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Michael Tooley [151]Michael James Tooley [1]
  1. Time, Tense, and Causation.Michael Tooley - 1997 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    Michael Tooley presents a major new philosophical theory of the nature of time, offering a powerful alternative to the traditional "tensed" and recent "tenseless" accounts of time. He argues for a dynamic conception of the universe, in which past, present, and future are not merely subjective features of experience. He claims that the past and the present are real, while the future is not. Tooley's approach accounts for time in terms of causation. He therefore claims that the key to understanding (...)
  2. Abortion and infanticide.Michael Tooley - 1972 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 2 (1):37-65.
    This essay deals with the question of the morality of abortion and infanticide. The fundamental ethical objection traditionally advanced against these practices rests on the contention that human fetuses and infants have a right to life, and it is this claim that is the primary focus of attention here. Consequently, the basic question to be discussed is what properties a thing must possess in order to have a serious right to life. The approach involves defending, then, a basic principle specifying (...)
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  3. The nature of laws.Michael Tooley - 1977 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 7 (4):667-98.
    This paper is concerned with the question of the truth conditions of nomological statements. My fundamental thesis is that it is possible to set out an acceptable, noncircular account of the truth conditions of laws and nomological statements if and only if relations among universals - that is, among properties and relations, construed realistically - are taken as the truth-makers for such statements. My discussion will be restricted to strictly universal, nonstatistical laws. The reason for this limitation is not that (...)
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  4. Causation: a realist approach.Michael Tooley - 1987 - Oxford: Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press.
    Causation: A Realist Approach Traditional empiricist accounts of causation and laws of nature have been reductionist in the sense of entailing that given a complete specification of the non-causal properties of and relations among particulars, it is therefore logically determined both what laws there are and what events are causally related. It is argued here, however, that reductionist accounts of causation and of laws of nature are exposed to decisive objections, and thus that the time has come for empiricists to (...)
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  5. Abortion and Infanticide.Michael Tooley - 1972 - Philosophy 59 (230):545-547.
     
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  6.  88
    Causation and Universals.The secret Connexion: Causation, Realism, and David Hume.Causation: A Realist Approach.Evan Fales, Galen Strawson & Michael Tooley - 1991 - Philosophical Quarterly 41 (165):494-498.
  7.  51
    Knowledge of God.Alvin Plantinga & Michael Tooley (eds.) - 2008 - Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    Is belief in God epistemically justified? That's the question at the heart of this volume in the Great Debates in Philosophy series, with Alvin Plantinga and Michael Tooley each addressing this fundamental question with distinctive arguments from opposing perspectives. The first half of the book contains each philosopher's explanation of his particular view; the second half allows them to directly respond to each other's arguments, in a lively and engaging conversation Offers the reader a one of a kind, interactive discussion (...)
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  8. Causation.Michael Tooley - 2009 - In Robin Le Poidevin, Simons Peter, McGonigal Andrew & Ross P. Cameron (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Metaphysics. New York: Routledge.
    This volume presents a selection of the most influential recent discussions of the crucial metaphysical questions: what is it for one event to cause another? The subject of causation bears on many topics, such as time, explanation, mental states, the laws of nature, and the philosphy of science.
     
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  9. In Defense of the Existence of States of Motion.Michael Tooley - 1988 - Philosophical Topics 16 (1):225-254.
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  10.  89
    The Problem of Evil.Michael Tooley - 2008 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Chapter 1 addresses some preliminary issues that it is important to think about in formulating arguments from evil. Chapter 2 is then concerned with the question of how an incompatibility argument from evil is best formulated, and with possible responses to such arguments. Chapter 3 then focuses on skeptical theism, and on the work that skeptical theists need to do if they are to defend their claim of having defeated incompatibility versions of the argument from evil. Finally, Chapter 4 discusses (...)
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  11.  50
    Time, Tense and Causation.Quentin Smith & Michael Tooley - 1999 - Philosophical Review 108 (1):123.
    The main goal of Michael Tooley’s groundbreaking book is to establish a position intermediate between the tenseless theory of time and the standard tensed theory of time. Tooley argues for a novel version of the tensed theory of time, namely, that the future is unreal and the present and past real, and yet that reality consists only of tenseless facts. The question that naturally arises for the reader concerns an apparent paradox: how could the tensed theory of time be true (...)
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  12.  22
    In Defense of the Existence of States of Motion.Michael Tooley - 1988 - Philosophical Topics 16 (1):225-254.
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  13.  59
    Causation.Ernest Sosa & Michael Tooley (eds.) - 1993 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This volume presents a selection of the most influential recent discussions of the crucial metaphysical question: What is it for one event to cause another? The subject of causation bears on many topics, such as time, explanation, mental states, the laws of nature, and the philosophy of science. Contributors include J.L Mackie, Michael Scriven, Jaegwon Kim, G.E.M. Anscombe, G.H. von Wright, C.J. Ducasse, Wesley C. Salmon, David Lewis, Paul Horwich, Jonathan Bennett, Ernest Sosa, and Michael Tooley.
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  14. Michael Huemer and the Principle of Phenomenal Conservatism.Michael Tooley - 2013 - In Chris Tucker (ed.), Seemings and Justification: New Essays on Dogmatism and Phenomenal Conservatism. New York: Oxford University Press USA. pp. 306.
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  15. The problem of evil.Michael Tooley - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  16. Causation: Reductionism versus realism.Michael Tooley - 1990 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50:215-236.
  17. The argument from evil.Michael Tooley - 1991 - Philosophical Perspectives 5:89-134.
    The problem that suffering and other evils pose for the rationality of belief in an omnipotent, omniscient, and morally perfect person has been the focus of intense discussion for a long time. The main thing that I want to do here is to consider whether recent discussions have significantly advanced our understanding of the underlying issues. I believe that they have, and I shall try to indicate the ways in which that is so. The structure of my discussion is as (...)
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  18. Axiology: Theism Versus Widely Accepted Monotheisms.Michael Tooley - 2017 - In Klaas J. Kraay (ed.), Does God Matter?: Essays on the Axiological Consequences of Theism. Routledge. pp. 46-69.
    The structure of this paper is as follows. First, I start off by briefly explaining the concepts of pro-theism and anti-theism, and by distinguishing both between personal and impersonal versions of those views, and also between a more modest and a less modest claim connected with the impersonal version of pro-theism. -/- I then introduce a distinction that is itself quite trivial, namely, that between pro-theism (and anti-theism), on the one hand, and pro-monotheism (and anti-monotheism), on the other, where the (...)
     
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  19. Masturbation and the Problem of Irrational and Immoral Sexual Activity.Michael Tooley - 2022 - In David Boonin (ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of Sexual Ethics. London: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 129-52.
    “Masturbation and the Problem of Irrational and Immoral Sexual Activity” by Michael Tooley -/- Tooley argues that aside from sex that aims at reproduction, most human sexual activity is both irrational and immoral, since it is dangerous, and equal or greater pleasure can be achieved by sex that is, truly, completely safe. Tooley then asks what must be done to arrive at a rational approach to human sexuality, and here he argues that it must be shown, first, that so-called ‘safe (...)
     
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  20. Backward causation and the Stalnaker-Lewis approach to counterfactuals.Michael Tooley - 2002 - Analysis 62 (3):191–197.
  21.  19
    Causes and Coincidences.Michael Tooley - 1994 - Philosophical Review 103 (3):546.
  22. The Stalnaker-Lewis Approach to Counterfactuals.Michael Tooley - 2003 - Journal of Philosophy 100 (7):371-377.
  23.  11
    Abortion and Infanticide.Michael Tooley - 1983 - Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    This book has two main concerns. The first is to isolate the fundamental issues that must be resolved if one is to be able to formulate a defensible position on the question of the moral status of abortion. The second is to determine the most plausible answer to that question. With respect to the first question, the author argues that the following issue–most of which are ignored in public debate on the question of abortion–need to be considered. First, can the (...)
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  24.  30
    Backward causation and the Stalnaker-Lewis approach to counterfactuals.Michael Tooley - 2002 - Analysis 62 (3):191-197.
  25. Plantinga's defence of the ontological argument.Michael Tooley - 1981 - Mind 90 (359):422-427.
  26.  46
    Abortion and Infanticide.Christina Hoff Sommers & Michael Tooley - 1985 - Hastings Center Report 15 (3):39.
    Book reviewed in this article: Abortion and Infanticide. By Michael Tooley.
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  27. Abortion: Three Perspectives.Michael Tooley, Celia Wolf-Devine, Philip E. Devine & Alison M. Jaggar - 2009 - Oup Usa.
    The newest addition to the Point/Counterpoint Series, Abortion: Three Perspectives features a debate between four noted philosophers - Michael Tooley, Celia Wolf-Devine, Philip E. Devine, and Alison M. Jaggar - presenting different perspectives on one of the most socially and politically argued issues of the past 30 years. The three main arguments include the "liberal" pro-choice approach, the "communitarian" pro-life approach, and the "gender justice" approach. Divided into two parts, the text features the authors' ideas, developed in depth, and their (...)
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  28. Causation and supervenience.Michael Tooley - 2003 - In Michael J. Loux & Dean W. Zimmerman (eds.), The Oxford handbook of metaphysics. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 386-434.
  29. Does God exist?Michael Tooley - 2008 - In Alvin Plantinga (ed.), Knowledge of God. Blackwell.
     
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  30.  56
    Value, obligation and the asymmetry question.Michael Tooley - 1998 - Bioethics 12 (2):111–124.
    Is there a prima facie obligation to produce additional individuals whose lives would be worth living? In his paper ‘Is it Good to Make Happy People?’, Stuart Rachels argues not only that there is, but, also, that precisely as much weight should be assigned to the quality of life that would be enjoyed by such potential persons, if they were to be actualized, as to the quality of life enjoyed by actually existing persons. In response, I shall argue, first, that (...)
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  31. ch. 8. Inductive logic and the probability that God exists : farewell to sceptical Theism.Michael Tooley - 2012 - In Jake Chandler & Victoria S. Harrison (eds.), Probability in the Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press.
     
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  32. Probability and causation.Michael Tooley - 2003 - In Phil Dowe & Paul Noordhof (eds.), Cause and Chance: Causation in an Indeterministic World. Routledge.
  33.  84
    Wes Morriston’s ‘Skeptical Demonism’ Argument from Evil and Timothy Perrine’s Response.Michael Tooley - 2024 - Sophia 63 (1):57-83.
    Wes Morriston has argued that given the mixture of goods and evils found in the world, the probability of God’s existence is much less than the probability of a creator who is indifferent to good and evil. One of my goals here is, first, to show how, by bringing in the concept of dispositions, Morriston’s argument can be expressed in a rigorous, step-by-step fashion, and then, second, to show how one can connect the extent to which different events are surprising (...)
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  34. The Nature of Causation: A Singularist Account.Michael Tooley - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (sup1):271-322.
    Is a singularist conception of causation coherent? That is to say, is it possible for two events to be causally related, without that relationship being an instance of some causal law, either basic or derived, and either probabilistic or non-probabilistic? Since the time of Hume, the overwhelmingly dominant philosophical view has been that such a conception of causation is not coherent.
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  35. An Irrelevant Consideration: Killing Versus Letting Die.Michael Tooley - 1994 - In Bonnie Steinbock & Alastair Norcross (eds.), Killing and letting die. New York: Fordham University Press. pp. 56–62.
    Many people hold that there is an important moral distinction between passive euthanasia and active euthanasia. Thus, while the AMA maintains that people have a right quote to die with dignity, quote so that it is morally permissible for a doctor to allow someone to die if that person wants to and is suffering from an incurable illness causing pain that cannot be sufficiently alleviated, the MA is unwilling to countenance active euthanasia for a person who is in similar straits, (...)
     
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  36.  68
    Analyzing Sterba’s argument.Michael Tooley - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (3):217-222.
    Abstract: Michael Tooley’s Comments on James Sterba’s Book, Is a Good God Logically Possible? -/- My comments on Jim Sterba’s book, Is a Good God Logically Possible?, were divided into the following sections. In the first section, I listed some of the attractive features of Sterba’s discussion. These included, first of all, his use of the ideas of “morally constrained freedom” and “constrained intervention by God” to show the moral evils in our world cannot be justified by an appeal to (...)
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  37. Michael Huemer and the principle of phenomenal conservatism.Michael Tooley - 2013 - In Chris Tucker (ed.), Seemings and Justification: An Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 306–327.
     
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  38.  53
    Afterthoughts.William Hasker, Ronald L. Hall, Michael Tooley & James P. Sterba - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (3):229-243.
  39. Time, Truth, Actuality, and Causation: On the Impossibility of Divine Foreknowledge.Michael Tooley - 2010 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 2 (1):143 - 163.
    In this essay, my goal is, first, to describe the most important contemporary philosophical approaches to the nature of time, and then, secondly, to discuss the ways in which those different accounts bear upon the question of the possibility of divine foreknowledge. I shall argue that different accounts of the nature of time give rise to different objections to the idea of divine foreknowledge, but that, in addition, there is a general argument for the impossibility of divine foreknowledge that is (...)
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  40.  16
    Emotion in motion: perceiving fear in the behaviour of individuals from minimal motion capture displays.Matthew T. Crawford, Christopher Maymon, Nicola L. Miles, Katie Blackburne, Michael Tooley & Gina M. Grimshaw - forthcoming - Cognition and Emotion.
    The ability to quickly and accurately recognise emotional states is adaptive for numerous social functions. Although body movements are a potentially crucial cue for inferring emotions, few studies have studied the perception of body movements made in naturalistic emotional states. The current research focuses on the use of body movement information in the perception of fear expressed by targets in a virtual heights paradigm. Across three studies, participants made judgments about the emotional states of others based on motion-capture body movement (...)
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  41. Alvin Plantinga and the argument from evil.Michael Tooley - 1980 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 58 (4):360 – 376.
    Among the central theses defended in this paper are the following. First, the logical incompatibility version of the argument from evil is not one of the crucial versions, and Plantinga, in fostering the illusion that it is, seriously misrepresents claims advanced by other philosophers. Secondly, Plantinga’s arguments against the thesis that the existence of any evil at all is logically incompatible with God’s existence. Thirdly, Plantinga’s attempt to demonstrate that the existence of a certain amount of evil in the world (...)
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  42.  54
    Armstrong's proof of the realist account of dispositional properties.Michael Tooley - 1972 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):283 – 287.
  43.  9
    The Nature of Causation: A Singularist Account.Michael Tooley - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 16:271-322.
    Is a singularist conception of causation coherent? That is to say, is it possible for two events to be causally related, without that relationship being an instance of some causal law, either basic or derived, and either probabilistic or non-probabilistic? Since the time of Hume, the overwhelmingly dominant philosophical view has been that such a conception of causation is not coherent.
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  44. Functional Concepts, Referentially Opaque Contexts, Causal Relations, and the Definition of Theoretical Terms.Michael Tooley - 2001 - Philosophical Studies 105 (3):251-279.
    In his recent article, ``Self-Consciousness'’, George Bealer has set outa novel and interesting argument against functionalism in the philosophyof mind. I shall attempt to show, however, that Bealer's argument cannotbe sustained.In arguing for this conclusion, I shall be defending three main theses.The first is connected with the problem of defining theoreticalpredicates that occur in theories where the following two features arepresent: first, the theoretical predicate in question occurswithin both extensional and non-extensional contexts; secondly, thetheory in question asserts that the relevant (...)
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  45.  40
    Correspondence.Robert Howell, Edward Langerak, Adam Morton & Michael Tooley - 1973 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 2 (4):407-432.
    I discuss Tooley's use of the concept of a person with respect to other moral issues such as justifiable suicide.
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  46.  88
    Freedom and Foreknowledge.Michael Tooley - 2000 - Faith and Philosophy 17 (2):212-224.
    In her book, The Dilemma of Freedom and Foreknowledge, Linda Zagzebski suggests that among the strongest ways of supporting the thesis that libertarian free will is incompatible with divine foreknowledge is what she refers to as the Accidental Necessity argument. Zagzebski contends, however, that at least three satisfactory responses to that argument are available.I argue that two of the proposed solutions are open to strong objections, and that the third, although it may very well handle the specific versions of the (...)
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  47. Calum Miller's attempted refutation of Michael Tooley's evidential argument from evil.Michael Tooley - 2022 - Religious Studies (A "FirstView" article,):1-18.
    In his article, ‘What's Wrong with Tooley's Argument from Evil?’, Calum Miller's goal was to show that the evidential argument from evil that I have advanced is unsound, and in support of that claim, Miller set out three main objections. First, he argued that I had failed to recognize that the actual occurrence of an event can by itself, at least in principle, constitute good evidence that it was not morally wrong for God to allow events of the kind in (...)
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  48.  63
    Laws of nature, causation, and supervenience.Michael Tooley (ed.) - 1999 - New York: Garland.
    condition T. Moreover, such a characterization would be perfectly compatible with the possibility of there being events that were causally related, ...
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  49. Hume and the Problem of Evil.Michael Tooley - 2011 - In Jeffrey J. Jordan (ed.), Philosophy of Religion: The Key Thinkers. London and New York: Continuum. pp. 159-86.
    1.1 The Concept of Evil The problem of evil, in the sense relevant here, concerns the question of the reasonableness of believing in the existence of a deity with certain characteristics. In most discussions, the deity is God, understood as an omnipotent, omniscient, and morally perfect person. But the problem of evil also arises, as Hume saw very clearly, for deities that are less than all-powerful, less than all-knowing, and less than morally perfect. What is the relevant concept of evil, (...)
     
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  50.  72
    Laws and Causal Relations.Michael Tooley - 1981 - In Felicia Ackerman (ed.), Midwest Studies in Philosophy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 93-112.
    How are causal relations between particular states of affairs related to causal laws? There appear to be three main answers to this question, and the choice among those three alternatives would seem to be crucial for any account of causation. In spite of this fact, the question of which view is correct has been all but totally neglected in present-day discussions. Indeed, since the time of Hume, one answer has more or less dominated philosophical thinking about causation. This is the (...)
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