Results for 'Michael T. Zugelder'

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  1.  29
    Special Issue on Marketing Ethics Editor Dited By: Scott J. Vitell Scott J. Vitell/Introduction to Special Issue on Marketing Ethics N. Craig Smith/Ethical Guidelines for Marketing Practice: A Reply to Gaski and Some Observations on the Role of Normative Marketing Ethics. [REVIEW]Anusorn Singhapakdi, Janet Km Marta, Cp Rao, Muris Cicic, Earl D. Honeycutt Jr, Myron Glassman & Michael T. Zugelder - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 32 (1):363-365.
    This study compares Australian marketers with those in the United States along lines that are particular to the study of ethics. The test measured two different moral philosophies, idealism and relativism, and compared perceptions of ethical problems, ethical intentions, and corporate ethical values. According to Hofstede's cultural typologies, there should be little difference between American and Australian marketers, but the study did find significant differences. Australians tended to be more idealistic and more relativistic than Americans and the other results were (...)
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  2.  36
    Determinants of Ethical Behavior: A Study of Autosalespeople. [REVIEW]Earl D. Honeycutt, Myron Glassman, Michael T. Zugelder & Kiran Karande - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 32 (1):69 - 79.
    This study proposes a model that explains the ethical behavior of automobile salespeople in terms of their ethical perception, legal perception, method of compensation (commission-based or salary-based), age, and education. The model is estimated by using five scenarios that involve ethical issues commonly found in the automobile industry and responses from 184 automobile salespeople in a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area. The findings suggest that ethical perception is the most important determinant of ethical behavior. Also, method of compensation is a major determinant (...)
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  3. The Routledge Companion to Thought Experiments.Michael T. Stuart, Yiftach J. H. Fehige & James Robert Brown (eds.) - 2018 - London: Routledge.
    Thought experiments are a means of imaginative reasoning that lie at the heart of philosophy, from the pre-Socratics to the modern era, and they also play central roles in a range of fields, from physics to politics. The Routledge Companion to Thought Experiments is an invaluable guide and reference source to this multifaceted subject. Comprising over 30 chapters by a team of international contributors, the Companion covers the following important areas: -/- · the history of thought experiments, from antiquity to (...)
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  4. A Radical Solution to the Species Problem.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1974 - Systematic Zoology 23:536-44.
    Traditionally, species have been treated as classes. In fact they may be considered individuals. The logical term “individual” has been confused with a biological synonym for “organism.” If species are individuals, then: 1) their names are proper, 2) there cannot be instances of them, 3) they do not have defining properties, 4) their constituent organisms are parts, not members. “ Species " may be defined as the most extensive units in the natural economy such that reproductive competition occurs among their (...)
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  5. The Economy of Nature and the Evolution of Sex.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1976 - Journal of the History of Biology 9 (2):324-324.
     
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  6. The Triumph of the Darwinian Method.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1973 - Philosophy of Science 40 (3):466-467.
  7.  29
    Formal Causes: Definition, Explanation, and Primacy in Socratic and Aristotelian Thought.Michael T. Ferejohn - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Michael T. Ferejohn presents a new analysis of Aristotle's theory of explanation and scientific knowledge, in the context of its Socratic roots. Ferejohn shows how Aristotle resolves the tension between his commitment to the formal-case model of explanation and his recognition of the role of efficient causes in explaining natural phenomena.
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  8.  39
    Metaphysics and the Origin of Species.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1997 - State University of New York Press.
    _This sweeping discussion of the philosophy of evolutionary biology is based on the revolutionary idea that species are not kinds of organisms but wholes composed of organisms._.
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  9. Ecological Laws of Perceiving and Acting: In Reply to Fodor and Pylyshyn.Michael T. Turvey, R. E. Shaw, Edward S. Reed & William M. Mace - 1981 - Cognition 9 (3):237-304.
  10. Brains, Trains, and Ethical Claims: Reassessing the Normative Implications of Moral Dilemma Research.Michael T. Dale & Bertram Gawronski - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-25.
    Joshua Greene has argued that the empirical findings of cognitive science have implications for ethics. In particular, he has argued (1) that people’s deontological judgments in response to trolley problems are strongly influenced by at least one morally irrelevant factor, personal force, and are therefore at least somewhat unreliable, and (2) that we ought to trust our consequentialist judgments more than our deontological judgments when making decisions about unfamiliar moral problems. While many cognitive scientists have rejected Greene’s dual-process theory of (...)
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  11.  3
    The Triumph of the Darwinian Method.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1969 - University of California Press.
    A coherent treatment of the flow of ideas throughout Darwin's works, this volume presents a unified theoretical system that explains Darwin's investigations, evaluating the literature from a historical, scientific, and philosophical perspective.
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  12.  61
    Categories, Life, and Thinking.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):269-283.
  13. How Thought Experiments Increase Understanding.Michael T. Stuart - 2018 - In Michael T. Stuart, Yiftach Fehige & James Robert Brown (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Thought Experiments. London: Routledge. pp. 526-544.
    We might think that thought experiments are at their most powerful or most interesting when they produce new knowledge. This would be a mistake; thought experiments that seek understanding are just as powerful and interesting, and perhaps even more so. A growing number of epistemologists are emphasizing the importance of understanding for epistemology, arguing that it should supplant knowledge as the central notion. In this chapter, I bring the literature on understanding in epistemology to bear on explicating the different ways (...)
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  14.  11
    Can’T or Won’T? Immunometabolic Constraints on Dopaminergic Drive.Michael T. Treadway, Jessica A. Cooper & Andrew H. Miller - 2019 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 23 (5):435-448.
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  15. Towards a Dual Process Epistemology of Imagination.Michael T. Stuart - 2019 - Synthese (2):1-22.
    Sometimes we learn through the use of imagination. The epistemology of imagination asks how this is possible. One barrier to progress on this question has been a lack of agreement on how to characterize imagination; for example, is imagination a mental state, ability, character trait, or cognitive process? This paper argues that we should characterize imagination as a cognitive ability, exercises of which are cognitive processes. Following dual process theories of cognition developed in cognitive science, the set of imaginative processes (...)
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  16.  17
    The Productive Anarchy of Scientific Imagination.Michael T. Stuart - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87 (5):968-978.
    Imagination is important for many things in science: solving problems, interpreting data, designing studies, and much else. Philosophers of imagination typically account for the productive role pla...
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  17. Imagination: A Sine Qua Non of Science.Michael T. Stuart - 2017 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy (49):9-32.
    What role does the imagination play in scientific progress? After examining several studies in cognitive science, I argue that one thing the imagination does is help to increase scientific understanding, which is itself indispensable for scientific progress. Then, I sketch a transcendental justification of the role of imagination in this process.
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  18. Thought Experiments: State of the Art.Michael T. Stuart, Yiftach Fehige & James R. Brown - 2018 - In Michael T. Stuart, Yiftach Fehige & James Robert Brown (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Thought Experiments. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 1-28.
  19.  43
    On Semantic Pitfalls of Biological Adaptation.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1966 - Philosophy of Science 33 (1/2):147-.
    "Adaptation" has several meanings which have often been confused, including relations, processes, states, and intrinsic properties. It is used in comparative and historical contexts. "Adaptation" and "environment" may designate probabilistic concepts. Recognition of these points refutes arguments for the notions that: 1) all organisms are perfectly adapted; 2) organisms cannot be ill-adapted and survive or well-adapted and die; 3) adaptation is necessarily relative to the environment; 4) change in environment is necessary for evolution; 5) preadaptation implies teleology. Such notions are (...)
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  20. Neurons and Normativity: A Critique of Greene’s Notion of Unfamiliarity.Michael T. Dale - 2020 - Philosophical Psychology 33 (8):1072-1095.
    In his article “Beyond Point-and-Shoot Morality,” Joshua Greene argues that the empirical findings of cognitive neuroscience have implications for ethics. Specifically, he contends that we ought to trust our manual, conscious reasoning system more than our automatic, emotional system when confronting unfamiliar problems; and because cognitive neuroscience has shown that consequentialist judgments are generated by the manual system and deontological judgments are generated by the automatic system, we ought to trust the former more than the latter when facing unfamiliar moral (...)
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  21. The Material Theory of Induction and the Epistemology of Thought Experiments.Michael T. Stuart - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 83:17-27.
    John D. Norton is responsible for a number of influential views in contemporary philosophy of science. This paper will discuss two of them. The material theory of induction claims that inductive arguments are ultimately justified by their material features, not their formal features. Thus, while a deductive argument can be valid irrespective of the content of the propositions that make up the argument, an inductive argument about, say, apples, will be justified (or not) depending on facts about apples. The argument (...)
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  22.  55
    Taming Theory with Thought Experiments: Understanding and Scientific Progress.Michael T. Stuart - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 58:24-33.
    I claim that one way thought experiments contribute to scientific progress is by increasing scientific understanding. Understanding does not have a currently accepted characterization in the philosophical literature, but I argue that we already have ways to test for it. For instance, current pedagogical practice often requires that students demonstrate being in either or both of the following two states: 1) Having grasped the meaning of some relevant theory, concept, law or model, 2) Being able to apply that theory, concept, (...)
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  23.  17
    Lloyd Morgan's Canon in Evolutionary Context.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):362.
  24.  31
    Contributions of Memory Circuits to Language: The Declarative/Procedural Model.Michael T. Ullman - 2004 - Cognition 92 (1-2):231-270.
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  25.  14
    On Psychologism in the Logic of Taxonomic Controversies.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1966 - Systematic Zoology 15 (3):207-215.
  26.  1
    Freud's Theory of Dreams: A Philosophico-Scientific Perspective.Michael T. Michael - 2015 - Rowman & Littlefield.
    Michael T. Michael evaluates Freud s theory of dreams in light of major criticisms and scientific research. Approaching the issue from the vantage of the history and philosophy of science, he argues that the theory is a live hypothesis fully deserving of continued scientific exploration.".
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  27. Peeking Inside the Black Box: A New Kind of Scientific Visualization.Michael T. Stuart & Nancy J. Nersessian - 2018 - Minds and Machines 29 (1):87-107.
    Computational systems biologists create and manipulate computational models of biological systems, but they do not always have straightforward epistemic access to the content and behavioural profile of such models because of their length, coding idiosyncrasies, and formal complexity. This creates difficulties both for modellers in their research groups and for their bioscience collaborators who rely on these models. In this paper we introduce a new kind of visualization that was developed to address just this sort of epistemic opacity. The visualization (...)
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  28. Everyday Scientific Imagination: A Qualitative Study of the Uses, Norms, and Pedagogy of Imagination in Science.Michael T. Stuart - 2019 - Science & Education 28 (6-7):711-730.
    Imagination is necessary for scientific practice, yet there are no in vivo sociological studies on the ways that imagination is taught, thought of, or evaluated by scientists. This article begins to remedy this by presenting the results of a qualitative study performed on two systems biology laboratories. I found that the more advanced a participant was in their scientific career, the more they valued imagination. Further, positive attitudes toward imagination were primarily due to the perceived role of imagination in problem-solving. (...)
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  29.  25
    On Mechanisms of Cultural Evolution, and the Evolution of Language and the Common Law.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1982 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (1):11-11.
  30.  29
    Michael Rota, Taking Pascal’s Wager: Faith, Evidence, and the Abundant Life. [REVIEW]Michael T. McFall - 2017 - Teaching Philosophy 40 (1):116-119.
  31. Scientists Are Epistemic Consequentialists About Imagination.Michael T. Stuart - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science:1-22.
    Scientists imagine for epistemic reasons, and these imaginings can be better or worse. But what does it mean for an imagining to be epistemically better or worse? There are at least three metaepistemological frameworks that present different answers to this question: epistemological consequentialism, deontic epistemology, and virtue epistemology. This paper presents empirical evidence that scientists adopt each of these different epistemic frameworks with respect to imagination, but argues that the way they do this is best explained if scientists are fundamentally (...)
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  32.  42
    P-Curving X-Phi: Does Experimental Philosophy Have Evidential Value?Michael T. Stuart, David Colaço & Edouard Machery - 2019 - Analysis 79 (4):669-684.
    In this article, we analyse the evidential value of the corpus of experimental philosophy. While experimental philosophers claim that their studies provide insight into philosophical problems, some philosophers and psychologists have expressed concerns that the findings from these studies lack evidential value. Barriers to evidential value include selection bias and p-hacking. To find out whether the significant findings in x-phi papers result from selection bias or p-hacking, we applied a p-curve analysis to a corpus of 365 x-phi chapters and articles. (...)
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  33.  35
    Michael W. Austin, Wise Stewards: Philosophical Foundations of Christian Parenting. [REVIEW]Michael T. Mcfall - 2012 - Faith and Philosophy 29 (3):368-372.
  34. Michael T. Ferejohn, Formal Causes: Definition, Explanation, and Primacy In: Socratic and Aristotelian Thought. [REVIEW]Petter Sandstad - 2016 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 19:235-241.
    I review Michael T. Ferejohn's "Formal Causes: Definition, Explanation, and Primacy in Socratic and Aristotelian Thought".
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  35.  17
    Darwinism Versus Neo-Darwinism in the Study of Human Mate Preferences.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1989 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (1):20-20.
  36.  20
    Implications of 21st Century Science for Nursing Care: Interpretations and Issues.Michael T. Yeo - 2014 - Nursing Philosophy 15 (4):238-249.
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  37.  10
    Michael Ruse;, Joseph Travis . Evolution: The First Four Billion Years. Foreword by, Edward O. Wilson. Xii + 979 Pp., Illus., Tables, Bibls., Index. Cambridge, Mass./London: Harvard University Press, 2009. $39.95. [REVIEW]Michael T. Ghiselin - 2010 - Isis 101 (1):200-201.
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  38.  90
    Real Character-Friends: Aristotelian Friendship, Living Together, and Technology.Michael T. McFall - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (3):221-230.
    Aristotle’s account of friendship has largely withstood the test of time. Yet there are overlooked elements of his account that, when challenged by apparent threats of current and emerging communication technologies, reveal his account to be remarkably prescient. I evaluate the danger that technological advances in communication pose to the future of friendship by examining and defending Aristotle’s claim that perfect or character-friends must live together. I concede that technologically-mediated communication can aid existing character-friendships, but I argue that character-friendships cannot (...)
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  39. Philosophical Conceptual Analysis as an Experimental Method.Michael T. Stuart - 2015 - In Thomas Gamerschlag, Doris Gerland, Rainer Osswald & Wiebke Petersen (eds.), Meaning, Frames, and Conceptual Representation. Düsseldorf University Press. pp. 267-292.
    Philosophical conceptual analysis is an experimental method. Focusing on this helps to justify it from the skepticism of experimental philosophers who follow Weinberg, Nichols & Stich. To explore the experimental aspect of philosophical conceptual analysis, I consider a simpler instance of the same activity: everyday linguistic interpretation. I argue that this, too, is experimental in nature. And in both conceptual analysis and linguistic interpretation, the intuitions considered problematic by experimental philosophers are necessary but epistemically irrelevant. They are like variables introduced (...)
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  40.  34
    Explaining Metamers: Right Degrees of Freedom, Not Subjectivism.Michael T. Turvey, Virgil Whitmyer & Kevin Shockley - 2001 - Consciousness and Cognition 10 (1):105-116.
  41.  89
    Darwin's Language May Seem Teleological, but His Thinking is Another Matter.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1994 - Biology and Philosophy 9 (4):489-492.
    Darwin''s biology was teleological only if the term teleology is defined in a manner that fails to recognize his contribution to the metaphysics and epistemology of modern science. His use of teleological metaphors in a strictly teleonomic context is irrelevant to the meaning of his discourse. The myth of Darwin''s alleged teleology is partly due to misinterpretations of discussions about whether morphology should be a purely formal science. Merely rejecting such notions as special creation and vitalism does not prevent the (...)
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  42.  1
    The Evolution of Moral Belief: Support for the Debunker’s Causal Premise.Michael T. Dale - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-18.
    The causal premise of the evolutionary debunking argument contends that human moral beliefs are explained by the process of natural selection. While it is universally acknowledged that such a premise is fundamental to the debunker’s case, the vast majority of philosophers focus instead on the epistemic premise that natural selection does not track moral truth and the resulting skeptical conclusion. Recently, however, some have begun to concentrate on the causal premise. So far, the upshot of this small but growing literature (...)
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  43.  19
    Telling Stories in Science: Feyerabend and Thought Experiments.Michael T. Stuart - 2021 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 11 (1):262-281.
    The history of the philosophy of thought experiments has touched on the work of Kuhn, Popper, Duhem, Mach, Lakatos, and other big names of the 20th century, but so far, almost nothing has been written about Paul Feyerabend. His most influential work was Against Method, 8 chapters of which concern a case study of Galileo with a specific focus on Galileo’s thought experiments. In addition, the later Feyerabend was very interested in what might be called the epistemology of drama, including (...)
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  44.  1
    Ricoeur and the Third Discourse of the Person: From Philosophy and Neuroscience to Psychiatry and Theology.Michael T. H. Wong - 2018 - Lexington Books.
    Neuropsychiatrist Michael T. H. Wong argues that the notions of soul, mind, brain, self and consciousness are no longer adequate on their own to explain humanity. He formulates a “third discourse” that brings philosophy neuroscience theology and psychiatry together as an innovative multilayered narrative for the person in the twenty-first century.
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  45.  9
    Logics of Organization Theory: Audiences, Codes, and Ecologies.Michael T. Hannan, László Pólos & Glenn R. Carroll - 2007 - New York: Princeton University Press.
    It applies this framework and the new language of theory building to organizational ecology. "There is nothing like this book in the field today.
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  46.  13
    Evolutionary Anatomy and Language.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (1):20-20.
  47.  52
    Ostensive Definitions of the Names of Species and Clades.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1995 - Biology and Philosophy 10 (2):219-22.
  48.  10
    Third Conference of the GWP.Michael T. Hicks, Andreas Hüttemann & Martin Voggenauer - 2022 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 53 (1):1-3.
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  49.  59
    Cognitive Science and Thought Experiments: A Refutation of Paul Thagard's Skepticism.Michael T. Stuart - 2014 - Perspectives on Science 22 (2):264-287.
    Paul Thagard has recently argued that thought experiments are dangerous and misleading when we try to use them as evidence for claims. This paper refutes his skepticism. Building on Thagard’s own work in cognitive science, I suggest that Thagard has much that is positive to say about how thought experiments work. My last section presents some new directions for research on the intersection between thought experiments and cognitive science.
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  50.  50
    The Unity of Virtue and the Objects of Socratic Inquiry.Michael T. Ferejohn - 1982 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 20 (1):1-21.
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