En este trabajo intento exponer las tesis de Sen sobre las características que demandamos a una teoría satisfactoria de la justicia, y sus críticas al modelo «trascendental» de teoría, que según él es lo que Rawls persigue. Según Sen, este modelo es inaceptable por ser inalcanzable e innecesario; lo que en nuestra práctica argumentativa intentamos lograr son juicios comparativos entre situaciones reales, y no sistemas completos de proposiciones acerca de ideales de la sociedad justa. Intentaré argumentar que el enfoque metaético (...) de Sen es débil por dos razones: no ofrece una reconstrucción adecuada de la teoría de Rawls, equivocándose sobre su carácter «completo», y no explica de qué manera los juicios comparativos de valor entre dos situaciones sociales no sean el resultado de una teoría «trascendental» de la justicia. Me propongo, entonces, solucionar el problema, presentando una mirada trascendental de las cuestiones de justicia, pero, al mismo tiempo, pluralista e incompleta. (shrink)
The Sculptor of the Overman and the Dithyrambic Artist: Michelangelo and Wagner in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. This paper draws on the work of Mazzino Montinari in order to explore the relations between Nietzsche’s image of Michelangelo and specific elements of Thus Spoke Zarathustra. These elements concern the idea of the overman and the figure which is sleeping in the stone. A biography of Michelangelo by the art historian Herman Grimm, a correspondent of Ralph Waldo Emerson, may be (...) the source of Nietzsche’s reference to a mysterious statue described in the chapter “Of Those who are Sublime”. Moreover, Jacob Burckhardt’s Cicerone may help to explain the relationship between Wagner and the sculptor. One way to understand the context of this image is to return to the fourth Untimely Meditation - Richard Wagner in Bayreuth - in which Nietzsche portrays Wagner as both a sculptor and a dithyrambic artist. Some years later Zarathustra/nietzsche will himself appear as the sculptor of the overman and as the authentic dithyrambic poet, that is the authentic “musician of the future”. (shrink)
A poesia, em seu sentido mais amplo, surge como ponto de partida para todos os conhecimentos acerca do homem e do mundo. Assim, o poeta não é apenas um artista que produz versos, mas o que busca uma intermediação entre o humano e o divino. Este artigo tem como proposta estudar a poesia e a arte de Michelangelo Buonarroti a partir do conceito de “Figura”, definido na obra de Auerbach, analisando o poético na obra do artista italiano a partir (...) de suas relações com o profético. Tanto na pintura dos afrescos da Capela Sistina, quanto na escrita de seus poemas, Michelangelo nos revela a luta do artista para atribuir à obra sentidos transcendentais, transformando a Arte em revelação divina, que exige uma interpretação dos seus leitores. Seguindo essa ideia, o gênio italiano passa a unir figuras pagãs e cristãs, como sibilas greco-romanas e profetas judaico-cristãos, para reler o passado, interpretar o presente e prenunciar o futuro. Palavras-chave: Poesia; Profético; Michelangelo; Auerbach.Poetry, in its broadest sense, emerges as a starting point for all knowledge about man and the world. The poet is not only an artist that writes verses, but one who seeks to intercede between the human and the divine. This article aims at studying the poetry and art of Michelangelo Buonarroti taking the concept of "Figure", as defined in the work of Auerbach, and analyzing the poetic work of the Italian artist and how it relates to prophetic themes. Both in the painting of the frescoes of the Sistine Chapel and in his poems, Michelangelo reveals the battle of the artist to assign a sense of transcendence, transforming Art in a divine revelation, which will require an interpretation of their readers. Grounded on this idea, the Italian genius blends Christian and pagan figures, such as Greco-Romans Sybils and Judeo-Christian prophets, to reread the past, interpret the present and foreshadow the future. Keywords: Poetry; Prophetic; Michelangelo; Auerbach. - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n25p75. (shrink)
What is art? What constitutes great art? Why do we value art so much and why has it been such a conspicuous feature of all human societies? These questions have been discussed at length though without satisfactory resolution. This is not surprising. Such discussions are usually held without reference to the brain, through which all art is conceived, executed and appreciated. Art has a biological basis. It is a human activity and, like all human activities, including morality, law and religion, (...) depends upon, and obeys, the laws of the brain. To understand the biological foundations of art, we must enquire into the biological foundations of knowledge, for art constitutes a form of knowledge; indeed is knowledge. We are still far from knowing the neural basis of the laws that dictate artistic creativity, achievement and appreciation, but spectacular advances in our knowledge of the visual brain allow us to make a beginning in trying to formulate neural laws of art and aesthetics; in short, to study neuroaesthetics. In this essay, I try to discuss the art of three Titanic figures in Western culture — Dante, Michelangelo and Wagner — in neurological terms. I try to show that we can trace the origins of their art to a fundamental characteristic of the brain, namely its capacity to form concepts. This capacity is itself the by-product of an essential characteristic of the brain. That characteristic is abstraction, and is imposed upon the brain by one of its chief functions, namely the acquisition of knowledge. (shrink)
In his lectures from 1987, Deleuze draws an analogy between Michelangelo's figures and Leibnizian substances by claiming that neither are essences but rather sources of modifications or manners of being. The best way to explore this analogy, I argue, is by focusing on Michelangelo's preference for serpentine shapes. By putting key passages from The Logic of Sensation, The Fold: Leibniz and the Baroque and What is Philosophy? in resonance with the Leibnizian accounts of corporeal aggregates and possible worlds (...) on the one hand and art history on the other, I will try to develop a Deleuzian concept for the typically Mannerist ideal of the serpentine figure. Although Deleuze usually prefers to speak in musical terms of refrains and counterpoints by which various blocs of sensation resonate with each other, in the visual arts it is the serpentine figure that renders visible sensory becoming as a rhythmic counter-positioning of possible worlds within a single body without organs. (shrink)
Michelangelo thought that stone statues pre-exist their sculptors’ performance. Michelangelo’s view gives rise to a puzzle, which we call Michelangelo’s puzzle. Michelangelo’s puzzle looks structurally similar to so-called problems of material constitution ; so it is tempting to suppose that it can be similarly accounted for. This paper argues that the supposition is misguided. Michelangelo’s puzzle raises specific problems, which cannot be adequately dealt with unless one is prepared to give up either the natural view (...) that stone sculptures are human creations, or a very plausible principle concerning the persistence of middle-sized material objects. A tentative solution to the puzzle is provided, in which borders can play an ontological role in the making of material objects. This solution is intuitively more palatable than Michelangelo’s view, but is nonetheless at odds with a commonsensical, realist attitude towards material objects. Thus, Michelangelo’s puzzle poses a serious challenge to common sense, which is unparalleled by other problems of material constitution. (shrink)
Let us agree, to begin with, that we are not shown [in Last Judgment], as Life Magazine long ago phrased it, a Saint Bartholomew who "holds his own mortal skin, in which Michelangelo whimsically painted a distorted portrait of himself.”1 The face was sloughed with the rest of the skin and goes with it. What we see is a Saint Bartholomew with another's integument in his hand. We next consider an aspect of the self-portrait which even La Cava left (...) out of account - its relative siting. This has to matter since the portrait lies in the path of Christ's imminent action. More than that, it lies on a diagonal that traverses the fresco like a heraldic bend chief to base - from left top to right bottom. The twofold competence thus assumed by the self-portrait - in its concrete location and in the range of its influence - is something to marvel at. A hangdog face flops to one side, helpless and limp. But the tilt of its axis projected upward across the field strikes the apex of the left-hand lunette, the uppermost point of the fresco. And if, departing once again from the skin's facial axis, we project its course netherward, we discover the line produced to aim straight at the fresco's lower right corner. Such results do not come by chance. To put it literally, letting metaphor fall where it may: it is the extension of the self's axis that strings the continuum of heaven and hell. · 1. Life Magazine, 6 December 1949, p. 45. So also Redig de Campos speaks of the lifeless Apostle's own skin, "dove il Buonarroti ha nascoto un singolare autoritratto..in caricatura tragica della sua 'infinita miseria'" . Tolnay sees the matter correctly: "It is the artist's empty skin which the saint holds in his hand" Leo Steinberg is Benjamin Franklin Professor and University Professor of the History of Art at the University of Pennsylvania. His publications include Other Criteria: Confrontations with Twentieth-Century Art, Michelangelo's Last Paintings, Borromini's San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, as well as studies of Leonardo, Pontormo, Velazquez, and Picasso. (shrink)
In his paper, 'Neural Concept Formation and Art: Dante, Michelangelo, Wagner' Semir Zeki writes 'we can trace the origins of art to a fundamental characteristic of the brain, namely its capacity to form concepts' . He proposes that 'this capacity is itself the by-product of an essential characteristic of the brain. That characteristic is abstraction, and is imposed upon the brain by one of its chief functions, namely the acquisition of knowledge.' . Then, centring his argument around 'the ideal (...) of love', he claims that Dante, Michelangelo and Wagner 'had created in their brains', he further asserts that 'none of the three found that ideal in real life, and each was impelled in a different way to create works of art in response to that gap'. (shrink)
This essay takes a look at the career of Italian artist Michelangelo Pistoletto during the 1960s, seeking to make connections between his work, Italy's shifting social atmosphere and the impetus of youth counterculture at the time. Through the formal analysis of Pistoletto's paintings, sculptures, and performances, the paper culminates in a discussion of the meaning of community and its value in an industrialized world.
U radu iznosimo shvaćanje da je novoplatonizam u Michelangelovom kiparstvu prisutan na dublji način nego li to shvaćaju oni koji u Michelangelovoj umjetnosti iznalaze tek simboličku ilustraciju određenog novoplatoničkog učenja. Novoplatonizam u Michelangelovoj skulpturi ne vidimo kao simboliku koja upućuje na određenu novoplatoničku teoriju. U tom bismo slučaju o novoplatonizmu u umjetnosti govorili kao o onome izvanjskom s obzirom na bit umjetničkog djela, budući da se samo nastajanje i jestvo umjetničkog djela ne temelji u postupku teorijskog razmatranja, već u rukotvorenju. (...) Polazimo od shvaćanja da je novoplatonizam s Michelangelom ostvaren izravno iz umjetničkog tvorenja u samom unutarnjem obliku umjetničkog djela.In the paper we propose attitude that Neoplatonism in Michelangelo’s sculpture is present in a deeper way than it is understood by those who in Michelangelo’s art find merely simbolic illustration of specific Neoplatonic learning. In Michelangelo’s sculpture we do not see Neoplatonism as a symbolism that is indicating a specific Neoplatonic theory. In that case we would be talking about Neoplatonism in the art as the external considering the proper essence of the work of art, since the proper emergence and beingness of the work of art is not founded in the act of theoretical consideration, but in handicrafting. Our starting point is the understanding that Neoplatonism with Michelangelo realizes itself directly out of artistic formation in the proper internal form of the work of art. (shrink)
In this book, Sarah Rolfe Prodan examines the spiritual poetry of Michelangelo in light of three contexts: the Catholic Reformation movement, Renaissance Augustinianism, and the tradition of Italian religious devotion. Prodan combines a literary, historical, and biographical approach to analyze the mystical constructs and conceits in Michelangelo's poems, thereby deepening our understanding of the artist's spiritual life in the context of Catholic Reform in the mid-sixteenth century. Prodan also demonstrates how Michelangelo's poetry is part of an Augustinian (...) tradition that emphasizes mystical and moral evolution of the self. Examining such elements of early modern devotion as prayer, lauda singing, and the contemplation of religious images, Prodan provides a unique perspective on the subtleties of Michelangelo's approach to life and to art. Throughout, Prodan argues that Michelangelo's art can be more deeply understood when considered together with his poetry, which points to a spirituality that deeply informed all of his production. (shrink)
Drawing on the fifteenth century theology of Saint Joseph, classical visual sources, Ficino’s commentary on the _Phaedrus_ and _Symposium_, and Dante’s _rime petrose_, this book interprets Michelangelo’s Tondo Doni as a model of Ephesians’ ‘great sacrament’ of marriage for the new Florentine republic.
How to point : a primer for Martians -- What it takes to be a pointer -- Do animals get the point? -- People who don't point -- Pinning language to the world -- Pointing and power -- Assisted pointing and pointing by proxy -- The transcendent animal : pointing and the beyond.
If there is a ‘platonic world’ \ of mathematical facts, what does \ contain precisely? I observe that if \ is too large, it is uninteresting, because the value is in the selection, not in the totality; if it is smaller and interesting, it is not independent of us. Both alternatives challenge mathematical platonism. I suggest that the universality of our mathematics may be a prejudice and illustrate contingent aspects of classical geometry, arithmetic and linear algebra, making the case that (...) what we call “mathematics” is always contingent. (shrink)
It was the summer of 1984, the American dollar was strong, and this was my first venture to Europe. I found her and didn't even know I was searching for her. Mysteriously she crossed my path one day in Rome. I should confess though- at this point in my life, I am an uneasy Protestant.
In certain artifacts, which can be classified as images, suspicious phenomena such as >black highlights color of light image vehicle image object _German_ In bestimmten Artefakten, die als >Bilder schwarze Glanzlichter Farbe des Lichts< übernimmt. Wer sich überzeugt hat, dass solche Erscheinungen tatsächlich nachweisbar sind, und herausbekommen möchte, durch welche Operationen sie hervorgebracht werden, sieht sich auf grundlegende bildtheoretische Unterscheidungen wie die Differenz zwischen Bildvehikel und Bildobjekt verwiesen.