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  1. Problems of Knowledge: A Critical Introduction to Epistemology.Michael Williams - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    In this exciting and original introduction to epistemology, Michael Williams explains and criticizes traditional philosophical theories of the nature, limits, methods, possibility, and value of knowing. All the main contemporary perspectives are explored and questioned, and the author's own theories put forward, making this new book essential reading for anyone, beginner or specialist, concerned with the philosophy of knowledge.
     
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  2. Expressivism, Pragmatism and Representationalism.Huw Price, Simon Blackburn, Robert Brandom, Paul Horwich & Michael Williams - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    Pragmatists have traditionally been enemies of representationalism but friends of naturalism, when naturalism is understood to pertain to human subjects, in the sense of Hume and Nietzsche. In this volume Huw Price presents his distinctive version of this traditional combination, as delivered in his René Descartes Lectures at Tilburg University in 2008. Price contrasts his view with other contemporary forms of philosophical naturalism, comparing it with other pragmatist and neo-pragmatist views such as those of Robert Brandom and Simon Blackburn. Linking (...)
     
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  3. Unnatural Doubts: Epistemological Realism and the Basis of Scepticism.Michael Williams - 1991 - Blackwell.
    In Unnatural Doubts, Michael Williams constructs a masterly polemic against the very idea of epistemology, as traditionally conceived.
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  4.  36
    Groundless Belief: An Essay on the Possibility of Epistemology.Michael Williams - 1977 - Yale University Press.
    Inspired by the work of Wilfrid Sellars, Michael Williams launches an all-out attack on what he calls "phenomenalism," the idea that our knowledge of the world rests on a perceptual or experiential foundation.
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  5. Unnatural Doubts.Michael Williams - 1994 - Noûs 28 (4):533-547.
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  6. Why (Wittgensteinian) Contextualism Is Not Relativism.Michael Williams - 2007 - Episteme 4 (1):93-114.
    This article distinguishes Wittgensteinian contextualism from epistemic relativism. The latter involves the view that a belief ’s status as justified depends on the believer’s epistemic system, as well as the view that no system is superior to another. It emerges from the thought that we must rely, circularly, on our epistemic system to determine whether any belief is justified. Contextualism, by contrast, emerges from the thought that we need not answer a skeptical challenge to a belief unless there is good (...)
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  7.  47
    Truth and Objectivity.Michael Williams - 1995 - Philosophical Review 104 (1):145.
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  8. Meaning and Deflationary Truth.Michael Williams - 1999 - Journal of Philosophy 96 (11):545-564.
  9. Problems of Knowledge: A Critical Introduction to Epistemology.Michael Williams - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (211):292-295.
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  10. Epistemological Realism and the Basis of Scepticism.Michael Williams - 1988 - Mind 97 (387):415-439.
  11.  50
    Unnatural Doubts: Epistemological Realism and the Basis of Scepticism.Keith DeRose & Michael Williams - 1993 - Philosophical Review 102 (4):604.
  12. Do We (Epistemologists) Need a Theory of Truth?Michael Williams - 1986 - Philosophical Topics 14 (1):223-242.
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  13. Contextualism, Externalism and Epistemic Standards.Michael Williams - 2001 - Philosophical Studies 103 (1):1 - 23.
    I want to discuss an approach to knowledge that I shall call simple conversational contextualism or SCC for short. Proponents of SCC think that it offers an illuminating account of both why scepti- cism is wrong and why arguments for scepticism are so intuitively appealing. I have my doubts.
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  14. The Realist Tradition and the Limits of International Relations.Michael C. Williams - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    Realism is commonly portrayed as theory that reduces international relations to pure power politics. Michael Williams provides an important reexamination of the Realist tradition and its relevance for contemporary international relations. Examining three thinkers commonly invoked as Realism's foremost proponents - Hobbes, Rousseau, and Morgenthau - the book shows that, far from advocating a crude realpolitik, Realism's most famous classical proponents actually stressed the need for a restrained exercise of power and a politics with ethics at its core. These ideas (...)
     
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  15.  48
    It's All in the Hands of the Beholder: New Data on Free-Ranging Rhesus Monkeys.Marc Hauser, Susan Perry, Joseph H. Manson, Helen Ball, Michael Williams, Erik Pearson & John Berard - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (2):342-344.
  16.  13
    Meaning and Deflationary Truth.Michael Williams - 1999 - Journal of Philosophy 96 (11):545.
  17. Science and Sensibility: McDowell and Sellars on Perceptual Experience.Michael Williams - 2006 - European Journal of Philosophy 14 (2):302-325.
  18.  13
    Pursuit of Truth.Michael Williams - 1992 - Journal of Philosophy 89 (1):48-51.
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  19. Responsibility and Reliability.Michael Williams - 2008 - Philosophical Papers 37 (1):1-26.
    ‘Responsibilist' approaches to epistemology link knowledge and justification with epistemically responsible belief management, where responsible management is understood to involve an essential element of guidance by recognized epistemic norms. By contrast, reliabilist approaches stress the de facto reliability of cognitive processes, rendering epistemic self-consciousness as inessential. I argue that, although an adequate understanding of human knowledge must make room for both responsibility and reliability, philosophers have had a hard time putting them together, largely owing to a tendency, on the part (...)
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  20.  13
    Hume's Skepticism in the Treatise of Human Nature.Michael Williams & Robert J. Fogelin - 1988 - Philosophical Review 97 (2):263.
  21. Pragmatism, Minimalism, Expressivism.Michael Williams - 2010 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 18 (3):317-330.
    Although contemporary pragmatists tend to be sympathetic to expressivist accounts of moral, modal and other problematic vocabularies, it is not clear that they have any right to be. The problem arises because contemporary pragmatists tend to favour deflationary accounts of truth and reference, thereby seeming to elide the distinction between expressive and repressentational uses of language. To address this problem, I develop a meta-theoretical framework for understanding what is involved in explanations of meaning in terms of use, and why some (...)
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  22. What's so Special About Human Knowledge?Michael Williams - 2015 - Episteme 12 (2):249-268.
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  23.  12
    Sense and Certainty.Michael Williams - 1989 - Philosophical Quarterly 39 (157):520-524.
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  24. Skepticism, Evidence and Entitlement.Michael Williams - 2013 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 87 (1):36-71.
  25. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature: Thirtieth-Anniversary Edition.Richard Rorty, Michael Williams & David Bromwich - 2008 - Princeton University Press.
    When it first appeared in 1979, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature hit the philosophical world like a bombshell. In it, Richard Rorty argued that, beginning in the seventeenth century, philosophers developed an unhealthy obsession with the notion of representation: comparing the mind to a mirror that reflects reality. Rorty's book is a powerful critique of this imagery and the tradition of thought that it spawned. Thirty years later, the book remains a must-read and stands as a classic of twentieth-century (...)
     
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  26. Descartes and the Metaphysics of Doubt.Michael Williams - 1998 - In John Cottingham (ed.), Descartes. Oxford University Press.
     
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  27.  64
    Scepticism Without Theory.Michael Williams - 1988 - Review of Metaphysics 41 (3):547 - 588.
    PYRRHONIAN SCEPTICISM, as presented in the writings of Sextus Empiricus, differs in various ways from the forms of scepticism that continue to be of such central concern to modern philosophers. Two differences stand out immediately. One is Pyrrhonism's practical orientation. For Sextus, scepticism is a way of life in which suspension of judgment leads to the peace of mind the sceptic identifies with happiness. The other is the puzzling failure on the part of the Pyrrhonists, along with all other ancient (...)
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  28. Knowledge, Reflection and Sceptical Hypotheses.Michael Williams - 2004 - Erkenntnis 61 (2-3):315-343.
  29.  44
    The Agrippan Argument and Two Forms of Skepticism.Michael Williams - 2004 - In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Pyrrhonian Skepticism. Oxford University Press. pp. 121--145.
    This essay argues that the Pyrrhonian regress argument presupposes a Prior Grounding conception of justification. This is contrasted with a Default and Challenge structure, which leads to a contextualist picture of justification. Contextualism is said to incorporate the best features of its traditionalist rivals — foundationalism and coherentism — and also to avoid skepticism. It is argued that we should not ask which conception is really true, but instead give up epistemological realism.
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  30.  30
    David Hume: The Newtonian Philosopher.Michael Williams - 1975 - Philosophical Review 86 (3):391-394.
  31. Scepticism and the Context of Philosophy.Michael Williams - 2004 - Philosophical Issues 14 (1):456–475.
  32. Context, Meaning, and Truth.Michael Williams - 2004 - Philosophical Studies 117 (1-2):107-130.
  33.  14
    The Indispensability of Knowledge.Michael Williams - 2020 - Philosophia 48 (5):1691-1697.
    Nuno Venturinha holds that the contextualist epistemology adumbrated in Wittgenstein’s On Certainty--the most powerful response to philosophical skepticism yet developed-- falls short of providing a complete answer to Cartesian radical skepticism about knowledge of the external world. I argue that Venturinha underestimates the range and complexity of Wittgenstein’s epistemological. He does so because he reads Wittgenstein along the lines of so-called ‘hinge epistemology’. Hinge epistemology indeed fails as a diagnosis of skepticism. But it also fails as a reading of Wittgenstein. (...)
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  34. Wittgenstein's Refutation of Idealism.Michael Williams - 2004 - In Denis McManus (ed.), Wittgenstein and Scepticism. Routledge.
  35.  49
    Coherence, Justification, and Truth.Michael Williams - 1980 - Review of Metaphysics 34 (2):243 - 272.
    THE central idea of modern empiricism has been that, if there is to be such a thing as justification at all, empirical knowledge must be seen as resting on experiential "foundations." To claim that knowledge rests on foundations is to claim that there is a privileged class of beliefs the members of which are "intrinsically credible" or "directly evident" and which are able, therefore, to serve as ultimate terminating points for chains of justification. An important development in current epistemology has (...)
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  36. 3 Rorty on Knowledge and Truth.Michael Williams - 2003 - In Charles B. Guignon & David R. Hiley (eds.), Richard Rorty. Cambridge University Press. pp. 61.
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  37.  90
    The Unity of Hume’s Philosophical Project.Michael Williams - 2004 - Hume Studies 30 (2):265-296.
    In both his Treatise of Human Nature and Enquiry concerning Human Understanding, Hume presents a protean figure. By turns, he appears as a naturalistic theorist of the mind, a proto-Positivist critic of speculative metaphysics, and an utter skeptic. Can these various characters be seen to work together? On the whole, Hume’s interpreters seem to think not. The typical approach is to pick a dominant personality, leaving Hume’s other philosophical personae to be squeezed in as an afterthought, deprecated, or simply ignored.
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  38. Descartes' Transformation of the Sceptical Tradition.Michael Williams - 2010 - In Richard Arnot Home Bett (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism. Cambridge University Press.
  39.  27
    Mādhva Vedānta at the Turn of the Early Modern Period: Vyāsatīrtha and the Navya-Naiyāyikas.Michael Williams - 2014 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 18 (2):119-152.
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  40.  21
    The Process of Retrieval From Very Long‐Term Memory.Michael David Williams & James D. Hollan - 1981 - Cognitive Science 5 (2):87-119.
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  41. Wittgenstein, Truth and Certainty.Michael Williams - 2004 - In Max Kölbel & Bernhard Weiss (eds.), Wittgenstein's Lasting Significance. Routledge.
     
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  42.  12
    Do We (Epistemologists) Need a Theory of Truth?Michael Williams - 1986 - Philosophical Topics 14 (1):223-242.
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  43. Meaning Without Representation: Expression, Truth, Normativity, and Naturalism.Steven Gross, Nicholas Tebben & Michael Williams (eds.) - 2015 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Much contemporary thinking about language is animated by the idea that the core function of language is to represent how the world is and that therefore the notion of representation should play a fundamental explanatory role in any explanation of language and language use. Leading thinkers in the field explore various ways this idea may be challenged as well as obstacles to developing various forms of anti-representationalism. Particular attention is given to deflationary accounts of truth, the role of language in (...)
     
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  44.  13
    Skepticism and Naturalism: Some Varieties.Michael Williams - 1986 - Philosophical Quarterly 36 (144):444-448.
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  45. Dretske on Epistemic Entitlement.Michael Williams - 2000 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60 (3):607-612.
    According to Fred Dretske, the debate between externalists and internalists in epistemology is about “Whether there are epistemic rights without corresponding duties or obligations. Externalists believe and internalists deny that there are such unjustified justifiers. Dretske’s first fundamental thesis is: externalists are right. Unjustified justifiers can be thought of as “given,” not because they are certain or indubitable, but because they are “free of justificational encumbrances.” Even knowledge—the supreme entitlement—requires no justification.
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  46.  81
    The Agrippan Problem, Then and Now.Michael Williams - 2015 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 5 (2):80-106.
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  47.  82
    Inference, Justification, and the Analysis of Knowledge.Michael Williams - 1978 - Journal of Philosophy 75 (5):249-263.
  48. Hume's Skepticism.Michael Williams - 2008 - In John Greco (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Skepticism. Oxford University Press.
  49.  37
    Scepticism and Charity.Michael Williams - 1988 - Ratio 1 (2):176-194.
  50.  54
    Is Contextualism Statable?Michael J. Williams - 2000 - Noûs 34 (s1):80-85.
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