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Michele Loi
Luiss Guido Carli
  1. Social Epigenetics and Equality of Opportunity.Michele Loi, Lorenzo Del Savio & Elia Stupka - 2013 - Public Health Ethics 6 (2):142-153.
    Recent epidemiological reports of associations between socioeconomic status and epigenetic markers that predict vulnerability to diseases are bringing to light substantial biological effects of social inequalities. Here, we start the discussion of the moral consequences of these findings. We firstly highlight their explanatory importance in the context of the research program on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) and the social determinants of health. In the second section, we review some theories of the moral status of health inequalities. (...)
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  2.  26
    The Digital Phenotype: A Philosophical and Ethical Exploration.Michele Loi - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (1):155-171.
    The concept of the digital phenotype has been used to refer to digital data prognostic or diagnostic of disease conditions. Medical conditions may be inferred from the time pattern in an insomniac’s tweets, the Facebook posts of a depressed individual, or the web searches of a hypochondriac. This paper conceptualizes digital data as an extended phenotype of humans, that is as digital information produced by humans and affecting human behavior and culture. It argues that there are ethical obligations to persons (...)
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  3.  29
    Ethical Sharing of Health Data in Online Platforms- Which Values Should Be Considered?Brígida Riso, Aaro Tupasela, Danya F. Vears, Heike Felzmann, Julian Cockbain, Michele Loi, Nana C. H. Kongsholm, Silvia Zullo & Vojin Rakic - 2017 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 13 (1):1-27.
    Intensified and extensive data production and data storage are characteristics of contemporary western societies. Health data sharing is increasing with the growth of Information and Communication Technology platforms devoted to the collection of personal health and genomic data. However, the sensitive and personal nature of health data poses ethical challenges when data is disclosed and shared even if for scientific research purposes. With this in mind, the Science and Values Working Group of the COST Action CHIP ME ‘Citizen's Health through (...)
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  4.  12
    In AI We Trust Incrementally: a Multi-layer Model of Trust to Analyze Human-Artificial Intelligence Interactions.Andrea Ferrario, Michele Loi & Eleonora Viganò - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (3):523-539.
    Real engines of the artificial intelligence revolution, machine learning models, and algorithms are embedded nowadays in many services and products around us. As a society, we argue it is now necessary to transition into a phronetic paradigm focused on the ethical dilemmas stemming from the conception and application of AIs to define actionable recommendations as well as normative solutions. However, both academic research and society-driven initiatives are still quite far from clearly defining a solid program of study and intervention. In (...)
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  5.  23
    Prenatal Equality of Opportunity.Eszter Kollar & Michele Loi - 2015 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 32 (1):35-49.
    In this article, we defend a normative theory of prenatal equality of opportunity, based on a critical revision of Rawls's principle of fair equality of opportunity . We argue that if natural endowments are defined as biological properties possessed at birth and the distribution of natural endowments is seen as beyond the scope of justice, Rawls's FEO allows for inequalities that undermine the social conditions of a property-owning democracy. We show this by considering the foetal programming of disease and the (...)
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  6.  2
    Direct to Consumer Genetic Testing and the Libertarian Right to Test.Michele Loi - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (9):574-577.
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  7.  13
    Cybersecurity in Health – Disentangling Value Tensions.Michele Loi, Markus Christen, Nadine Kleine & Karsten Weber - 2019 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 17 (2):229-245.
    Purpose Cybersecurity in healthcare has become an urgent matter in recent years due to various malicious attacks on hospitals and other parts of the healthcare infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to provide an outline of how core values of the health systems, such as the principles of biomedical ethics, are in a supportive or conflicting relation to cybersecurity. Design/methodology/approach This paper claims that it is possible to map the desiderata relevant to cybersecurity onto the four principles of medical (...)
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  8.  19
    Digital Medicine, Cybersecurity, and Ethics: An Uneasy Relationship.Karsten Weber, Michele Loi, Markus Christen & Nadine Kleine - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (9):52-53.
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  9.  61
    Technological Unemployment and Human Disenhancement.Michele Loi - 2015 - Ethics and Information Technology 17 (3):201-210.
    This paper discusses the concept of “human disenhancement”, i.e. the worsening of human individual abilities and expectations through technology. The goal is provoking ethical reflection on technological innovation outside the biomedical realm, in particular the substitution of human work with computer-driven automation. According to some widely accepted economic theories, automatization and computerization are responsible for the disappearance of many middle-class jobs. I argue that, if that is the case, a technological innovation can be a cause of “human disenhancement”, globally, and (...)
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  10.  32
    Epigenetics and Future Generations.Lorenzo del Savio, Michele Loi & Elia Stupka - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (8):580-587.
    Recent evidence of intergenerational epigenetic programming of disease risk broadens the scope of public health preventive interventions to future generations, i.e. non existing people. Due to the transmission of epigenetic predispositions, lifestyles such as smoking or unhealthy diet might affect the health of populations across several generations. While public policy for the health of future generations can be justified through impersonal considerations, such as maximizing aggregate well-being, in this article we explore whether there are rights-based obligations supervening on intergenerational epigenetic (...)
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  11.  28
    Food Labels, Genetic Information, and the Right Not to Know.Michele Loi - 2014 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 24 (4):323-344.
    This paper explores the analogy between food label information and genetic information, in order to defend the right not to know judgmental nutritional information, such as the one conveyed by traffic light labels and other, more aggressive, recent proposals. Traffic light labeling judges the nutritional quality of food by means of colored flags on the front pack . It involves a simplification of the link between food quality and health outcomes. Unlike GDAs ,1 it does not present the consumer with (...)
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  12.  82
    On the Very Idea of Genetic Justice.Michele Loi - 2012 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (1):64-77.
  13.  83
    You Cannot Have Your Normal Functioning Cake and Eat It Too.Michele Loi - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (12):748-751.
    Does biomedical enhancement challenge justice in health care? This paper argues that health care justice based on the concept of normal functioning is inadequate if enhancements are widespread. Two different interpretations of normal functioning are distinguished: the “species typical” vs. the “normal cooperator” account, showing that each version of the theory fails to account for certain egalitarian intuitions about help and assistance owed to people with health needs, where enhancements are widespread.
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  14.  4
    Towards Rawlsian ‘Property-Owning Democracy’ Through Personal Data Platform Cooperatives.Michele Loi, Paul-Olivier Dehaye & Ernst Hafen - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-19.
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  15.  45
    Germ-Line Enhancements and Rough Equality.Michele Loi - 2012 - Ethical Perspectives 19 (1):55-82.
    Enhancements of the human germ-line introduce further inequalities in the competition for scarce goods, such as income and desirable social positions. Social inequalities, in turn, amplify the range of genetic inequalities that access to germ-line enhancements may produce. From an egalitarian point of view, inequalities can be arranged to the benefit of the worst-off group (for instance, through general taxation), but the possibility of an indefinite growth of social and genetic inequality raises legitimate concerns. It is argued that inequalities produced (...)
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  16.  15
    Two Concepts of Group Privacy.Michele Loi & Markus Christen - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (2):207-224.
    Luciano Floridi was not the first to discuss the idea of group privacy, but he was perhaps the first to discuss it in relation to the insights derived from big data analytics. He has argued that it is important to investigate the possibility that groups have rights to privacy that are not reducible to the privacy of individuals forming such groups. In this paper, we introduce a distinction between two concepts of group privacy. The first, the “what happens in Vegas (...)
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  17.  2
    How to Fairly Incentivise Digital Contact Tracing.Michele Loi - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106388.
    Digital apps using Bluetooth to log proximity events are increasingly supported by technologists and governments. By and large, the public debate on this matter focuses on privacy, with experts from both law and technology offering very concrete proposals and participating to a lively debate. Far less attention is paid to effective incentives and their fairness. This paper aims to fill this gap by offering a practical, workable solution for a promising incentive, justified by the ethical principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy (...)
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  18. What Concept of Disease Should Politicians Use? Norman Daniels and the Unjustifiable Appeal of Naturalistic Analyses of Health.Michele Loi - unknown
    Norman Daniels argues that health is important for justice because it affects the distribution of opportunities. He claims that a just society should guarantee fair opportunities by promoting and restoring the “normal functioning” of its citizens, that is, their health. The scope of citizens' mutual obligations with respect to health is defined by a reasonable agreement that, according to Daniels, should be based on the distinction between normal functioning and pathology drawn by the biomedical sciences. This paper deals with the (...)
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  19.  35
    Normal Functioning and Public Reason.Michele Loi - 2013 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 22 (2):136-145.
  20. Introduction: Genetics and Justice.Michele Loi - 2012 - Ethical Perspectives 19 (1):1-10.
    Introduction to the Ethical Perspectives Theme Issue (19/1) on Genetics and Justice, with contributions by Greg Bognar, David Hunter, Michele Loi, Oliver Feeney, Vilhjálmur Arnason, Durnin et al.
     
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  21.  20
    On the Very Idea of Genetic Justice - Why Farrelly’s Pluralistic Prioritarianism Cannot Tackle Genetic Complexity.Michele Loi - 2012 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (1):64-77.
    Innovations in science and technology are often the source of public concern, but few have generated debates as intense and at the same time with such a popular fascination as those surrounding genetic technologies. Unequal access to preimplantation diagnosis could give some individuals the opportunity to select children with more advantageous predispositions.
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  22.  11
    Nobody’s DNA but Mine.Michele Loi - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (11):790-790.
    1. I am grateful to the respondents for the opportunity provided, to clarify the concept of a libertarian right to test and its normative implications. To sum up, I concede that genomes have a normatively salient informational aspect, that exercising the LRT may cause informational harm and violate rights of genetically related individuals, and that this is relevant to the regulation of genetic testing. But such considerations are logically compatible with a non-absolute LRT and its libertarian justification. The LRT is (...)
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  23.  5
    Why Postnatal Abortion Throws the Baby Our with the Bath Water.Michele Loi - 2013 - Monash Bioethics Review 31 (2):60-82.
    This paper articulates a careful and detailed objection to the moral permissibility of postnatal abortion. Giubilini and Minerva claim that if being unable to nurture one’s newborn child without significant burdens to oneself, family or society, is a proper moral ground for the demand that the life of a fetus be terminated, then ‘after-birth abortion should be considered a permissible option for women who would be damaged by [rearing the child or] giving up their newborns for adoption.’ It will be (...)
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  24.  12
    Una teoria della giustizia, geneticamente modificata.Michele Loi - 2010 - Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche 14:1.
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