26 found
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  1.  14
    Anthropomorphism in AI.Arleen Salles, Kathinka Evers & Michele Farisco - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (2):88-95.
    AI research is growing rapidly raising various ethical issues related to safety, risks, and other effects widely discussed in the literature. We believe that in order to adequately address those issues and engage in a productive normative discussion it is necessary to examine key concepts and categories. One such category is anthropomorphism. It is a well-known fact that AI’s functionalities and innovations are often anthropomorphized. The general public’s anthropomorphic attitudes and some of their ethical consequences have been widely discussed in (...)
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  2.  60
    Can Neuroscience Contribute to Practical Ethics? A Critical Review and Discussion of the Methodological and Translational Challenges of the Neuroscience of Ethics.Eric Racine, Veljko Dubljević, Ralf J. Jox, Bernard Baertschi, Julia F. Christensen, Michele Farisco, Fabrice Jotterand, Guy Kahane & Sabine Müller - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):328-337.
    Neuroethics is an interdisciplinary field that arose in response to novel ethical challenges posed by advances in neuroscience. Historically, neuroethics has provided an opportunity to synergize different disciplines, notably proposing a two-way dialogue between an ‘ethics of neuroscience’ and a ‘neuroscience of ethics’. However, questions surface as to whether a ‘neuroscience of ethics’ is a useful and unified branch of research and whether it can actually inform or lead to theoretical insights and transferable practical knowledge to help resolve ethical questions. (...)
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  3.  8
    Of Ethical Frameworks and Neuroethics in Big Neuroscience Projects: A View From the HBP.Arleen Salles & Michele Farisco - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (3):167-175.
    The recently published BRAIN 2.0 Neuroethics Report offers a very helpful overview of the possible ethical, social, philosophical, and legal issues raised by neuroscience in the context of BRAIN’s research priorities thus contributing to the attempt to develop ethically sound neuroscience. In this article, we turn to a running theme of the document: the need for an ethical framework for the BRAIN Initiative and for further integration of neuroethics and neuroscience. We assess some of the issues raised and provide an (...)
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  4.  14
    Towards Establishing Criteria for the Ethical Analysis of Artificial Intelligence.Michele Farisco, Kathinka Evers & Arleen Salles - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (5):2413-2425.
    Ethical reflection on Artificial Intelligence has become a priority. In this article, we propose a methodological model for a comprehensive ethical analysis of some uses of AI, notably as a replacement of human actors in specific activities. We emphasize the need for conceptual clarification of relevant key terms in order to undertake such reflection. Against that background, we distinguish two levels of ethical analysis, one practical and one theoretical. Focusing on the state of AI at present, we suggest that regardless (...)
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  5. The Intrinsic Activity of the Brain and its Relation to Levels and Disorders of Consciousness.Michele Farisco, Steven Laureys & Katinka Evers - 2017 - Mind and Matter 15 (2).
    Science and philosophy still lack an overarching theory of consciousness. We suggest that a further step toward it requires going beyond the view of the brain as input-output machine and focusing on its intrinsic activity, which may express itself in two distinct modalities, i.e. aware and unaware. We specifically investigate the predisposition of the brain to evaluate and to model the world. These intrinsic activities of the brain retain a deep relation with consciousness. In fact the ability of the brain (...)
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  6.  23
    Neuroethics and Philosophy in Responsible Research and Innovation: The Case of the Human Brain Project.Arleen Salles, Kathinka Evers & Michele Farisco - 2018 - Neuroethics 12 (2):201-211.
    Responsible Research and Innovation is an important ethical, legal, and political theme for the European Commission. Although variously defined, it is generally understood as an interactive process that engages social actors, researchers, and innovators who must be mutually responsive and work towards the ethical permissibility of the relevant research and its products. The framework of RRI calls for contextually addressing not just research and innovation impact but also the background research process, specially the societal visions underlying it and the norms (...)
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  7.  19
    Neuroethics: A Conceptual Approach.Michele Farisco, Arleen Salles & Kathinka Evers - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (4):717-727.
    :In this article, we begin by identifying three main neuroethical approaches: neurobioethics, empirical neuroethics, and conceptual neuroethics. Our focus is on conceptual approaches that generally emphasize the need to develop and use a methodological modus operandi for effectively linking scientific and philosophical interpretations. We explain and assess the value of conceptual neuroethics approaches and explain and defend one such approach that we propose as being particularly fruitful for addressing the various issues raised by neuroscience: fundamental neuroethics.
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  8.  3
    Neurotechnology and Direct Brain Communication: New Insights and Responsibilities Concerning Speechless but Communicative Subjects.Michele Farisco & Kathinka Evers (eds.) - 2016 - Routledge.
    __Neurotechnology and Direct Brain Communication__ focuses on recent neuroscientific investigations of infant brains and of patients with disorders of consciousness, both of which are at the forefront of contemporary neuroscience. The prospective use of neurotechnology to access mental states in these subjects, including neuroimaging, brain simulation and brain computer interfaces, offers new opportunities for clinicians and researchers, but has also received specific attention from philosophical, scientific, ethical and legal points of view. This book offers the first systematic assessment of these (...)
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  9.  22
    The Ethical Relevance of the Unconscious.Michele Farisco & Kathinka Evers - 2017 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 12:11.
    BackgroundEthical analyses of disorders of consciousness traditionally focus on residual awareness. Going one step further, this paper explores the potential ethical relevance of the unawareness retained by patients with disorders of consciousness, focusing specifically on the ethical implications of the description of the unconscious provided by recent scientific research.MethodsA conceptual methodology is used, based on the review and analysis of relevant scientific literature on the unconscious and the logical argumentation in favour of the ethical conclusions.ResultsTwo conditions that are generally considered (...)
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  10.  48
    On the Stand. Another Episode of Neuroscience and Law Discussion From Italy.Michele Farisco & Carlo Petrini - 2013 - Neuroethics 7 (2):243-245.
    After three proceedings in which neuroscience was a relevant factor for the final verdict in Italian courts, for the first time a recent case puts in question the legal relevance of neuroscientific evidence. This decision deserves international attention in its underlining that the uncertainty still affecting neuroscientific knowledge can have a significant impact on the law. It urges the consideration of such uncertainty and the development of a shared management of it.
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  11.  20
    Indicators and Criteria of Consciousness in Animals and Intelligent Machines : An Inside-Out Approach.Cyriel Pennartz, Michele Farisco & Kathinka Evers - 2019 - Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 13.
    In today’s society, it becomes increasingly important to assess which non-human and non-verbal beings possess consciousness. This review article aims to delineate criteria for consciousness especially in animals, while also taking into account intelligent artifacts. First, we circumscribe what we mean with “consciousness” and describe key features of subjective experience: qualitative richness, situatedness, intentionality and interpretation, integration and the combination of dynamic and stabilizing properties. We argue that consciousness has a biological function, which is to present the subject with a (...)
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  12.  9
    The Need for a Conceptual Expansion of Neuroethics.Arleen Salles, Kathinka Evers & Michele Farisco - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (3):126-128.
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  13.  27
    Large-Scale Brain Simulation and Disorders of Consciousness. Mapping Technical and Conceptual Issues.Michele Farisco, Jeanette H. Kotaleski & Kathinka Evers - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    Modelling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness, e.g. (...)
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  14. The Ethical Pain: Detection and Management of Pain and Suffering in Disorders of Consciousness.Michele Farisco - 2011 - Neuroethics 6 (2):265-276.
    The intriguing issue of pain and suffering in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs), particularly in Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome/Vegetative State (UWS/VS) and Minimally Conscious State (MCS), is assessed from a theoretical point of view, through an overview of recent neuroscientific literature, in order to sketch an ethical analysis. In conclusion, from a legal and ethical point of view, formal guidelines and a situationist ethics are proposed in order to best manage the critical scientific uncertainty about pain and suffering in DOCs (...)
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  15.  6
    In Need of Meta-Scientific Experts?Michele Farisco - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 5 (2):50-52.
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  16.  22
    Realigning the Neural Paradigm for Death.Denis Larrivee & Michele Farisco - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (2):259-277.
    Whole brain failure constitutes the diagnostic criterion for death determination in most clinical settings across the globe. Yet the conceptual foundation for its adoption was slow to emerge, has evoked extensive scientific debate since inception, underwent policy revision, and remains contentious in praxis even today. Complications result from the need to relate a unitary construal of the death event with an adequate account of organismal integration and that of the human organism in particular. Advances in the neuroscience of higher human (...)
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  17.  13
    Big Science, Brain Simulation, and Neuroethics.Michele Farisco, Kathinka Evers & Arleen Salles - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (1):28-30.
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  18.  4
    American and European Guidelines on Disorders of Consciousness : Ethical Challenges of Implementation.Michele Farisco & Arleen Salles - forthcoming - Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation.
    The recently published Guidelines on Disorders of Consciousness by the European Academy of Neurology and by the American Academy of Neurology in collaboration with the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research stand as the most ambitious international attempts to provide clear and standardized recommendations to clinicians working with patients with DoCs. They offer an updated, timely, and wide-ranging list of recommendations for the diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical care of affected patients. (...)
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  19.  5
    On the Contribution of Neuroethics to the Ethics and Regulation of Artificial Intelligence.Michele Farisco, Kathinka Evers & Arleen Salles - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-12.
    Contemporary ethical analysis of Artificial Intelligence is growing rapidly. One of its most recognizable outcomes is the publication of a number of ethics guidelines that, intended to guide governmental policy, address issues raised by AI design, development, and implementation and generally present a set of recommendations. Here we propose two things: first, regarding content, since some of the applied issues raised by AI are related to fundamental questions about topics like intelligence, consciousness, and the ontological and ethical status of humans, (...)
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  20.  56
    Medical Responsibility and Clinical Guidelines: A Few Remarks From Two Italian Juridical Cases.Carlo Petrini & Michele Farisco - 2012 - Medicine Studies 3 (3):157-169.
    PurposeThe aim of this paper is to assess the complex issue of responsibility in clinical practice. The paper focuses mainly on the relationship between personal- and medical-professional responsibility of practitioners and clinical guidelines.MethodsAfter a theoretical review of the different definitions of responsibility in selected bioethical and biojuridical literature, two recent juridical proceedings concerning medical responsibility from Italian Courts are discussed. Subsequently, a theoretical analysis of the definition of clinical practice guidelines is proposed in order to show their feasibility to assess (...)
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  21.  23
    Brain, Consciousness and Disorders of Consciousness at the Intersection of Neuroscience and Philosophy.Michele Farisco - 2019 - Dissertation, Uppsala University
    The present dissertation starts from the general claim that neuroscience is not neutral, with regard to theoretical questions like the nature of consciousness, but it needs to be complemented with dedicated conceptual analysis. Specifically, the argument for this thesis is that the combination of empirical and conceptual work is a necessary step for assessing the significant questions raised by the most recent study of the brain. Results emerging from neuroscience are conceptually very relevant in themselves but, notwithstanding its theoretical sophistication, (...)
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  22.  45
    Clinicians' Attitudes Toward Patients with Disorders of Consciousness: A Survey.Michele Farisco, Enrico Alleva, Flavia Chiarotti, Simone Macri & Carlo Petrini - 2013 - Neuroethics 7 (1):93-104.
    Notwithstanding fundamental methodological advancements, scientific information about disorders of consciousness (DOCs)—e.g. Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (VS/UWS) and Minimally Conscious State (MCS)—is incomplete. The possibility to discriminate between different levels of consciousness in DOC states entails treatment strategies and ethical concerns. Here we attempted to investigate Italian clinicians’ and basic scientists’ opinions regarding some issues emerging from the care and the research on patients with DOCs. From our survey emerged that Italian physicians working with patients with DOCs give a central role (...)
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  23.  3
    Indicators and Criteria of Consciousness: Ethical Implications for the Care of Behaviourally Unresponsive Patients.Kathinka Evers, Benedetta Cecconi, Jitka Annen, Cyriel Pennartz & Michele Farisco - 2022 - BMC Medical Ethics 23 (1):1-15.
    BackgroundAssessing consciousness in other subjects, particularly in non-verbal and behaviourally disabled subjects, is notoriously challenging but increasingly urgent. The high rate of misdiagnosis among disorders of consciousness raises the need for new perspectives in order to inspire new technical and clinical approaches. Main bodyWe take as a starting point a recently introduced list of operational indicators of consciousness that facilitates its recognition in challenging cases like non-human animals and Artificial Intelligence to explore their relevance to disorders of consciousness and their (...)
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  24.  9
    “Cerebral Communication” With Patients With Disorders of Consciousness: Clinical Feasibility and Implications.Michele Farisco - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 6 (2):44-46.
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  25.  1
    What Names for Covert Awareness? A Systematic Review.Caroline Schnakers, Chase Bauer, Rita Formisano, Enrique Noé, Roberto Llorens, Nicolas Lejeune, Michele Farisco, Liliana Teixeira, Ann-Marie Morrissey, Sabrina De Marco, Vigneswaran Veeramuthu, Kseniya Ilina, Brian L. Edlow, Olivia Gosseries, Matteo Zandalasini, Francesco De Bellis, Aurore Thibaut & Anna Estraneo - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    BackgroundWith the emergence of Brain Computer Interfaces, clinicians have been facing a new group of patients with severe acquired brain injury who are unable to show any behavioral sign of consciousness but respond to active neuroimaging or electrophysiological paradigms. However, even though well documented, there is still no consensus regarding the nomenclature for this clinical entity.ObjectivesThis systematic review aims to 1) identify the terms used to indicate the presence of this entity through the years, and 2) promote an informed discussion (...)
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  26.  3
    Identità violata. Manipolazione del corpo e alterazione dell'io.Michele Farisco - 2007 - Idee 64:119-130.
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