing on discussions of sensitivity and safety in epistemology, the article explores how similar considerations apply to legal proof. In the legal context, sensitivity concerns whether a factual finding would be made if it were false, and safety concerns how easily a factual finding could be false. The article critiques recent claims about the importance of sensitivity for the law of evidence. In particular, this critique argues that sensitivity does (...)
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  37. Cultural Coherence and the Schooling for Identity Maintenance.Michael S. Merry - 2005 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 39 (3):477-497.
    An education for cultural coherence tends to the child’s well-being through identity construction and maintenance. Critics charge that this sort of education will not bode well for the future autonomy of children. I will argue that culturally coherent education, provided there is no coercion, can lend itself to eventual autonomy and may assist minority children in countering the negative stereotypes and discrimination they face in the larger society. Further, I will argue that few individuals actually possess an entirely coherent identity; (...)
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  38.  54
    John Martin Fischer's The Metaphysics of Free Will: An Essay on Control: Michael S. McKenna.Michael S. McKenna - 1997 - Legal Theory 3 (4):379-397.
    John Martin Fischer's The Metaphysics of Free Will is devoted to two major projects. First, Fischer defends the thesis that determinism is incompatible with a person's control over alternatives to the actual future. Second, Fischer defends the striking thesis that such control is not necessary for moral responsibility. This review essay examines Fischer's arguments for each thesis. Fischer's defense of the incompatibilist thesis is the most innovative to date, and I argue that his formulation restructures the free will debate. To (...)
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  39.  29
    Toward a Theory of Human Memory: Data Structures and Access Processes.Michael S. Humphreys, Janet Wiles & Simon Dennis - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):655-667.
    Starting from Marr's ideas about levels of explanation, a theory of the data structures and access processes in human memory is demonstrated on 10 tasks. Functional characteristics of human memory are captured implementation-independently. Our theory generates a multidimensional task classification subsuming existing classifications such as the distinction between tasks that are implicit versus explicit, data driven versus conceptually driven, and simple associative versus higher order, providing a broad basis for new experiments. The formal language clarifies the binding problem in episodic (...)
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  40. Consciousness and the Cerebral Hemispheres.Michael S. Gazzaniga - 1995 - In The Cognitive Neurosciences. MIT Press.
  41.  7
    Different Ways to Cue a Coherent Memory System: A Theory for Episodic, Semantic, and Procedural Tasks.Michael S. Humphreys, John D. Bain & Ray Pike - 1989 - Psychological Review 96 (2):208-233.
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  42.  16
    Libet's Challenge (s) to Responsible Agency.Michael S. Moore - 2010 - In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong & Lynn Nadel (eds.), Conscious Will and Responsibility: A Tribute to Benjamin Libet. Oup Usa. pp. 207.
  43.  73
    Juridical Proof and the Best Explanation.Michael S. Pardo & Ronald J. Allen - 2008 - Law and Philosophy 27 (3):223 - 268.
  44.  40
    Reason and Passion: Reid’s Reply to Hume.Michael S. Pritchard - 1978 - The Monist 61 (2):283-298.
    Although Hume’s theory of the passions has been vigorously criticized by contemporary philosophers, Hume’s immediate successors are seldom credited with serious criticisms of that theory. In fact, insofar as their views are considered at all, they typically are summarily dismissed. Alasdair MacIntyre’s treatment is a good illustration.
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  45. Emotions, Perceptions, and Reasons.Michael S. Brady - 2011 - In Carla Bagnoli (ed.), Morality and the Emotions. Oxford University Press.
     
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  46.  77
    Educational Justice: Liberal Ideals, Persistent Inequality and the Constructive Uses of Critique.Michael S. Merry - 2020 - New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    There is a loud and persistent drum beat of support for schools, for citizenship, for diversity and inclusion, and increasingly for labor market readiness with very little critical attention to the assumptions underlying these agendas, let alone to their many internal contradictions. Accordingly, in this book I examine the philosophical, motivational, and practical challenges of education theory, policy, and practice in the twenty-first century. As I proceed, I do not neglect the historical, comparative international context so essential to better understanding (...)
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  47.  28
    On Hart's Category Mistake.Michael S. Green - 2013 - Legal Theory 19 (4):347-369.
    This essay concerns Scott Shapiro's criticism that H.L.A. Hart's theory of law suffers from a Although other philosophers of law have summarily dismissed Shapiro's criticism, I argue that it identifies an important requirement for an adequate theory of law. Such a theory must explain why legal officials justify their actions by reference to abstract propositional entities, instead of pointing to the existence of social practices. A virtue of Shapiro's planning theory of law is that it can explain this phenomenon. Despite (...)
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  48. Act and Crime: The Philosophy of Action and its Implications for Criminal Law.Michael S. Moore - 1993 - Oxford University Press.
    This work provides, for the first time, a unified account of the theory of action presupposed by both British and American criminal law and its underlying morality. It defends the view that human actions are volitionally caused body movements. This theory illuminates three major problems in drafting and implementing criminal law--what the voluntary act requirement does and should require, what complex descriptions of actions prohibited by criminal codes both do and should require, and when the two actions are the "same" (...)
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  49.  31
    The Attention Schema Theory: A Mechanistic Account of Subjective Awareness.Michael S. A. Graziano & Taylor W. Webb - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  50.  39
    The Roles of Cortical Oscillations in Sustained Attention.Michael S. Clayton, Nick Yeung & Roi Cohen Kadosh - 2015 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (4):188-195.
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