In Book 10 of the Republic, Plato launches an extensive critique of art, claiming that it can have no legitimate role within the well-ordered state. While his reasons are multifac- eted, Plato’s primary objection to art rests on its status as a mere shadow of a shadow. Such shadows inevitably lead the human mind away from the Good, rather than toward it. How- ever, after voicing his many objections, Plato concedes that if art “has any arguments to show it should (...) have a place in a well-governed city, [he] would gladly welcome it back.” Over two millennia later, the nineteenth-century Russian philosopher Vladimir Solov’ev implicitly responded to this challenge in his Lectures on Godmanhood (1881). Solov’ev cited the phenomenon of art as additional proof in favor of his model of the metaphysical foundations of reality. According to Solov’ev, art is not three steps removed from ultimate reality; rather, an artist creates true art only when he has experienced a vision of the univer- sal and substantial ideas that stand over and above particular things, and then conveys them to the viewer directly, via the artistic medium. Hence, the artist is able to sidestep the in- termediate shadow and produce something that is more than a shadow—a clear reflection of that higher reality. If Solov’ev is correct, the artist should enjoy the elevated status of sage, per- haps even philosopher-king, rather than face exile from Plato’s republic, because the artist both knows the Good and guides the less enlightened toward it. After a brief sketch of the metaphysical grounds for Plato’s critique of art, I provide an analysis of Solov’ev’s ontology, as represented in his Lectures on Godmanhood. Next, I describe Solov’ev’s concept of the three-fold mission of art and its relationship to human nature, drawing both from the Lectures and from The Universal Meaning of Art (1890). Finally, in the last section, I demonstrate how the afore-mentioned account comprises Solov’ev’s robust and successful response to Plato’s challenge, from within a platonic framework. (shrink)
We assert that one of the examples used by Keller & Miller (K&M), namely, autism, is indeed common, and heritable, but we question whether it is harmful. We provide a brief review of cognitive science literature in which autistics perform superiorly to non-autistics in perceptual, reasoning, and comprehension tasks; however, these superiorities are often occluded and are instead described as dysfunctions. (Published Online November 9 2006).
This paper points out that the provincial mechanics' institutes of England in their early years were as much the product of a general and pervasive scientific culture as they were of a particular educational movement. To this extent the institutes can be interpreted within the context of wider social and economic changes. The bulk of the paper relates to the Mechanics' Institute at Sheffield in the period 1832–50, but through this and other material it is argued that this case study (...) deserves general consideration. (shrink)
This paper attempts to suggest the changing organisation of scientific culture and scientific institutions in London in the approximate period 1790–1820. A preliminary survey of the varieties of science in the city is followed by a treatment of one instance of informal association, the Askesian Society of 1796–1807. The intention is to provide a significant amount of data in an extra-institutional manner, and to illustrate a possible relationship between scientific culture and scientific advance. It is hoped that the essay might (...) provide a starting-point for subsequent treatments of group science in urban contexts during this phase of England's history. (shrink)
Often enough, the uniqueness of Japanese economic history has been analysed in terms of overarching ‘cultural’ imperatives. The following paper utilizes key episodes in the transition of the Japanese economy in order to suggest that its impetus lay in the political economy of the nation's relations with Western science and technology and the subsequent developments whereby technological change became institutionalized. The power of the Japanese State—forged from a heady mixture of relative backwardness, fear, and militarism—was a necessary feature of national (...) ‘response’, and therefore an integral ingredient of the process whereby Japan began to pose a serious challenge to the superiority of ‘Western’ modes of development and change. The learning process was not, predominantly, one of national acculturation. Rather, the Japanese leadership from the Tokugawa period onwards deliberately and overtly set out to assimilate Western science and technology within an institutional framework which would ensure self-sustained and increasingly independent economic development. We end with an approach to technological systems which may be considered of more general interest to historians of modern technology. (shrink)
The contrasting economic and technological histories of Japan, China, and India prior to 1914 are very often explained in socio-cultural terms. It is too easily assumed that culturally Japan was somehow more ‘prone’ to development along Western lines than were either of China and India. This paper addresses the socalled ‘failure’ of economic modernization in China and India in terms of socioeconomic processes and mechanisms. Knowledge and machinery were transferred to all three nations prior to 1914. But only in Japan (...) were conditions favourable to the subsequent adoption, diffusion, and adaptation of technologies. A major argument is that officialdom in China and India was not unwary or dissolute but merely hamstrung through a removal of effective sovereignty over decision making. The reduction of sovereignty was of greater importance than the supposed retardative impact of deeply held cultural traits. (shrink)
This paper, the first of two on science and technology in Modern China, sets out to estimate the success of China's technology strategy since 1949. It focuses on a clarification of such key terms as ‘appropriate technology’ and ‘alternative technology’. We argue that any statement about technology policy or its success involves an analysis of institutions as well as physical artifacts or production processes. A review of Chinese economic development in terms of technological phases suggests that recent changes designed to (...) improve the capacity of the Chinese technological system to absorb advanced technology from outside are not, in fact, a denial of the past, but are one measure of the reasonable success of past technological strategies. (shrink)
In this review essay of Michelle Montague’s The Given we focus on the central thesis in the book: the awareness of awareness thesis. On that thesis, a state of awareness constitutively involves an awareness of itself. In Section 2, we discuss what the awareness of awareness thesis amounts to, how it contrasts with the transparency of experience, and how it might be motivated. In Section 3, we discuss one of Montague’s two theoretical arguments for the awareness of awareness thesis. (...) A view that accepts the awareness of awareness thesis, Montague argues, is to be preferred over competing views because it outperforms them in accounting for the property attributions one makes in perceptual experience. We suggest that it is not clear that this argument for the awareness of awareness thesis is successful. Finally, in Section 4 we consider the relation between Montague’s view of color experience and what she calls Strawson’s datum, arguing that Montague may not be able to explain this datum as straightforwardly as she supposes. This, we suggest, threatens Montague’s second theoretical argument for the awareness of awareness thesis. (shrink)
Michelle Madden Dempsey’s compelling book sets out a normative feminist argument as to why and when prosecutors should continue to pursue prosecutions in domestic violence cases where the victim refuses to participate in or has withdrawn their support for the prosecution. This paper will explore two of the key aspects of her argument—the centrality and definition of the concept of patriarchy, and the definition of domestic violence—before concluding with some final thoughts as to the appropriate parameters of feminist prosecutorial (...) decision-making. The paper argues that Madden Dempsey could offer a more detailed and nuanced argument about the role that patriarchy plays, particularly its relevance in marking out appropriate cases for pursuit; and that her thesis requires a more convincing exposition of the precise reasons for offering such a narrow account of domestic violence. (shrink)
« L'histoire des associations a été, en France, un secteur longtemps négligé, en partie pour des raisons culturelles, et la priorité [des historiens a été] accordée au politique au détriment de la société civile », explique Michelle Perrot dans la préface de ce livre. Parue dans l'année de commémoration de la loi de 1901 sur la liberté d'association, cette étude conséquente tente de rattraper le temps perdu : elle est d'autant plus la bienvenue qu'elle traite des associations de..
Resumen: En este artículo analizamos, en un corpus del diario La Nación, la ideología de la cobertura mediática respecto del conflicto chileno-mapuche durante el primer gobierno de Michelle Bachelet Jeria. En particular, nos preocupa dar cuenta de la forma en que son retratados en este periódico los comuneros indígenas y los personeros de gobierno. Para ello, en primer lugar, describimos la caracterización de estos dos tipos de actores a partir de un análisis de contenido, y luego, en una segunda (...) parte, damos cuenta del panorama ideológico general en donde se insertan estas construcciones. Concluimos que la cobertura del diario se funda en tres puntos nodales: en primer lugar, el “reconocimiento cultural”, donde prima la construcción del llamado indio permitido; en segundo lugar, la “seguridad pública”, donde predomina la imagen del indio insurrecto. Estos dos puntos, el “reconocimiento cultural” y la “seguridad pública”, siempre van en la dirección de insinuar “competencia gubernamental”, el tercer punto nodal, entendido como “éxito y destreza en la generación de gobernabilidad”, parte fundamental en el proyecto político de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia.: In this article we analyze the ideology behind chilean newspaper La Nacion’s coverage of the chilean-mapuche conflict, specifically during the first government of Michelle Bachelet Jeria. We try to account for the way both indigenous subjects and government officials are portrayed, characterizing these types of actors, to later, in a second part, attempt to account for the general ideological landscape in which these constructs are inserted. We conclude that the coverage moves between three nodal points: first, “cultural recognition”, in which we find the indio permitido; second, “public security”, where we find the indio insurrecto. Both these nodal points always seem to imply the third one: “governmental competence”, understood as success and skill in generating political governance, a fundamental part of the Concertacion’s political project. (shrink)
The article engages with the video installation Madame B by Mieke Bal and Michelle Williams Gamaker. The work was premiered in the city of Łódź in Poland. The author makes use of the exhibition brochure by two artists published by the Museum of Modern Art, and the recording of a seminar held by Bal and Williams Gamaker after launching their work. The article focuses on the innovative audiovisual interpretation of Flaubert’s famous novel. Basing the argument on the concept of (...) framing created by Bal, the author applies it to Bal and Williams Gamaker’s exhibition by relating it to the history and culture of the Polish location where it was first shown. Above all, however, the article discusses the importance of quotation and indistinction in Madame B, where the artists quote from : Louise Bourgeois, Maya Deren, Artemisia Gentileschi, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, William Kentridge and Sol LeWitt. (shrink)
Ian Inkster (ed.): History of technology. Vol. 29. London: Continuum, 2009, 232pp, £90.00 HB Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-2 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9523-7 Authors Aristotle Tympas, Department of Philosophy and History of Science, University of Athens, University Campus, 157 71 Athens, Greece Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
Celeste Michelle Condit’s Angry Public Rhetorics: Global Relations and Emotion in the Wake of 9/11 is a complex and challenging contribution to the understudied area of public emotion that charts the course for an arduous but rewarding journey toward a greater synthesis between the study of human biological and material existence and the study of our symbolic world. Condit maintains that “shared public anger co-orients peoples and tends to direct their actions and resources along particular paths... shaped by numerous (...) forces—including cultural traditions, ideologies, histories, and sedimented patterns of resource distributions—they are also substantively shaped by the distinctive set of characteristics that are... (shrink)
This article explores the relationship of shame to class and to desire in Michelle Tea's memoir The Passionate Mistakes and Intricate Corruption of One Girl in America. Through applying a class analytic to the framework of shame recently advanced by feminist, queer, postcolonial, and affect theorists, I foreground shame as central to the experience of being poor and queer, and examine shame as not only negative and positive, but as productive. I operationalize an “oppositional reading strategy” to insist on (...) attention to the materiality of embodied desire and labor, in particular queer desire and sex work, that is made available in poor and working‐class women's life‐writing. Tea's memoir demonstrates how writing about an ambivalent relation to shame is an act of resistance, an opportunity to transform private, individual experiences into public, and therefore collective, articulations. (shrink)
Il n'est pas facile de renouveler l'histoire du militantisme des femmes qui fut l'un des objets de prédilection des études féministes dès les années 1970. Dominique Loiseau y est parvenue dans ce livre, issu d'une thèse réalisée sous la direction de Michelle Perrot. D'abord parce qu'elle connaît bien le terrain, cette région de St.-Nazaire, haut lieu de luttes des « métallos ». Sociologue autant qu'historienne, elle a réalisé un grand nombre d'interviews et sait, pour participer à la g..