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Michael Tooley [81]Michael James Tooley [1]
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Michael Tooley
University of Colorado, Boulder
  1. The Problem of Evil.Michael Tooley - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    Chapter 1 addresses some preliminary issues that it is important to think about in formulating arguments from evil. Chapter 2 is then concerned with the question of how an incompatibility argument from evil is best formulated, and with possible responses to such arguments. Chapter 3 then focuses on skeptical theism, and on the work that skeptical theists need to do if they are to defend their claim of having defeated incompatibility versions of the argument from evil. Finally, Chapter 4 discusses (...)
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  2. Time, Tense, and Causation.Michael Tooley - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    Michael Tooley presents a major new philosophical theory of the nature of time, offering a powerful alternative to the traditional "tensed" and recent "tenseless" accounts of time. He argues for a dynamic conception of the universe, in which past, present, and future are not merely subjective features of experience. He claims that the past and the present are real, while the future is not. Tooley's approach accounts for time in terms of causation. He therefore claims that the key to understanding (...)
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  3. The Nature of Laws.Michael Tooley - 1977 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 7 (4):667-98.
    This paper is concerned with the question of the truth conditions of nomological statements. My fundamental thesis is that it is possible to set out an acceptable, noncircular account of the truth conditions of laws and nomological statements if and only if relations among universals - that is, among properties and relations, construed realistically - are taken as the truth-makers for such statements. My discussion will be restricted to strictly universal, nonstatistical laws. The reason for this limitation is not that (...)
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  4. Abortion and Infanticide.Michael Tooley - 1972 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 2 (1):37-65.
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  5. Causation: A Realist Approach.Michael Tooley - 1987 - Oxford University Press.
    Tooley here sets out and defends realist accounts of traditional empiricist explanations of causation and laws of nature, arguing that since reductionist accounts of causation are exposed to decisive objections, empiricists must break with that tradition.
  6.  42
    Causation and Universals.The Secret Connexion: Causation, Realism, and David Hume.Causation: A Realist Approach.Evan Fales, Galen Strawson & Michael Tooley - 1991 - Philosophical Quarterly 41 (165):494-498.
  7. Knowledge of God.Alvin Plantinga & Michael Tooley - 2008 - Wiley-Blackwell.
  8.  83
    In Defense of the Existence of States of Motion.Michael Tooley - 1988 - Philosophical Topics 16 (1):225-254.
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  9.  50
    Michael Huemer and the Principle of Phenomenal Conservatism.Michael Tooley - 2013 - In Chris Tucker (ed.), Seemings and Justification: New Essays on Dogmatism and Phenomenal Conservatism. Oup Usa. pp. 306.
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  10. Abortion and Infanticide.Michael Tooley - 1984 - Philosophy 59 (230):545-547.
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  11. Causation.Michael Tooley - 1987 - In Robin Le Poidevin (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Metaphysics. Routledge.
    This volume presents a selection of the most influential recent discussions of the crucial metaphysical questions: what is it for one event to cause another? The subject of causation bears on many topics, such as time, explanation, mental states, the laws of nature, and the philosphy of science.
     
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  12. The Problem of Evil.Michael Tooley - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  13. Backward Causation and the Stalnaker-Lewis Approach to Counterfactuals.Michael Tooley - 2002 - Analysis 62 (3):191–197.
  14. The Stalnaker-Lewis Approach to Counterfactuals.Michael Tooley - 2003 - Journal of Philosophy 100 (7):371 - 377.
  15. Causation.Ernest Sosa & Michael Tooley (eds.) - 1993 - Oxford University Press.
    This volume presents a selection of the most influential recent discussions of the crucial metaphysical question: What is it for one event to cause another? The subject of causation bears on many topics, such as time, explanation, mental states, the laws of nature, and the philosophy of science. Contributors include J.L Mackie, Michael Scriven, Jaegwon Kim, G.E.M. Anscombe, G.H. von Wright, C.J. Ducasse, Wesley C. Salmon, David Lewis, Paul Horwich, Jonathan Bennett, Ernest Sosa, and Michael Tooley.
     
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  16.  6
    Afterthoughts.William Hasker, Ronald L. Hall, Michael Tooley & James P. Sterba - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (3):229-243.
  17. Laws of Nature. [REVIEW]Michael Tooley - 1997 - Philosophical Review 106 (1):119.
    In this book, John Carroll argues for the following two anti-reductionist theses.
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  18.  7
    In Defense of the Existence of States of Motion.Michael Tooley - 1988 - Philosophical Topics 16 (1):225-254.
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  19.  9
    Causes and Coincidences.Michael Tooley - 1994 - Philosophical Review 103 (3):546.
  20. Abortion: Three Perspectives.Michael Tooley, Celia Wolf-Devine, Philip E. Devine & Alison M. Jaggar - 2009 - Oup Usa.
    The newest addition to the Point/Counterpoint Series, Abortion: Three Perspectives features a debate between four noted philosophers - Michael Tooley, Celia Wolf-Devine, Philip E. Devine, and Alison M. Jaggar - presenting different perspectives on one of the most socially and politically argued issues of the past 30 years. The three main arguments include the "liberal" pro-choice approach, the "communitarian" pro-life approach, and the "gender justice" approach. Divided into two parts, the text features the authors' ideas, developed in depth, and their (...)
     
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  21. The Argument From Evil.Michael Tooley - 1991 - Philosophical Perspectives 5:89-134.
  22.  5
    Analyzing Sterba’s Argument.Michael Tooley - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (3):217-222.
  23. Time, Truth, Actuality, and Causation: On the Impossibility of Divine Foreknowledge.Michael Tooley - 2010 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 2 (1):143 - 163.
    In this essay, my goal is, first, to describe the most important contemporary philosophical approaches to the nature of time, and then, secondly, to discuss the ways in which those different accounts bear upon the question of the possibility of divine foreknowledge. I shall argue that different accounts of the nature of time give rise to different objections to the idea of divine foreknowledge, but that, in addition, there is a general argument for the impossibility of divine foreknowledge that is (...)
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  24. Causation: Reductionism Versus Realism.Michael Tooley - 1990 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50:215-236.
  25.  16
    Laws and Symmetry. [REVIEW]Michael Tooley - 1995 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46 (2):280.
  26. Functional Concepts, Referentially Opaque Contexts, Causal Relations, and the Definition of Theoretical Terms.Michael Tooley - 2001 - Philosophical Studies 105 (3):251-279.
    In his recent article, "Self-Consciousness", George Bealer has set out a novel and interesting argument against functionalism in the philosophy of mind. I shall attempt to show, however, that Bealer's argument cannot be sustained. In arguing for this conclusion, I shall be defending three main theses. The first is connected with the problem of defining theoretical predicates that occur in theories where the following two features are present: first, the theoretical predicate in question occurs within both extensional and non-extensional contexts; (...)
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  27. Causation and Supervenience.Michael Tooley - 2003 - In Michael J. Loux & Dean W. Zimmerman (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Metaphysics. Oxford University Press. pp. 386-434.
     
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  28. Plantinga's Defence of the Ontological Argument.Michael Tooley - 1981 - Mind 90 (359):422-427.
  29.  89
    The Nature of Causation: A Singularist Account.Michael Tooley - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (sup1):271-322.
  30. Farewell to McTaggart’s Argument?Michael Tooley - 2010 - Philosophia 38 (2):243-255.
    Philosophers have responded to McTaggart’s famous argument for the unreality of time in a variety of ways. Some of those responses are not easy to evaluate, since they involve, for example, sometimes murky questions concerning whether a certain infinite regress is or is not vicious. In this paper I set out a response that has not, I think, been advanced by any other author, and which, if successful, is absolutely clear-cut. The basic idea is simply that a tensed approach to (...)
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  31. Alvin Plantinga and Michael Tooley: Knowledge of God.Alvin Plantinga & Michael Tooley - 2009 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 66 (2):105-107.
  32. Does God Exist?Michael Tooley - 2008 - In Alvin Plantinga (ed.), Knowledge of God. Blackwell.
     
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  33.  31
    Time, Tense and Causation.Quentin Smith & Michael Tooley - 1999 - Philosophical Review 108 (1):123.
    The main goal of Michael Tooley’s groundbreaking book is to establish a position intermediate between the tenseless theory of time and the standard tensed theory of time. Tooley argues for a novel version of the tensed theory of time, namely, that the future is unreal and the present and past real, and yet that reality consists only of tenseless facts. The question that naturally arises for the reader concerns an apparent paradox: how could the tensed theory of time be true (...)
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  34.  41
    Value, Obligation and the Asymmetry Question.Michael Tooley - 1998 - Bioethics 12 (2):111–124.
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  35. Inductive Logic and the Probability That God Exists: Farewell to Sceptical Theism.Michael Tooley - 2012 - In Jake Chandler Victoria S. Harrison (ed.), Probability in the Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press.
     
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  36. Probability and Causation.Michael Tooley - 2004 - In Phil Dowe & Paul Noordhof (eds.), Cause and Chance: Causation in an Indeterministic World. Routledge.
  37.  18
    Knowledge of God. [REVIEW]Alvin Plantingaand & Michael Tooley - 2009 - Analysis 69 (3):591-592.
    Knowledge of God takes the form of a debate between Alvin Plantinga and Michael Tooley. Plantinga opens the batting with a seventy-page laying out of his case ‘that theism has a significant epistemic virtue: if it is true, it is warranted; this is a virtue naturalism emphatically lacks’. Indeed, Plantinga argues that ‘if naturalism were true, there would be no such thing as knowledge’. It will be recalled [e.g. Plantinga and Plantinga ] that Plantinga's position is that warrant, understood as (...)
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  38.  17
    Solutions to the New Threats to Academic Freedom?Michael Tooley - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (4):163-165.
    In my commentary on Francesca Minerva's article ‘New Threats to Academic Freedom’, I agree with her contention that the existence of the Internet has given rise to new and very serious threats to academic freedom. I think that it is crucial that we confront those threats, and find ways to eliminate them, which I believe can be done. The threats in question involve both authors and editors. In the case of authors, I argue that the best solution is not anonymous (...)
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  39. Alvin Plantinga and the Argument From Evil.Michael Tooley - 1980 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 58 (4):360 – 376.
    Among the central theses defended in this paper are the following. First, the logical incompatibility version of the argument from evil is not one of the crucial versions, and Plantinga, in fostering the illusion that it is, seriously misrepresents claims advanced by other philosophers. Secondly, Plantinga’s arguments against the thesis that the existence of any evil at all is logically incompatible with God’s existence. Thirdly, Plantinga’s attempt to demonstrate that the existence of a certain amount of evil in the world (...)
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  40. Is Abortion Murder?Michael Tooley & Laura Purdy - 1974 - In Robert L. Perkins (ed.), Abortion: Pro and Con. Schenkman.
     
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  41. Helping People to Think Critically About Their Religious Beliefs.Michael Tooley - 2009 - In 50 Voices of Disbelief: Why We Are Atheists. Wiley-Blackwell.
    In the debate volume, ’Knowledge of God’, co-authored with Alvin Plantinga, I argued that there is an inductively sound version of the argument from evil, and recently, several popular books criticizing religious belief have appeared, often focusing on that issue of the existence of God. In the present essay I argue, however, that to help ordinary people think more critically about religious beliefs, it is better to focus on beliefs associated with specific religions, such as Christianity. I then go on (...)
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  42.  45
    Laws of Nature, Causation, and Supervenience.Michael Tooley (ed.) - 1999 - Garland.
    condition T. Moreover, such a characterization would be perfectly compatible with the possibility of there being events that were causally related, ...
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  43.  27
    Tooley's Immodest ProposalAbortion and Infanticide.Christina Hoff Sommers & Michael Tooley - 1985 - Hastings Center Report 15 (3):39.
  44. 50 Voices of Disbelief: Why We Are Atheists.Michael Tooley - 2009 - Wiley-Blackwell.
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  45.  33
    Armstrong's Proof of the Realist Account of Dispositional Properties.Michael Tooley - 1972 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):283 – 287.
  46.  52
    Laws and Causal Relations.Michael Tooley - 1984 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 9 (1):93-112.
    How are causal relations between particular states of affairs related to causal laws? There appear to be three main answers to this question, and the choice among those three alternatives would seem to be crucial for any account of causation. In spite of this fact, the question of which view is correct has been all but totally neglected in present-day discussions. Indeed, since the time of Hume, one answer has more or less dominated philosophical thinking about causation. In this paper (...)
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  47.  14
    Plantinga’s New Argument Against Materialism.Michael Tooley - 2012 - Philosophia Christi 14 (1):29-48.
    In this paper, I have attempted to do two main things. First, I argue that Alvin Plantinga’s new argument against materialism, though interesting, shares the fate of his earlier arguments in that it is, in the end, unsuccessful. Secondly, I then argue, contrary to Plantinga’s view that there is no strong argument for materialism, that there is in fact very strong scientific support that can be offered against the hypothesis that the human mind is an immaterial substance, and hence in (...)
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  48.  66
    Freedom and Foreknowledge.Michael Tooley - 2000 - Faith and Philosophy 17 (2):212-224.
    In her book, The Dilemma of Freedom and Foreknowledge, Linda Zagzebski suggests that among the strongest ways of supporting the thesis that libertarian free will is incompatible with divine foreknowledge is what she refers to as the Accidental Necessity argument. Zagzebski contends, however, that at least three satisfactory responses to that argument are available.I argue that two of the proposed solutions are open to strong objections, and that the third, although it may very well handle the specific versions of the (...)
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  49.  33
    Time and Causation.Michael Tooley (ed.) - 1999 - Garland.
    First published in 1999. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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  50. Causes, Laws, and Ontology.Michael Tooley - 2009 - In Helen Beebee, Peter Menzies & Christopher Hitchcock (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Causation. Oxford University Press. pp. 368--86.
    Different approaches to causation often diverge very significantly on ontological issues, in the case of both causal laws, and causal relations between states of affairs. This article sets out the main alternatives with regard to each. Causal concepts have surely been present from the time that language began, since the vast majority of action verbs involve the idea of causally affecting something. Thus, in the case of transitive verbs describing physical actions, there is the idea of causally affecting something external (...)
     
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