Gilbert and colleagues point out the discrepancy between the limited empirical data illustrating changes in personality following implantation of deep brain stimulating electrodes and the vast number of conceptual neuroethics papers implying that these changes are widespread, deleterious, and clinically significant. Their findings are reminiscent of C. P. Snow’s essay on the divide between the two cultures of the humanities and the sciences. This division in the literature raises significant ethical concerns surrounding unjustified fear of personality changes in the context (...) of DBS and negative perceptions of clinician-scientists engaged in DBS. These concerns have real world implications for funding future innovative, DBS trials aimed to reduce suffering as well as hampering true interdisciplinary scholarship. We argue that the philosophical tradition of pragmatism and the value it places on empirical inquiry, experiential knowledge, and inter-disciplinary scholarship – reflecting diverse ways of knowing – provides a framework to start to address the important questions Gilbert and colleagues raise. In particular, we highlight the importance of expert clinician knowledge in contributing to the neuroethical questions raised by Gilbert and colleagues. Finally, we provide illustrative examples of some of our interdisciplinary empirical research that demonstrate the iterative cycle of inquiry characteristic of pragmatism in which conceptual neuroethics questions have led to empirical studies whose results then raise additional conceptual questions that give rise to new empirical studies in a way that highlights the contributions of the humanities and the sciences. (shrink)
In Book 10 of the Republic, Plato launches an extensive critique of art, claiming that it can have no legitimate role within the well-ordered state. While his reasons are multifac- eted, Plato’s primary objection to art rests on its status as a mere shadow of a shadow. Such shadows inevitably lead the human mind away from the Good, rather than toward it. How- ever, after voicing his many objections, Plato concedes that if art “has any arguments to show it should (...) have a place in a well-governed city, [he] would gladly welcome it back.” Over two millennia later, the nineteenth-century Russian philosopher Vladimir Solov’ev implicitly responded to this challenge in his Lectures on Godmanhood (1881). Solov’ev cited the phenomenon of art as additional proof in favor of his model of the metaphysical foundations of reality. According to Solov’ev, art is not three steps removed from ultimate reality; rather, an artist creates true art only when he has experienced a vision of the univer- sal and substantial ideas that stand over and above particular things, and then conveys them to the viewer directly, via the artistic medium. Hence, the artist is able to sidestep the in- termediate shadow and produce something that is more than a shadow—a clear reflection of that higher reality. If Solov’ev is correct, the artist should enjoy the elevated status of sage, per- haps even philosopher-king, rather than face exile from Plato’s republic, because the artist both knows the Good and guides the less enlightened toward it. After a brief sketch of the metaphysical grounds for Plato’s critique of art, I provide an analysis of Solov’ev’s ontology, as represented in his Lectures on Godmanhood. Next, I describe Solov’ev’s concept of the three-fold mission of art and its relationship to human nature, drawing both from the Lectures and from The Universal Meaning of Art (1890). Finally, in the last section, I demonstrate how the afore-mentioned account comprises Solov’ev’s robust and successful response to Plato’s challenge, from within a platonic framework. (shrink)
We assert that one of the examples used by Keller & Miller (K&M), namely, autism, is indeed common, and heritable, but we question whether it is harmful. We provide a brief review of cognitive science literature in which autistics perform superiorly to non-autistics in perceptual, reasoning, and comprehension tasks; however, these superiorities are often occluded and are instead described as dysfunctions. (Published Online November 9 2006).
In this review essay of Michelle Montague’s The Given we focus on the central thesis in the book: the awareness of awareness thesis. On that thesis, a state of awareness constitutively involves an awareness of itself. In Section 2, we discuss what the awareness of awareness thesis amounts to, how it contrasts with the transparency of experience, and how it might be motivated. In Section 3, we discuss one of Montague’s two theoretical arguments for the awareness of awareness thesis. (...) A view that accepts the awareness of awareness thesis, Montague argues, is to be preferred over competing views because it outperforms them in accounting for the property attributions one makes in perceptual experience. We suggest that it is not clear that this argument for the awareness of awareness thesis is successful. Finally, in Section 4 we consider the relation between Montague’s view of color experience and what she calls Strawson’s datum, arguing that Montague may not be able to explain this datum as straightforwardly as she supposes. This, we suggest, threatens Montague’s second theoretical argument for the awareness of awareness thesis. (shrink)
Michelle Madden Dempsey’s compelling book sets out a normative feminist argument as to why and when prosecutors should continue to pursue prosecutions in domestic violence cases where the victim refuses to participate in or has withdrawn their support for the prosecution. This paper will explore two of the key aspects of her argument—the centrality and definition of the concept of patriarchy, and the definition of domestic violence—before concluding with some final thoughts as to the appropriate parameters of feminist prosecutorial (...) decision-making. The paper argues that Madden Dempsey could offer a more detailed and nuanced argument about the role that patriarchy plays, particularly its relevance in marking out appropriate cases for pursuit; and that her thesis requires a more convincing exposition of the precise reasons for offering such a narrow account of domestic violence. (shrink)
« L'histoire des associations a été, en France, un secteur longtemps négligé, en partie pour des raisons culturelles, et la priorité [des historiens a été] accordée au politique au détriment de la société civile », explique Michelle Perrot dans la préface de ce livre. Parue dans l'année de commémoration de la loi de 1901 sur la liberté d'association, cette étude conséquente tente de rattraper le temps perdu : elle est d'autant plus la bienvenue qu'elle traite des associations de..
Resumen: En este artículo analizamos, en un corpus del diario La Nación, la ideología de la cobertura mediática respecto del conflicto chileno-mapuche durante el primer gobierno de Michelle Bachelet Jeria. En particular, nos preocupa dar cuenta de la forma en que son retratados en este periódico los comuneros indígenas y los personeros de gobierno. Para ello, en primer lugar, describimos la caracterización de estos dos tipos de actores a partir de un análisis de contenido, y luego, en una segunda (...) parte, damos cuenta del panorama ideológico general en donde se insertan estas construcciones. Concluimos que la cobertura del diario se funda en tres puntos nodales: en primer lugar, el “reconocimiento cultural”, donde prima la construcción del llamado indio permitido; en segundo lugar, la “seguridad pública”, donde predomina la imagen del indio insurrecto. Estos dos puntos, el “reconocimiento cultural” y la “seguridad pública”, siempre van en la dirección de insinuar “competencia gubernamental”, el tercer punto nodal, entendido como “éxito y destreza en la generación de gobernabilidad”, parte fundamental en el proyecto político de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia.: In this article we analyze the ideology behind chilean newspaper La Nacion’s coverage of the chilean-mapuche conflict, specifically during the first government of Michelle Bachelet Jeria. We try to account for the way both indigenous subjects and government officials are portrayed, characterizing these types of actors, to later, in a second part, attempt to account for the general ideological landscape in which these constructs are inserted. We conclude that the coverage moves between three nodal points: first, “cultural recognition”, in which we find the indio permitido; second, “public security”, where we find the indio insurrecto. Both these nodal points always seem to imply the third one: “governmental competence”, understood as success and skill in generating political governance, a fundamental part of the Concertacion’s political project. (shrink)
Celeste Michelle Condit’s Angry Public Rhetorics: Global Relations and Emotion in the Wake of 9/11 is a complex and challenging contribution to the understudied area of public emotion that charts the course for an arduous but rewarding journey toward a greater synthesis between the study of human biological and material existence and the study of our symbolic world. Condit maintains that “shared public anger co-orients peoples and tends to direct their actions and resources along particular paths... shaped by numerous (...) forces—including cultural traditions, ideologies, histories, and sedimented patterns of resource distributions—they are also substantively shaped by the distinctive set of characteristics that are... (shrink)
The article engages with the video installation Madame B by Mieke Bal and Michelle Williams Gamaker. The work was premiered in the city of Łódź in Poland. The author makes use of the exhibition brochure by two artists published by the Museum of Modern Art, and the recording of a seminar held by Bal and Williams Gamaker after launching their work. The article focuses on the innovative audiovisual interpretation of Flaubert’s famous novel. Basing the argument on the concept of (...) framing created by Bal, the author applies it to Bal and Williams Gamaker’s exhibition by relating it to the history and culture of the Polish location where it was first shown. Above all, however, the article discusses the importance of quotation and indistinction in Madame B, where the artists quote from : Louise Bourgeois, Maya Deren, Artemisia Gentileschi, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, William Kentridge and Sol LeWitt. (shrink)
Il n'est pas facile de renouveler l'histoire du militantisme des femmes qui fut l'un des objets de prédilection des études féministes dès les années 1970. Dominique Loiseau y est parvenue dans ce livre, issu d'une thèse réalisée sous la direction de Michelle Perrot. D'abord parce qu'elle connaît bien le terrain, cette région de St.-Nazaire, haut lieu de luttes des « métallos ». Sociologue autant qu'historienne, elle a réalisé un grand nombre d'interviews et sait, pour participer à la g..
La belle collection « Acteurs de l'histoire » (éditions de l'Imprimerie Nationale), qui rassemble des textes fondateurs de l'Antiquité à nos jours, accueille _ après plus d'une trentaine de titres déclinés au masculin _ sa première « actrice » en la personne de George Sand. En choisissant de présenter une « édition exhaustive de tous les textes politiques publiés par Sand en cette période de son plus grand engagement [1843-1850] », Michelle Perrot nous permet d'accéder de la meilleure ..
Sous la forme alerte de l'entretien (avec Jean Lebrun, historien et journaliste à France-Culture), Michelle Perrot évoque les formes de la présence et/ou de l'absence des femmes dans la Cité (au double sens d'espace public/ politique et de la Ville au cours des deux derniers siècles). L'ouvrage, remarquablement illustré par de nombreuses reproductions en couleur, s'ouvre sur les images, ces représentations fantasmées du Sexe (pour reprendre une expression qui désignait autrefois les fe..
We appreciated the important commentary provided by Michelle Oberman on our paper, (CQ Vol. 6, No. 1). For the most part we agree with Oberman's analysis of the issues, but there are seven points of variance, either of conception, emphasis, or accuracy. We wish to clarify these and welcome the chance her commentary provided to offer aspects of the social situation surrounding the case we presented.
Michelle Madden Dempsey’s Prosecuting Domestic Violence: A Philosophical Analysis (2009) is an important book for many reasons. Amongst these are the prevalence of domestic violence and the extraordinary, largely unaccountable discretionary powers wielded by prosecutors in the United States. Against this background, Dempsey asks in particular what prosecutors should do when the victims of domestic violence withdraw their support from the proposed prosecution. In Prosecuting Domestic Violence, Dempsey provides a general account of prosecutorial practical reasoning that can be applied (...) to answer this question. Given that she argues that “particularly aggressive prosecution” is in at least some cases justified, the later chapters of the book address issues surrounding the victims of domestic violence: their rights and duties when it comes to prosecution and the measures that might be directed against victims who are unwilling to co-operate.What Dempsey calls her “central analytic tool” in .. (shrink)
We appreciated the important commentary provided by Michelle Oberman on our paper, “Discontinuing Life Support in an Infant of a Drug-Addicted Mother: Whose Decision Is It?” . For the most part we agree with Oberman's analysis of the issues, but there are seven points of variance, either of conception, emphasis, or accuracy. We wish to clarify these and welcome the chance her commentary provided to offer aspects of the social situation surrounding the case we presented.
A partir de una investigación sobre los Consejos Asesores Presidenciales en el Gobierno de Michelle Bachelet, se desarrolla un marco teórico sobre movimientos sociales y las llamadas formas subpolíticas, que permite ver cómo el movimiento estudiantil secundario de 2006 desafió el enclave educacional y el tipo de respuesta que un gobierno que buscaba un sello ciudadano, dio a través de la formación de un Consejo Asesor con participación de diversos sectores. El análisis de los debates en el seno de (...) ese Consejo muestra las diversas posiciones en juego y también la imposibilidad de llegar a acuerdos de trasformación profunda. (shrink)
Through a series of texts and phone calls, Michelle Carter encouraged her boyfriend Conrad Roy to act on his suicidal thoughts, and after Roy killed himself, Carter was convicted of involuntary manslaughter. The case has received widespread attention, generating reactions ranging from rage at Ms. Carter to disbelief that she was convicted. An issue emphasized up to now is what it might mean for the First Amendment right of free speech if we hold that words can kill. In presenting (...) the case against punishing Ms. Carter, I show how the free speech issue intertwines with several others: Should the intimate exchanges between Carter and Roy have remained private? While privacy is valuable, it should not be a shield for harmful conduct, but did Ms. Carter, through her words, cause harm? If she believed that suicide would relieve Conrad of unbearable suffering, did she even act badly? And should the fact that society judges an individual’s actions to be immoral mean that the individual should be legally punished? The case serves as a touchstone for addressing fundamental issues of political, moral and legal theory with implications broader than whether Ms. Carter goes to prison. (shrink)
Recent literature on J. G. Fichte's ethical philosophy has tended to focus on a handful of interpretive issues while simultaneously emphasizing his under-appreciated relevance to contemporary moral theory. In this regard, Kosch's book on Fichte's ethics is similar to other recent publications. In almost every other way, however, it is unique. Kosch uses her talent for clear argumentation to propose several theses that have little precedent in Fichte scholarship.Her book's goal is two-fold: first, to fill a "yawning gap" in Fichte (...) scholarship by addressing aspects of Fichte's ethical system that have been misinterpreted or overlooked, and second, to present Fichte's ethical work to philosophers "who would be... (shrink)
Cet ouvrage, publication d'une thèse d'Ecole des Chartes remaniée et soutenue comme thèse de doctorat en 1998, nous fait découvrir la figure remarquable d'une femme de pouvoir au XIVe siècle, Yolande de Flandre, dame de Cassel (1326-1395). Yolande, héritière du seigneur de Cassel, se marie jeune avec le comte de Bar. Veuve dès 1344, elle se trouve pour la première fois en position de gouverner comme régente du Barrois, position qu'elle revendique et défend jusqu'en 1360. En 1353, elle ..