The generation of the 98 (specially Miguel Unamuno) initiates in Spain the rupture with the modern philosophy following a scheme similar to the Hegel's Fenomenology of Spirit. They present a spiritualist philosophy, that defends the concrete, vital and historical reality of the man similarly to Simmel, Bergson, etc. in Europe.
The document starts by skating that the concept of progress, which is key in the Enlightenment programme of philosophy of history, has disappeared in our society of risk, and wonders whether it is today possible rethinking the philosophy of history. The second part refers to the denial of philosophy of history by Badiou and Lyotard, as a consequence of the disappearance of the “modern subject”, which was the core of philosophy of history. There are many “histories”, but there is not (...) one “History”. The third part of the paper looks for a way out from that denial, finding it in the sartrean concept of “alienation”, which involves a changein the human relationships (“reification”) as a consequences of the “subject matter worked by praxis”, which is a concept that allows us to speak today of a universal history, whose “no‐subject” would be that “worked subject matter”. The conclusion of the paper is that the aim of philosophy today is not to “contemplate the world” or “change the world” but rather to “take care of the world”. (shrink)
The paper starts by stating that the concept of progress, which is a key factor in the Enlightenment programme on the philosophy of history, has vanished from our society of risk, and posits whether it is possible today to rethink the philosophy of history. The second part refers to the negation of this philosophy by Badiou and Lyotard, due to the disappearance of the “modern subject”, which lay at its heart. There are many “histories”, but there is no single “History”. (...) The third part of the paper seeks to counteract that negation through the Sartrean concept of “alienation”, which involves a change in human relationships (“reification”), resulting from the “subject matter worked by praxis”. This is a concept that allows us to speak today of a universal history, whose “no-subject” would be that “worked subject matter”. The paper concludes by affirming that the aim of philosophy today is not to “contemplate the world” or “change the world” but rather to “take care of the world”. (shrink)
Las fallas predictivas obligan a alguna modificación en las teorías, lo cual, en muchos casos, consiste en detectar algún factor que ha interferido en el experimento. Podría ser que se tratara de un factor de un tipo ya reconocido por la teoría o bien que fuera necesario proponer un factor de un tipo no conocido hasta el momento. En este trabajo proponemos un ordenamiento de los cambios en las teorías de acuerdo con el tipo de factor propuesto en la modificación. (...) Este ordenamiento puede utilizarse para distinguir los cambios en ciencia normal de los cambios revolucionarios. Nuestra propuesta se realiza sobre la base de que una teoría admite únicamente un número finito de tipos de factores. /// The failure of a prediction forces some modification of the theory, which in many cases means locating some factor that interfered in the experiment. A factor may be found of a type already recognized by the theory. Or it may be the case that it becomes necessary to propose an as yet unknown factor. Here we suggest an ordering of theory changes according to the type of factor proposed. The ordering may be used to distinguish normal change from revolutionary change. Our proposal is based on the thesis that a theory admits only a finite number of types of factors. (shrink)