15 found
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Michael Snodgrass [15]Michael David Snodgrass [3]
  1.  7
    Unconscious Inhibition and Facilitation at the Objective Detection Threshold: Replicable and Qualitatively Different Unconscious Perceptual.Michael Snodgrass & Howard Shevrin - 2006 - Cognition 101 (1):43-79.
  2.  45
    Unconscious Perception: A Model-Based Approach to Method and Evidence.Michael Snodgrass, Edward Bernat & Howard Shevrin - 2004 - Perception and Psychophysics 66 (5):846-867.
  3.  35
    Disambiguating Conscious and Unconscious Influences: Do Exclusion Paradigms Demonstrate Unconscious Perception?Michael Snodgrass - 2002 - American Journal of Psychology 115 (4):545-579.
  4. Subliminal Unconscious Conflict Alpha Power Inhibits Supraliminal Conscious Symptom Experience.Howard Shevrin, Michael Snodgrass, Linda A. W. Brakel, Ramesh Kushwaha, Natalia L. Kalaida & Ariane Bazan - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
    Our approach is based on a tri-partite method of integrating psychodynamic hypotheses, cognitive subliminal processes, and psychophysiological alpha power measures. We present ten social phobic subjects with three individually selected groups of words representing unconscious conflict, conscious symptom experience, and Osgood Semantic negative valence words used as a control word group. The unconscious conflict and conscious symptom words, presented subliminally and supraliminally, act as primes preceding the conscious symptom and control words presented as supraliminal targets. With alpha power as a (...)
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  5.  11
    The Mediation of Intentional Judgments by Unconscious Perceptions: The Influences of Task Strategy, Task Preference, Word Meaning, and Motivation.Michael Snodgrass, Howard Shevrin & Michael Kopka - 1993 - Consciousness and Cognition 2 (3):169-193.
    In two experiments subjects attempted to identify words presented below the objective threshold using two task strategies emphasizing either allowing a word to pop into their heads or looking carefully at the stimulus field . Words were selected to represent both meaningful and structural dimensions. We also asked subjects to indicate their strategy preference and to rate their motivation to perform well. In the absence of conscious perception, both strategy preference and word meaning interacted with strategy condition, mediating the accuracy (...)
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  6.  23
    Access for What? Reflective Consciousness.Michael Snodgrass & Scott A. Lepisto - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):525-526.
    Can phenomenality without access occur? We suggest that the crucial issue is not to show phenomenality that cannot be accessed, but whether phenomenality sometimes simply is not accessed. Considering this question leads to positing a distinct, second form of consciousness: Reflective consciousness. The most important form of access is then from phenomenal (first-order) to reflective (second-order) consciousness.
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  7.  51
    The Dissociation Paradigm and its Discontents: How Can Unconscious Perception or Memory Be Inferred?Michael Snodgrass - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):107-116.
    Erdelyi does us all a great service by his customarily incisive discussion of the various ways in which our field tends to neglect, confuse, and misunderstand numerous critical issues in attempting to differentiate conscious from unconscious perception and memory. Although no single commentary could hope to comprehensively assess these issues, I will address Erdelyi’s three main points: How the dissociation paradigm can be used to validly infer unconscious perception; The implications of below-chance effects; and The role of time. I suggest (...)
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  8.  20
    Event-Related Brain Correlates of Associative Learning Without Awareness.Philip S. Wong, Edward Bernat, Michael Snodgrass & Howard Shevrin - 2004 - International Journal of Psychophysiology 53 (3):217-231.
  9. Unconscious Perception at the Objective Detection Threshold Exists.Michael Snodgrass, Edward Bernat & Howard Shevrin - 2004 - Perception and Psychophysics 66 (5):888-895.
     
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  10.  24
    Access is Mainly a Second-Order Process: SDT Models Whether Phenomenally (First-Order) Conscious States Are Accessed by Reflectively (Second-Order) Conscious Processes☆.Michael Snodgrass, Natasha Kalaida & E. Samuel Winer - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):561-564.
    Access can either be first-order or second-order. First order access concerns whether contents achieve representation in phenomenal consciousness at all; second-order access concerns whether phenomenally conscious contents are selected for metacognitive, higher order processing by reflective consciousness. When the optional and flexible nature of second-order access is kept in mind, there remain strong reasons to believe that exclusion failure can indeed isolate phenomenally conscious stimuli that are not so accessed. Irvine’s [Irvine, E. . Signal detection theory, the exclusion failure paradigm (...)
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  11.  55
    The Primary Process and the Unconscious: Experimental Evidence Supporting Two Psychoanalytic Presuppositions.Linda A. Brakel, Shasha Kleinsorge, Michael Snodgrass & Howard Shevrin - 2000 - International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 81 (3):553-569.
  12.  11
    Absolute Inhibition Is Incompatible with Conscious Perception.Michael Snodgrass, Howard Shevrin & Michael Kopka - 1993 - Consciousness and Cognition 2 (3):204-209.
    Van Selst and Merikle argued that the critical Preference × Strategy interaction findings could be alternatively explained by positing individual differences as a function of preference and strategy. They further argued that ruling out conscious perception depends on making the exhaustiveness assumption. We argue that the inhibitory effects satisfy objective threshold criteria regardless of possible individual differences in thresholds. We further suggest that the inhibitory findings are inherently incompatible with the conscious perception explanation and that therefore we do not need (...)
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  13.  48
    Access is Mainly a Second-Order Process: SDT Models Whether Phenomenally (First-Order) Conscious States Are Accessed by Reflectively (Second-Order) Conscious Processes.Michael Snodgrass, Natasha Kalaida & E. Samuel Winer - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):561-564.
    Access can either be first-order or second-order. First order access concerns whether contents achieve representation in phenomenal consciousness at all; second-order access concerns whether phenomenally conscious contents are selected for metacognitive, higher order processing by reflective consciousness. When the optional and flexible nature of second-order access is kept in mind, there remain strong reasons to believe that exclusion failure can indeed isolate phenomenally conscious stimuli that are not so accessed. Irvine’s [Irvine, E. . Signal detection theory, the exclusion failure paradigm (...)
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  14.  22
    Extremely Rigorous Subliminal Paradigms Demonstrate Unconscious Influences on Simple Decisions.Michael Snodgrass, Howard Shevrin & James A. Abelson - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (1):39-40.
  15.  14
    The Europeanization of National Foreign Policies Towards Latin America.Michael David Snodgrass - 2016 - The European Legacy 21 (5-6):623-624.