Automatic public malware analysis services provide controlled, isolated and virtual environments to analyse malicious software samples. Unfortunately, malware is currently incorporating techniques to recognize execution onto a virtual or sandbox environment; when an analysis environment is detected, malware behaves as a benign application or even shows no activity. In this work, we present an empirical study and characterization of automatic PMAS, considering 26 different services. We also show a set of features that allow to easily fingerprint these services as analysis (...) environments; the lower the unlikeability of these features, the easier for us to fingerprint the analysis service they belong to. Finally, we propose a method for these analysis services to counter or at least mitigate our proposal. (shrink)
Selecting the best configuration of hyperparameter values for a Machine Learning model yields directly in the performance of the model on the dataset. It is a laborious task that usually requires deep knowledge of the hyperparameter optimizations methods and the Machine Learning algorithms. Although there exist several automatic optimization techniques, these usually take significant resources, increasing the dynamic complexity in order to obtain a great accuracy. Since one of the most critical aspects in this computational consume is the available dataset, (...) among others, in this paper we perform a study of the effect of using different partitions of a dataset in the hyperparameter optimization phase over the efficiency of a Machine Learning algorithm. Nonparametric inference has been used to measure the rate of different behaviors of the accuracy, time, and spatial complexity that are obtained among the partitions and the whole dataset. Also, a level of gain is assigned to each partition allowing us to study patterns and allocate whose samples are more profitable. Since Cybersecurity is a discipline in which the efficiency of Artificial Intelligence techniques is a key aspect in order to extract actionable knowledge, the statistical analyses have been carried out over five Cybersecurity datasets. (shrink)
Legislation on Disability/ Functional Diversity in Spain has experimented a great advance since 1982 to 2013, leaving the initial orientation, based on care and rehabilitation, toward another one based on rights and social inclusion as main objectives. However, this legislation has not been effective because in the same lap of time another transformation made it useless: the suppression of social rights that came from Keynesian politics and the progressive neoliberal ideology implantation. The evolution of People with Disability/ Functional Diversity labour (...) situation illustrates the imposition of what we name neoliberal “ableisment” over PFD labour rights. (shrink)
En su ensayo Para una crítica de la violencia, Walter Benjamin reivindica el fenómeno social de la huelga general revolucionaria teorizada por Georges Sorel en su obra Reflexiones sobre la violencia, como una figura ejemplar de lo que sería un “medio puro de la política”, al margen de cualquier forma legitimada de poder. En este marco, pocos comentadores contemporáneos advierten una discordancia conceptual entre ambos filósofos: para Sorel, la huelga revolucionaria es un mito social, mientras que el mito, categoría esencialmente (...) negativa en Benjamin, describe la violencia que aprisiona la vida y que se traduce en una forma de poder político superior. En este artículo quisiéramos demostrar esta discordancia conceptual para examinar en seguida cómo ha sido comentada por otros pensadores contemporáneos. La filosofía de la historia, la posibilidad de una acción política ética y la temporalidad mesiánica aparecen en el horizonte teórico que emparenta a estos filósofos y por el cual podría descifrarse su impasse conceptual. Esto se confirma si se despliega la idea de un “medio puro de la política”, pista que Benjamin ofrece sin profundizar y sobre la cual reenvía al pensamiento de un filósofo poco explorado, Erich Unger. En la última parte de este artículo desarrollaremos las claves dadas por Unger, que entran justamente en sintonía con la mención de la huelga general como medio puro de la política. In his Critique of violence, Walter Benjamin claimed that the social phenomenon of the revolutionary general strike was an example of what would be a “pure political mean”. In this context, not many contemporary commentators note an important conceptual incoherence between those two philosophers: for Sorel the revolutionary general strike is a social myth, while in Benjamin the category of myth, essentially negative, describes the violence that imprisons life and crystallizes it in a higher form of political power. In this article, we demonstrate this conceptual discrepancy in order to examine the way it has been approached by other philosophers. The philosophy of history, the possibility of an ethical political action, and messianic temporality, all appear on the theoretical horizon linking these philosophers, and through these ideas a conceptual impasse can be decoded. Moreover, this horizon can be confirmed if we follow the idea of a “pure political means” that Benjamin proposes and which moves forward to the thought of an unexplored philosopher mentioned by him: Erich Unger. In the last part of this article we will develop the keys given by Unger, which fall right in line with the notion of the general strike as a pure political mean. (shrink)
Selected papers from the sections of the eighth international conference organized by the Society for Analytic Philosophy (GAP), Constance, Germany, September 17-20, 2012. The overall theme of the conference was "What may we believe? What ought we to do?", but the papers published here address a wide variety of questions from many fields of philosophy.
El presente texto presenta una reflexión sobre lo que es y representa la literatura filosófica para el escritor y filósofo desde el referente teórico del autor español Don Miguel de Unamuno, filósofo y literato; muestra cómo en la literatura y en la filosofía se conjugan la vida y la muerte de todos los que intervienen en ella (autor, personajes y lector), como la paradoja misma del vivir haciendo un recorrido crítico-reflexivo fundamentado en tres conceptos que son la literatura, la (...) filosofía y la vida. Como fruto de esta reflexión se plantea que para el filósofo la vida es una aventura íntima y discontinua. (shrink)
Un a d e la s proclama s má s escuchada s e n la s concentracione s de l 15- M e s qu e los ca r go s político s n o no s r ep r esentan . P ar a v eri f ca r s i es e reproch e est á justi f icado , e n este estudi o analizamo s primer o qu é deb e se r l a representació n (...) polític a e n u n Estad o democrático ; a continuación , y par a sabe r s i lo s representante s “no s representan” , no s f ijamos e n l a fo r m a e n qu e ha n sid o el e gidos , e n e l mod o e n e l qu e ejerce n s u funció n y e n las pre r r o gat iv a s que , e n teoría , garantiza n e l ejercici o d e es a función. (shrink)
Vallortigara & Rogers (V&R) propose a fundamental role of the environment in determining population-level lateralisation and suggest that genes play no primary function in this phenomenon. Here I argue that genes involved in the coordination of visceral organ laterality and in coupling of different forms of lateralisation do play a role in the control of lateralisation within the population.
El dossier sobre Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, su obra y su tiempo que presentamos recoge algunas de las ponencias que se presentaron y discutieron en las sesiones de un Seminario que sobre «Tschirnhaus y la Medicina mentis» se desarrolló en la Facultad de Filosofía de la Universidad de Barcelona en febrero de 2020. El Seminario, organizado por Pablo Montosa y Guillem Sales, continuaba una investigación sobre la obra de este filósofo y científico alemán que ambos habían iniciado tiempo atrás y (...) que habían presentado en una comunicación al V Congrés Català de Filosofía, ahora publicada con el título de «La crítica de E. W. von Tschirnhaus a la identificació cartesiana de consciència i coneixement» en las Actas de dicho congreso. (shrink)
En 1968 Raquel Carson comenzaba una revolución en el pensamiento, quizá una de las de mayor peso en la actualidad. En su libro "La primavera silenciosa" acusaba del deterioro ambiental al poder ilimitado del ser humano. La creencia surgida en la modernidad de que todo lo que el hombre decidía era en sí mismo lo mejor por haber sido fruto de una voluntad libérrima, daba primacía y legitimidad absoluta a su acción sobre la naturaleza. Surgieron con gran fuerza numerosos grupos (...) ecologistas que adoptaron un pensamiento que responde al nombre de "ecología profunda" o "Deep Ecology" descrito por primera vez por Arme Naess en un artículo publicado por la revista Inquiry y titulado "The Shallow and the Deep, Long Range Ecology Movement". Los principios que proponía este movimiento (Naess 1984) pueden ser resumidos en ocho grandes puntos: 1) la vida de los seres no humanos es un valor en sí: 2) la riqueza y la diversidad de estas formas de vida son también valores en sí; 3) los seres humanos no pueden intervenir de manera destructiva en la vida; 4) a este respecto, la intervención humana actual es eminentemente excesiva; 5) por consiguiente, las reglas de juego deben ser radicalmente modificadas; 6) esta modificación radical debe hacerse tanto a nivel de las estructuras económicas como de las estructuras ideológicas y culturales; 7) a nivel ideológico, el cambio principal consiste en apreciar más la calidad de la vida que el goce de los bienes materiales; 8) las personas que acepten estos principios tienen la obligación de contribuir, directa o indirectamente a la realización de los cambios fundamentales que aquellos implican. (shrink)
In the parts I and II of this paper, the Author shows:1. how Leibniz’s arithmetico-intensional logical calculi of April 1679 can be completed and transformed in an intensional Boolean algebra (U, v, &:, -, e, -e) admitting, on the one hand, two different logical interpretations:li1: as a complete and consistent calculus of terms (properties) and syllogistic;li2: as a deontic first-order calculus and, on the other hand, two different arithmetical interpretations:ai1: as a numerical Boolean algebra (DM, lcm, ged, M/..., 1, M) (...) of all divisors of a natural number M;ai2: as a numerlcal Boolean algebra (BA, lcbc, gcbc, A-..., 0, A) of all binary components of a natural number A.Arithmetical representations of negation of a term x and of combination (intensional conjunction) and alternative (intensional disjunction) of two or more terms are respectively M/x, lcm (lower common multiple) and gcd (greatest common divisor) in the first Boolean algebra (ai1) and A-x, lcbc (lower common binary composite) and gcbc (greatest common binary component) in the second one (ai2).2. that, in this context, each possible world U of 2ⁿ elements (terms, acts) can be defined on the basis on n elements of U choosen as “saturated” (intensionally maximal, but possible) in U or, inversely, on the basis of n elements of U choosen as “primitive” (intensionally minimal, but not-universal) in U. In fact, each possible element of U can be defined now as an alternative of saturated elements of U, now as a combination of primitive (opposite to saturated) elements of U; all combinations of saturated elements of U being equivalent to the impossible element (-e, non-entity, resp. impossible act) of U and an alternatives of elements of U being equivalent to the universal element (e, entity, resp. possible act) of U.In the arithmetical representation of each possible world U, the maximal number M (for ai1) or A (for ai2) represents the impossible (non existent) element of U. Now, each possihle world defined by n saturated (resp. primitive) elements can be automatically enlarged (restricted) by the introduction (suppression) of m new (old) saturated (resp. primitive) elements, producing a new possible world U’ where m impossible elements (centaur, pegasus, syren, unicorn, etc.) of U become possible elements of U’ or inversely.After this first type of arithmetical representation of logical calculi, where the terms are -as in Leibniz’s 1679 calculi- represented by natural numbers and the propositions by equations (for universal resp. prescriptive) or inequations (for particular, resp. permissive), in the part III the Author presents a second type of arithmetical representation where propositions are represented by natural numbers and the valid (classical or deontic) syllogisms by true arithmetical relations between the numbers of premisses and the number of conclusion. Here the entire syllogistic adopts the form of a multiplication table wherea syllogism is valid if and only if the lcm (in ai1 ) or the lcbc (in ai2) of the characterlstic numbers of the premisses is a multiple (in ai1) or a binary composite (in ai2) of the characteristic number of the conclusion. (shrink)
Whithin the critique literature scope there are two standpoints as regards Machiavellian Cosmos: On one hand the traditional standpoint embodied by Leo Straus that has belittled the impact of the forces of nature; whereas on the other hand the standpoint headed by Gennaro Sasso, Miguel Angel Granada y Anthony Parel has interpreted the Machiavellian text concerning the debate between neoplatonics and neoaristotelians The Machiavelli´s overuse of a cosmological schema- wherein the life of the politic bodies is explained through an (...) adequate knowledge of the laws of the natural world-is argued in this paper as from the interpretation of the oblivione delle cose concept in D., II, V and D., I, LVI. (shrink)
The article is devoted to the memory of Vyacheslav Semenovich Stepin and Nikita Nikolaevich Moiseev, whose multifaceted work was integrally focused on philosophical, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research of the key ideas and principles of universal human-dimensional evolutionism. Other remarkable Russian scientists V.I. Vernadsky, S.P. Kurdyumov, S.P. Kapitsa, D.S. Chernavsky worked in the same tradition of universal evolutionism. While V.I. Vernadsky and N.N. Moiseev had been the originators of that scientific approach, V.S. Stepin provided philosophical foundations for the ideas of those (...) remarkable scientists and thinkers. The scientific legacy of V.S. Stepin and N.N. Moiseev maintained the formation of a new quality of research into the philosophy of science and technology as well as into the philosophy of culture. This new quality is multidimensional and it is difficult to define unambiguously, but we presume the formation of those areas of philosophical knowledge as constructively oriented languages of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary co-participation of philosophy in the convergent-evolutionary development of scientific knowledge in general. In this regard, attention is paid to V.S. Stepin’s affirmations about non-classical nature of modern social and humanitarian knowledge. Quantum mechanics teaches us that the reality revealed through it is a hybrid construct, or symbiosis, of both mean and object of cognition. Therefore, the very act of cognitive observation constructs quantum reality. Thus, it is very close to the process of cognition in modern sociology and psychology. V.S. Stepin insisted that these principles are applicable to all complex selfdeveloping systems, and such are all “human-dimensional” objects of modern humanities. In all the phases of homeostasis changes, or crises, there is necessarily a share of chaos, instability, uncertainty in the selection process of future development scenarios, which is ineliminably affected by our observation. Therefore, a cognitive observer in the humanities should be considered as a concept of post-non-classical rationality, that is as an observer of complexity. (shrink)
This article interprets the accounts and testimonies of native Chilean Pentecostalism, from a philosophical approach. In these accounts Pentecostal dilemmas are expressed and that oppressed beings prove by the economical and social conditions that the Chilean society lived in the 20th century. These dilemmas manifest anguish produced by absurd, emptiness and loneliness; that rise due to illness, alcoholism and poverty, which leads the individual to critical situations that push him to choose being Pentecostal, stigmatized beings and socially excluded, or to (...) suffer and death. Once they have chosen being Pentecostal the symbolic exodus starts, interpreting the past, the society and individuality in a tragic way. (shrink)
As philosophers of mind we seem to hold in common no very clear view about the relevance that work in psychology or the neurosciences may or may not have to our own favourite questions—even if we call the subject ‘philosophical psychology’. For example, in the literature we find articles on pain some of which do, some of which don't, rely more or less heavily on, for example, the work of Melzack and Wall; the puzzle cases used so extensively in discussions (...) of personal identity are drawn sometimes from the pleasant exercise of scientific fantasy, at times from surprising reports of scientific fact; and there are those who deny, as well as those who affirm, the importance of the discovery of rapid-eye-movement sleep to the philosophical treatment of dreaming. A general account of the relation between scientific, and philosophical, psychology is long overdue and of the first importance. Here I shall limit myself to just one area where the two seem to connect, discussing one type of neuropsychological research and its relevance to questions in the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of psychology. (shrink)
Francisco Suárez Sometimes called the "Eminent Doctor" after Paul V’s designation of him as doctor eximius et pius, Francisco Suárez was the leading theological and philosophical light of Spain’s Golden Age, alongside such cultural icons as Miguel de Cervantes, Tomás Luis de Victoria, and El Greco. Although initially rejected on grounds of deficient health … Continue reading Suárez, Francisco →.
ABSTRACT In this wide-ranging interview Professor Douglas V. Porpora discusses a number of issues. First, how he became a Critical Realist through his early work on the concept of structure. Second, drawing on his Reconstructing Sociology, his take on the current state of American sociology. This leads to discussion of the broader range of his work as part of Margaret Archer’s various Centre for Social Ontology projects, and on moral-macro reasoning and the concept of truth in political discourse.
Wittgenstein's later philosophy and the doctrines of Mahayana Buddhism integral to Zen coincide in a fundamental aspect: for Wittgenstein language has, one might say, a mystical base; and this base is exactly the Buddhist ideal of acting with a mind empty of thought. My aim is to establish and explore this phenomenon. The result should be both a deeper understanding of Wittgenstein and the removal of a philosophical objection to Zen that has troubled some people.
Despite the emergence of computer games as a dominant cultural industry, we know little or nothing about the ethics of computer games. Considerations of the morality of computer games seldom go beyond intermittent portrayals of them in the mass media as training devices for teenage serial killers. In this first scholarly exploration of the subject, Miguel Sicart addresses broader issues about the ethics of games, the ethics of playing the games, and the ethical responsibilities of game designers. He argues (...) that computer games are ethical objects, that computer game players are ethical agents, and that the ethics of computer games should be seen as a complex network of responsibilities and moral duties. Players should not be considered passive amoral creatures; they reflect, relate, and create with ethical minds. The games they play are ethical systems, with rules that create gameworlds with values at play. Drawing on concepts from philosophy and game studies, Sicart proposes a framework for analyzing the ethics of computer games as both designed objects and player experiences. After presenting his core theoretical arguments and offering a general theory for understanding computer game ethics, Sicart offers case studies examining single-player games, multiplayer games, and online gameworlds from an ethical perspective. He explores issues raised by unethical content in computer games and its possible effect on players and offers a synthesis of design theory and ethics that could be used as both analytical tool and inspiration in the creation of ethical gameplay. (shrink)
Recent experimental studies indicate that epistemically irrelevant factors can skew our intuitions, and that some degree of scepticism about appealing to intuition in philosophy is warranted. In response, some have claimed that philosophers are experts in such a way as to vindicate their reliance on intuitions—this has become known as the ‘expertise defence’. This paper explores the viability of the expertise defence, and suggests that it can be partially vindicated. Arguing that extant discussion is problematically imprecise, we will finesse the (...) notion of ‘philosophical expertise’ in order to better reflect the complex reality of the different practices involved in philosophical inquiry. On this basis, we offer a new version of the expertise defence that allows for distinct types of philosophical expertise. The upshot of our approach is that wholesale vindications or rejections of the expertise defence are shown to be unwarranted; we must instead turn to local, piecemeal investigations of philosophical expertise. Lastly, in the spirit of taking our own advice, we exemplify how recent developments from experimental philosophy lend themselves to this approach, and can empirically support one instance of a successful expertise defence. (shrink)
In having an experience one is aware of having it. Having an experience requires some form of access to one's own state, which distinguishes phenomenally conscious mental states from other kinds of mental states. Until very recently, Higher-Order (HO) theories were the only game in town aiming at offering a full-fledged account of this form of awareness within the analytical tradition. Independently of any objections that HO theories face, First/Same-Order (F/SO) theorists need to offer an account of such access to (...) become a plausible alternative. My aim in this paper is twofold. In the first place, I wish to widen the logical space of the discussion among theories of consciousness by offering a distinction, orthogonal to that between F/SO and HO theories, between what I will call 'Self-Involving' (SI) and 'Mental-State-Involving' (MSI) theories and argue in favor of the former one. In the second place, I will present the basics of a characterization of such a Self-Involving theory in Same-Order terms. (shrink)