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  1.  76
    Reconstructing the Cognitive World: The Next Step.Michael Wheeler - 2005 - Bradford.
    In _Reconstructing the Cognitive World_, Michael Wheeler argues that we should turn away from the generically Cartesian philosophical foundations of much contemporary cognitive science research and proposes instead a Heideggerian approach. Wheeler begins with an interpretation of Descartes. He defines Cartesian psychology as a conceptual framework of explanatory principles and shows how each of these principles is part of the deep assumptions of orthodox cognitive science. Wheeler then turns to Heidegger's radically non-Cartesian account of everyday cognition, which, he argues, can (...)
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  2. In defence of extended functionalism.Michael Wheeler - 2010 - In Richard Menary (ed.), The Extended Mind. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press. pp. 245--270.
    According to the extended cognition hypothesis (henceforth ExC), there are conditions under which thinking and thoughts (or more precisely, the material vehicles that realize thinking and thoughts) are spatially distributed over brain, body and world, in such a way that the external (beyond-the-skin) factors concerned are rightly accorded fully-paid-up cognitive status.1 According to functionalism in the philosophy of mind, “what makes something a mental state of a particular type does not depend on its internal constitution, but rather on the way (...)
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  3. Reconstructing the Cognitive World.Michael Wheeler - 2007 - Philosophy 82 (319):190-195.
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  4. The reappearing tool: transparency, smart technology, and the extended mind.Michael Wheeler - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (4):857-866.
    Some thinkers have claimed that expert performance with technology is characterized by a kind of disappearance of that technology from conscious experience, that is, by the transparency of the tools and equipment through which we sense and manipulate the world. This is a claim that may be traced to phenomenological philosophers such as Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty, but it has been influential in user interface design where the transparency of technology has often been adopted as a mark of good design. Moreover, (...)
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  5. Minds, things and materiality.Michael Wheeler - 2012 - In Jay Schulkin (ed.), Action, perception and the brain: adaptation and cephalic expression. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    In a rich and thought-provoking paper, Lambros Malafouris argues that taking material culture seriously means to be ‘systematically concerned with figuring out the causal efficacy of materiality in the enactment and constitution of a cognitive system or operation’ (Malafouris 2004, 55). As I understand this view, there are really two intertwined claims to be established. The first is that the things beyond the skin that make up material culture (in other words, the physical objects and artefacts in which cultural networks (...)
     
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  6.  16
    The reappearing tool: transparency, smart technology, and the extended mind.Michael Wheeler - 2018 - AI and Society 34 (4):857-866.
    Some thinkers have claimed that expert performance with technology is characterized by a kind of disappearance of that technology from conscious experience, that is, by the transparency of the tools and equipment through which we sense and manipulate the world. This is a claim that may be traced to phenomenological philosophers such as Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty, but it has been influential in user interface design where the transparency of technology has often been adopted as a mark of good design. Moreover, (...)
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  7. The Revolution will not be Optimised: Radical Enactivism, Extended Functionalism and the Extensive Mind.Michael Wheeler - 2017 - Topoi 36 (3):457-472.
    Optimising the 4E revolution in cognitive science arguably requires the rejection of two guiding commitments made by orthodox thinking in the field, namely that the material realisers of cognitive states and processes are located entirely inside the head, and that intelligent thought and action are to be explained in terms of the building and manipulation of content-bearing representations. In other words, the full-strength 4E revolution would be secured only by a position that delivered externalism plus antirepresentationalism. I argue that one (...)
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  8.  31
    Heidegger and Cognitive Science.Julian Kiverstein & Michael Wheeler (eds.) - 2012 - New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This impressive volume of essays that includes contributions from Herbert Dreyfus, Sean Kelly, Mike Wheeler, Dan Zahavi, and Shaun Gallagher reflects an emerging trend in cognitive science, and explores this new approach to cognitive science informed by Heidegger's thoughts on human existence.
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  9. Cognition in context: Phenomenology, situated robotics and the frame problem.Michael Wheeler - 2008 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (3):323 – 349.
    The frame problem is the difficulty of explaining how non-magical systems think and act in ways that are adaptively sensitive to context-dependent relevance. Influenced centrally by Heideggerian phenomenology, Hubert Dreyfus has argued that the frame problem is, in part, a consequence of the assumption (made by mainstream cognitive science and artificial intelligence) that intelligent behaviour is representation-guided behaviour. Dreyfus' Heideggerian analysis suggests that the frame problem dissolves if we reject representationalism about intelligence and recognize that human agents realize the property (...)
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  10.  76
    Science Friction: Phenomenology, Naturalism and Cognitive Science.Michael Wheeler - 2013 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 72:135-167.
    Recent years have seen growing evidence of a fruitful engagement between phenomenology and cognitive science. This paper confronts an in-principle problem that stands in the way of this intellectual coalition, namely the fact that a tension exists between the transcendentalism that characterizes phenomenology and the naturalism that accompanies cognitive science. After articulating the general shape of this tension, I respond as follows. First, I argue that, if we view things through a kind of neo-McDowellian lens, we can open up a (...)
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  11.  35
    Deceptive Appearances: the Turing Test, Response-Dependence, and Intelligence as an Emotional Concept.Michael Wheeler - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (4):513-532.
    The Turing Test is routinely understood as a behaviourist test for machine intelligence. Diane Proudfoot has argued for an alternative interpretation. According to Proudfoot, Turing’s claim that intelligence is what he calls ‘an emotional concept’ indicates that he conceived of intelligence in response-dependence terms. As she puts it: ‘Turing’s criterion for “thinking” is…: x is intelligent if in the actual world, in an unrestricted computer-imitates-human game, x appears intelligent to an average interrogator’. The role of the famous test is thus (...)
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  12.  93
    Extended Consciousness: an Interim Report.Michael Wheeler - 2015 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 53 (S1):155-175.
    Advocates of extended cognition hold that the physical machinery of mind sometimes extends beyond the skull and skin. In the first part of this paper, I explain why, and more specifically the precise sense in which, consciousness presents such theorists with an extra hurdle to be cleared. The key challenge is posed by phenomenal consciousness, the what‐it's‐like‐ness of experience. I consider two arguments for the claim that the physical machinery of phenomenal consciousness sometimes extends beyond the skull and skin. The (...)
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  13. Two threats to representation.Michael Wheeler - 2001 - Synthese 129 (2):211-231.
    I consider two threats to the idea that on-line intelligent behaviour (the production of fluid and adaptable responses to ongoing sensory input) must or should be explained by appeal to neurally located representations. The first of these threats occurs when extra-neural factors account for the kind of behavioural richness and flexibility normally associated with representation-based control. I show how this anti-representational challenge can be met, if we apply the thought that, to be a representational system, an action-oriented neural system must (...)
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  14. From robots to rothko: The bringing forth of worlds.Michael Wheeler - 1996 - In Margaret A. Boden (ed.), The philosophy of artificial life. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 209-236.
     
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  15.  99
    The grain of domains: The evolutionary-psychological case against domain-general cognition.Anthony P. Atkinson & Michael Wheeler - 2004 - Mind and Language 19 (2):147-76.
    Prominent evolutionary psychologists have argued that our innate psychological endowment consists of numerous domainspecific cognitive resources, rather than a few domaingeneral ones. In the light of some conceptual clarification, we examine the central inprinciple arguments that evolutionary psychologists mount against domaingeneral cognition. We conclude (a) that the fundamental logic of Darwinism, as advanced within evolutionary psychology, does not entail that the innate mind consists exclusively, or even massively, of domainspecific features, and (b) that a mixed innate cognitive economy of domainspecific (...)
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  16.  48
    Is Cognition Embedded or Extended? The Case of Gestures.Michael Wheeler - unknown
    First paragraph: When we perform bodily gestures, are we ever literally thinking with our hands (arms, shoulders, etc.)? In the more precise, but correspondingly drier, technical language of contemporary philosophy of mind and cognition, essentially the same question might be asked as follows: are bodily gestures ever among the material vehicles that realize cognitive processes? More precisely still, is it ever true that a coupled system made up of neural activity and bodily gestures counts as realizing a process of thought, (...)
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  17.  50
    Minding Nature: Gallagher and the Relevance of Phenomenology to Cognitive Science.Michael Wheeler & María Jimena Clavel Vázquez - 2018 - Australasian Philosophical Review 2 (2):145-158.
    In ‘Rethinking Nature: Phenomenology and a Non-reductionist Cognitive Science’, Gallagher [2019] sets out to overcome resistance to the idea that phenomenology is relevant to cognitive science. He argues that the relevance in question may be secured if we rethink the concept of nature. For Gallagher, this transformed concept of nature—which is to be distinguished from the classic scientific conception of nature in that it embraces irreducible subjectivity—is already at work in some contemporary enactive phenomenological approaches to cognitive science. Following a (...)
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  18.  73
    The Recent Engagement Between Analytic Philosophy and Heideggerian Thought: Metaphysics and Mind.Filippo Casati & Michael Wheeler - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (9):486-498.
    Martin Heidegger is a towering figure in the history of continental philosophy, but his work has recently been brought into productive engagement with analytic philosophy. This paper introduces and explores two channels along which such engagement has been taking place. The first is in metaphysics, where Heideggerian thought has been interpreted either as making the metaphysical concept of being literally senseless or as mandating a revision to classical logic. The second is in philosophy of mind, and more particularly in philosophy (...)
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  19.  64
    Traits, Genes, and Coding.Michael Wheeler - 1998 - In Michael Ruse (ed.), Philosophy of biology. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. pp. 369--401.
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  20.  83
    Minimal representing: A response to Gallagher.Michael Wheeler - 2008 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (3):371 – 376.
    In his contribution to this issue, Shaun Gallagher casts a sharply focussed critical eye over positions which claim that action is to be explained, in part, by appeal to minimal representations. On...
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  21.  17
    The Grain of Domains: The Evolutionary‐Psychological Case Against Domain‐General Cognition.Anthony P. Atkinson & Michael Wheeler - 2004 - Mind and Language 19 (2):147-176.
    Prominent evolutionary psychologists have argued that our innate psychological endowment consists of numerous domain‐specific cognitive resources, rather than a few domain‐general ones. In the light of some conceptual clarification, we examine the central in‐principle arguments that evolutionary psychologists mount against domain‐general cognition. We conclude (a) that the fundamental logic of Darwinism, as advanced within evolutionary psychology, does not entail that the innate mind consists exclusively, or even massively, of domain‐specific features, and (b) that a mixed innate cognitive economy of domain‐specific (...)
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  22. Minds, things, and materiality.Michael Wheeler - 2012 - In Jay Schulkin (ed.), Action, perception and the brain: adaptation and cephalic expression. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
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  23.  31
    When the twain meet : Could the study of mind be a meeting of minds.Michael Wheeler & Massimiliano Cappuccio - 2010 - In James Williams, Edwin Mares, James Chase & Jack Reynolds (eds.), Postanalytic and Metacontinental: Crossing Philosophical Divides. New York: Continuum. pp. 125.
  24. Science friction : phenomenology, naturalism and cognitive science.Michael Wheeler - 2013 - In Havi Carel & Darian Meacham (eds.), Phenomenology and Naturalism: Examining the Relationship Between Human Experience and Nature. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
     
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  25.  42
    God's Machines: Descartes on the Mechanization of Mind.Michael Wheeler - unknown
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  26.  7
    The Evolution of Cultural Entities.Michael Wheeler, John M. Ziman & Margaret A. Boden (eds.) - 2002 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Ever since Darwin, scholars have noted that cultural entities such as languages, laws and theories seem to evolve through variation, selection and replication. These essays consider whether this comparison is just a metaphor.
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  27. The Sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind.Massimiliano Cappuccio & Michael Wheeler - 2011 - Versus 113:33-56.
     
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  28.  51
    Plastic Machines: Behavioural Diversity and the Turing Test.Michael Wheeler - unknown
    After proposing the Turing Test, Alan Turing himself considered a number of objections to the idea that a machine might eventually pass it. One of the objections discussed by Turing was that no machine will ever pass the Turing Test because no machine will ever “have as much diversity of behaviour as a man”. He responded as follows: the “criticism that a machine cannot have much diversity of behaviour is just a way of saying that it cannot have much storage (...)
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  29.  14
    Philosophy of the Web: Representation, Enaction, Collective Intelligence.Harry Halpin, Andy Clark & Michael Wheeler - 2013-12-13 - In Harry Halpin & Alexandre Monnin (eds.), Philosophical Engineering. Wiley. pp. 21–30.
    This chapter contains sections titled: Is Philosophy Part of Web Science?; Representations and the Web; Enactive Search; Cognitive Extension and Cognitive Intelligence; From the Extended Mind to the Web; and the Web as Collective Intelligence.
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  30. Distributed cognition and the humanities.Miranda Anderson, Mark Sprevak & Michael Wheeler - 2018 - In Miranda Anderson, Douglas Cairns, Mark Sprevak & Michael Wheeler (eds.), The Edinburgh History of Distributed Cognition Series, Volumes 1-4. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Series. pp. 1-17.
    The general introduction, which is replicated across all four volumes, aims to orientate readers unfamiliar with this area of research. It provides an overview of the different approaches within distributed cognition and discussion of the value of a distributed cognitive approach to the humanities.
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  31. Change in the rules; computers, dynamical systems and searle.Michael Wheeler - 2002 - In John Mark Bishop & John Preston (eds.), Views Into the Chinese Room: New Essays on Searle and Artificial Intelligence. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 338--359.
  32.  78
    Domains, brains and evolution.Michael Wheeler & Anthony Atkinson - 2001 - In D. Walsh (ed.), Evolution, Naturalism and Mind. Cambridge University Press. pp. 239-266.
    According to Darwinian thinking, organisms are designed by natural selection, and so are integrated collections of adaptations, where an adaptation is a phenotypic trait that is a specialized response to a particular selection pressure. For animals that make their living in the Arctic, one adaptive problem is how to maintain body temperature above a certain minimum level necessary for survival. Polar bears' thick coats are a response to that selection pressure . A thick coat makes a positive difference to a (...)
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  33.  13
    Do Genes Code for Traits?Michael Wheeler - 2003 - In A. Rojszczak, J. Cachro & G. Kurczewski (eds.), Philosophical Dimensions of Logic and Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 151--164.
  34.  41
    In search of clarity about parity. [REVIEW]Michael Wheeler - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 152 (3):417 - 425.
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  35.  27
    Distributed Cognition in Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy.Miranda Anderson & Michael Wheeler (eds.) - 2019 - Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Reveals the diverse ways that cognition was seen as spread over brain, body and world in the 9–17th centuries - The second book in an ambitious 4-volume set looking at distributed cognition in the history of thought - Includes essays on literature, philosophy, law, art, music, medicine, science and material culture - For students and scholars in medieval and Renaissance studies, cognitive humanities and philosophy of mind - Draws out what was distinctive about medieval and Renaissance insights into (and superstitions (...)
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  36.  26
    Distributed Cognition in Enlightenment and Romantic Culture.Miranda Anderson, George Rousseau & Michael Wheeler (eds.) - 2019 - Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    11 essays by international specialists open up the research field of distributed cognition and the cognitive humanities in the Enlightenment and Romantic periods - The third book in an ambitious four-volume set looking at distributed cognition in the history of thought - Brings together essays on literature, history, philosophy, art, archaeology, medicine, science and material culture - Includes a general and a period-specific introduction to distributed cognition and the cognitive humanities - For students and scholars in Enlightenment and Romantic studies, (...)
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  37.  16
    The Edinburgh History of Distributed Cognition Series, Volumes 1-4.Miranda Anderson, Douglas Cairns, Mark Sprevak & Michael Wheeler (eds.) - 2018 - Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Series.
    The Edinburgh History of Distributed Cognition (Series Editor(s): Miranda Anderson, Douglas Cairns) -/- Questions the barriers between the humanities and the cognitive sciences. -/- Cognitive science is finding increasing evidence that cognition is distributed across brain, body and world. This series calls for a reappraisal of historical concepts of cognition in light of these findings. It engages with recent debates about the various strong or weak models of distributed cognition and brings them into discourse with research in the humanities. Together, (...)
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  38.  34
    An appeal for liberalism, or why Van gelder's notion of a dynamical system is too narrow for cognitive science.Michael Wheeler - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):653-654.
    Van Gelder identifies the notion of a dynamical system with that of a quantitative system. According to an alternative view, a dynamical system is a state-determined system. This suggests a more profitable way to understand the roles of computation and dynamics in cognitive explanation.
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  39.  71
    Biography, literary influence and allusion as aspects of source studies.Michael D. Wheeler - 1977 - British Journal of Aesthetics 17 (2):149-160.
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  40.  40
    Continuity in Question: An afterword to 'Is Language the Ultimate Artefact?'.Michael Wheeler - unknown
    Is Language the Ultimate Artefact? (henceforth ILUA) was originally published alongside a paper by Andy Clark called Is Language Special? Some remarks on control, coding, and co-ordination (Clark 2004). One concern (among others) of the latter paper was to resist the argument of the former. In this short afterword, I shall attempt a counterresponse to Clark’s resistance. In so doing I hope to reveal, in a new and perhaps clearer way, what the most important issues really are in this (still (...)
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  41.  30
    Domains, Brains and Evolution.Michael Wheeler & Anthony Atkinson - 2001 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 49:239-266.
    According to Darwinian thinking, organisms are (for the most part) designed by natural selection, and so are (for the most part) integrated collections of adaptations, where an adaptation is a phenotypic trait that is a specialized response to a particular selection pressure. For animals that make their living in the Arctic, one adaptive problem is how to maintain body temperature above a certain minimum level necessary for survival. Polar bears' thick coats are a response to that selection pressure (surviving in (...)
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  42.  47
    Evolutionary Models in Psychology.Michael Wheeler - unknown
  43. Francisco J. Varela, Evan Thompson, and Eleanor Rosch, The Embodied Mind-Cognitive Science and Human Experience Reviewed by.Michael Wheeler - 1994 - Philosophy in Review 14 (1):68-70.
  44.  65
    Minds, brains and gases.Michael Wheeler - 2004 - The Philosophers' Magazine 28 (28):65-69.
  45.  6
    Minds, brains and gases.Michael Wheeler - 2004 - The Philosophers' Magazine 28:65-69.
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  46. Models In Psychology.Michael Wheeler - 2009 - In Sarah Robins, John Symons & Paco Calvo (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 416.
     
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  47. Music therapy.Michael H. Thaut & Wheeler & L. Barbara - 2011 - In Patrik N. Juslin & John Sloboda (eds.), Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications. Oxford University Press.
     
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  48.  14
    The Devils in the Details.Michael Wheeler - 2009 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 15 (1).
    While remaining in broad agreement with the overall position developed and defended by Kiverstein, I identify and discuss what I take to be a number of problems with the details of the argument. These concern the claim that a certain temporal structure to conscious experience is necessary for there to be a minimal sense of self, the alleged ubiquitous presence in experience of a minimal sense of self, and the claim that the distinction between the constitutive background conditions and the (...)
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  49.  40
    Under Darwin’s Cosh? Neo-Aristotelian Thinking in Environmental Ethics.Michael Wheeler - 2005 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 56:22-23.
    As a first shot, one might say that environmental ethics is concerned distinctively with the moral relations that exist between, on the one hand, human beings and, on the other, the non-human natural environment. But this really is only a first shot. For example, one might be inclined to think that at least some components of the non-human natural environment have independent moral status, that is, are morally considerable in their own right, rather than being of moral interest only to (...)
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  50.  23
    Book reviews. [REVIEW]Michael D. Wheeler - 1970 - British Journal of Aesthetics 10 (4):396-398.
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