In this pioneering new book, Sandra Harding and Robert Figueroa bring together an important collection of original essays by leading philosophers exploring an extensive range of diversity issues for the philosophy of science and technology. The essays gathered in this volume extend current philosophical discussion of science and technology beyond the standard feminist and gender analyses that have flourished over the past two decades, by bringing a thorough and truly diverse set of cultural, racial, and ethical concerns to bear on (...) questioning in these areas. Science and Other Cultures charts important new directions in ongoing discussions of science and technology, and makes a significant contribution to both scholarly and teaching resources available in the field. (shrink)
Promoting ethical decisions and behaviors is challenging for any organization. Yet managers are still required to make ethical decisions under conditions which deplete their self-control resources, such as high stress and long hours. This study examines the relationships among symbolic and internal moral identity, self-control, and ethical behavior, and investigates whether self-control acts as the mechanism through which moral identity leads to ethical behavior. Findings indicate that internal moral identity overrides symbolic moral identity in the relationship with self-control and that (...) self-control fully mediates the relationship between internal moral identity and ethical behavior. The implications for organizations is that while rules, procedures, and ethics training are useful, managers with a strong moral compass will be more likely to practice self-control leading to more ethical behaviors. (shrink)
El Foro Global de Bioética en Investigación (GFBR por sus siglas en inglés) se reunió el 3 y 4 de noviembre en Buenos Aires, Argentina, con el objetivo de discutir la ética de la investigación con mujeres embarazadas. El GFBR es una plataforma mundial que congrega a actores clave con el objetivo de promover la investigación realizada de manera ética, fortalecer la ética de la investigación en salud, particularmente en países de ingresos bajos y medios, y promover colaboración entre países (...) del norte y del sur.a Los participantes en el GFBR provenientes de Latinoamérica incluyeron a eticistas, investigadores, miembros de comités de ética y representantes de autoridades sanitarias provenientes de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panamá, Perú, Nicaragua y la República Dominicana. Una legítima preocupación por la protección de las mujeres embarazadas y sus embriones o fetos ha llevado a la mayoría de los países de la Región de las Américas a limitar la realización de estudios con mujeres embarazadas exclusivamente a aquellos estudios específicos sobre el embarazo, y a requerir la exclusión sistemática de las mujeres embarazadas o de las mujeres que quedan embarazadas en el curso del estudio. Ciertamente, a lo largo de la historia de la ética de la investigación, se ha creído erróneamente que proteger a una población es sinónimo de excluirla de los estudios. Se sabe ahora que proceder así implica exponer a riesgos mucho mayores a la población que se busca proteger. El embarazo implica cambios fisiológicos sustantivos e impacta profundamente la manera como el cuerpo metaboliza los medicamentos. Sin embargo, por evitar hacer investigación con mujeres embarazadas, no se ha producido la evidencia científica necesaria para tomar decisiones sobre tratamientos e intervenciones preventivas con dosis eficaces y seguras para ellas y sus embriones o fetos. A manera de ilustración, en el 2001 había en los Estados Unidos apenas más de una docena de medicamentos aprobados para uso en el embarazo (1) y en el 2011 la Food and Drug Administration (FDA) aprobó por primera vez en 15 años un medicamento para su uso en el embarazo (2). Como consecuencia de no haber producido la evidencia necesaria, se pone en riesgo la salud de las mujeres embarazadas cada vez que se les da atención médica. Las mujeres embarazadas se enferman y las mujeres enfermas se embarazan, y no se sabe si los medicamentos que se les da son eficaces o siquiera seguros para ellas y sus embriones o fetos. (shrink)
Pulmonary rehabilitation has demonstrated patients’ physiological and psychosocial improvements, symptoms reduction and health-economic benefits whilst enhances the ability of the whole family to adjust to illness. However, PR remains highly inaccessible due to lack of awareness of its benefits, poor referral and availability mostly in hospitals. Novel models of PR delivery are needed to enhance its implementation while maintaining cost-efficiency. We aim to implement an innovative community-based PR programme and assess its cost-benefit. A 12-week community-based PR will be implemented in (...) primary healthcare centres where programmes are not available. Healthcare professionals will be trained. 73 patients with CRD and their caregivers will compose the experimental group. The control group will include dyads age- and disease-matched willing to collaborate in data collection but not in PR. Patients/family-centred outcomes will be dyspnoea, fatigue, cough and sputum, impact of the disease, emotional state, number of exacerbations, healthcare utilisation, health-related quality of life and family adaptability/cohesion. Other clinical outcomes will be peripheral and respiratory muscle strength, muscle thickness and cross sectional area, exercise capacity, balance and physical activity. Data will be collected at baseline, at 12 weeks, at 3- and 6-months post-PR. Changes in the outcome measures will be compared between groups, after multivariate adjustment for possible confounders, and effect sizes will be calculated. A cost-benefit analysis will be conducted. This study will enhance patients access to PR, by training healthcare professionals in the local primary healthcare centres to conduct such programmes and actively involving caregivers. The cost-benefit analysis of this intervention will provide an evidence-based insight into the economic benefit of community-based PR in chronic respiratory diseases. The trial was registered in the ClinicalTrials. gov U.S. National Library of Medicine, on 10th January, 2019. (shrink)
Why is it so difficult to achieve universal health coverage in the United States? First and foremost, as Richard Kirsch points out in his book, Fighting for Our Health, health care is deeply personal. Since most people in the United States have health insurance, efforts to modify the system understandably cause a certain amount of unease regarding how changes could impact their access to trusted doctors or necessary care.
Recent decades have brought environmental justice studies to a much broader analysis and new areas of concern. We take this increased depth and breadth of environmental justice further by considering restorative justice, with a particular emphasis on reconciliation efforts between indigenous and non-indigenous citizens. Our focus is on the reconciliation efforts taken by the indigenous/non-indigenous jointmanagement structure of Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park. Usinga framework of restorative justice within a bivalent environmental justice approach, we consider the current management policies at the (...) Park, particularly as it pertains to the controversial climb of the rock, Uluṟu. Our exploration of restorative environmental justice depends upon narrative analysis of embodied ecotourism affects in order to determine the capacity and obstacles of reconciliation efforts in the current management policy. Interviews with tourists from the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area supply us with cases that provide affective experiences and a postcolonial narrative analysis of touring practices that we argue are imbued with nationalism and colonial naturalism that must be transformed in order to meet the requests of the Park’s traditional indigenous owners. We argue that restorative justice, within a bivalent environmental justice framework that already emphasizes other distributive and recognition measures, is vital for overcoming these obstacles for Australian environmental heritage. (shrink)
In this paper, a new linear feedback controller for synchronization of two identical chaotic systems in a master-slave configuration is presented. This controller requires knowing a priori Lipschitz constant of the nonlinear function of the chaotic system on its attractor. The controller development is based on an algebraic Riccati equation. If the gain matrix and the matrices of Riccati equation are selected in such a way that a unique positive definite solution is obtained for this equation, then, with respect to (...) previous works, a stronger result can be guaranteed here: the exponential convergence to zero of the synchronization error. Additionally, the nonideal case is also studied, that is, when unmodeled dynamics and/or disturbances are present in both master system and slave system. On this new condition, the synchronization error does not converge to zero anymore. However, it is still possible to guarantee the exponential convergence to a bounded zone. Numerical simulation confirms the satisfactory performance of the suggested approach. (shrink)
ObjectivesTo understand the ethical principles guiding college students’ abstention from pharmacological cognitive enhancement, and to determine the correlates associated with endorsing different principles.DesignOne-stage cluster sampling was used to implement a paper-based survey among undergraduate students attending one university in the U.S. Thematic analysis was used to explore the ethical principles guiding PCE abstention. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine sociodemographic correlates associated with endorsed ethical principles.ParticipantsOf the 499 eligible students who completed the survey, 259 students had a negative (...) attitude towards PCE, did not engage in PCE, and provided reasons for abstention.ResultsThe thematic analysis resulted in the identification of eight themes, with respondents often endorsing more than one theme per response. The three themes most endorsed were non-malfeasance, disapproval of drugs and dosage beneficence. The sociodemographic correlates associated with endorsing each theme varied across themes.ConclusionsStudents abstain from PCE for a multitude of reasons, many of which are guided by ethical principles. These findings may be incorporated into future prevention programming messages. (shrink)
The authors' aim is to provide a more complete picture of a non-anthropocentric relational ethics by addressing the failure to account for environmental justice. They argue that environmental ethics is always more than how discourses are layered over place, by situating moral agency through the body's affective repertoire of being-in-the-world. Empirical evidence for their argument is drawn from self-reflexive accounts of young Americans travelling to Ulu r u-Kata Tju t a National Park, Northern Territory, Australia as part of a study-group. (...) These reflexive travel narratives illustrate the dilemmas that even well-prepared visitors have in negotiating moral pathways invoked by the policy of reconciliation. (shrink)
This paper presents an overview of the goals, structure, and results of an annual, week-long, summer philosophy institute for high school students. Inspired by other similar programs, the Summer Philosophy Institute of Colorado was designed for a culturally diverse group of students, aiming to expose college-track high school students to philosophy, to encourage students in lower-track classifications to pursue college, to offer advising to students on how to make college a reality, to expose both groups of students to critical thinking (...) skills, and to promote cultural diversity in philosophy as a discipline. After explaining why philosophy encourages students in education and why high school students are so well-primed to study it, the authors give a detailed overview of the structure of the institute, including schedule, lesson plan, texts and themes studied, funding, and student demography. The authors conclude by discussing an outreach program that grew out of the SPI-CO and a summary of the initial results of the program. (shrink)
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of p25, an activator of cdk5, led to increased levels of BACE1 mRNA and protein in vitro and in vivo. A p25/cdk5 responsive region containing multiple sites for signal transducer and activator of transcription was identified in the BACE1 promoter. STAT3 interacts with the BACE1 promoter, and p25-overexpressing mice had elevated levels of pSTAT3 and BACE1, whereas cdk5-deficient mice had reduced levels. Furthermore, mice with a (...) targeted mutation in the STAT3 cdk5 responsive site had lower levels of BACE1. Increased BACE levels in p25 overexpressing mice correlated with enhanced amyloidogenic processing that could be reversed by a cdk5 inhibitor. These data demonstrate a pathway by which p25/cdk5 increases the amyloidogenic processing of APP through STAT3-mediated transcriptional control of BACE1 that could have implications for AD pathogenesis. (shrink)
Through case studies that highlight the type of information that is seldom reported in the news, Faces of Environmental Racism exposes the type and magnitude of environmental racism, both domestic and international. The essays explore the justice of current environmental practices, asking such questions as whether cost-benefit analysis is an appropriate analytic technique and whether there are alternate routes to sustainable development in the South.
RESUMEN: Se examina la estructura lógica de la antilogía como forma de pensamiento ejercida por los sofistas. Se sostiene que, si bien en los argumentos antilógicos se encuentran falacias de tipo no formal, al menos algunos de tales razonamientos no son falacias desde un punto de vista simbólico formal, sino que poseen estructuras que hoy se pueden reconstruir como esquemas con validez lógica. Se analizan específicamente dos lugares de argumentaciones sofistas: los denominados Discursos dobles, textos anónimos del IV AC, y (...) la obra principal de Gorgias. Se identifican en ellos 8 argumentos con estructura lógica válida. ABSTRACT: The basic structure of antilogic is examined as a way of thinking exercised by the Sophists. It is sustained that, although fallacies of the non-formal type may be found in antilogic arguments, they have structures that currently may be reconstructed as schemes of logical validity. Specifically, two examples of Sophist argumentation are analyzed: the so-called Double Discourses, anonymous texts from the 4th century b.c., and Gorgias' main works. Eight arguments of valid logical structure are identified in them. (shrink)
El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo describir la funcionalidad discursivo-pragmática de sujetos adultos mayores sanos y con demencia leve, en sus aspectos de coherencia y coherencia pragmática, a través del análisis de producción lingüística oral, de ambos grupos, mediante la tarea denominada “monólogo audible” del protocolo MetAphAs. La muestra fue seleccionada de la base de datos NEUROLEN, en la cual se eligieron 9 sujetos sanos y 9 sujetos con demencia leve. Los datos fueron analizados desde una perspectiva de investigación cualitativa (...) descriptiva, con base en la funcionalidad discursiva-pragmática y la comparación con el marco teórico disponible. Los resultados arrojaron diferencias significativas en el desempeño de ambos grupos de senescentes. A pesar de presentar fallas en la producción del lenguaje a causa del envejecimiento fisiológico, los adultos mayores sanos son capaces de desarrollar comunicación funcional con su entorno, no ocurre lo mismo en el caso de los sujetos con demencia, debido a su deterioro cognitivo, el cual generaría dificultades en la producción discursiva. (shrink)
This article considers María Lugones's concept of faithful witnessing as a point of departure to think about the ethics and possibilities of faithful witnessing in literary contexts. For Lugones, faithful witnessing is an act of aligning oneself with oppressed peoples against the grain of power and recognizing their humanity, oppression, and resistance despite the lack of institutional endorsement. I engage the work of Linda Tuhiwai Smith, Denise Oliver, and other scholars who offer methodologies and discourses on recognition, witnessing, and resistance. (...) I argue that the feminist philosophical concept of faithful witnessing is a critical element of reading decolonial imaginaries. The article undertakes close readings of two novels in the Afro-Latinx and Afro-Hispanic tradition: Donato Ndongo's Shadows of Your Black Memory and Junot Díaz's The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao. In these readings, the concept of faithful witnessing enriches the analysis of religious colonization and the gender violence inherent to coloniality. (shrink)
In this article I argue the need for a reflexive use of photographic images in research, mainly in the publication and dissemination phase and specifically when the topic investigated relates to issues of visibility, in this case racism and understandings of beauty. This analysis draws on my work on contemporary practices of racism in Mexico, where personal photographs were used as research tools in life-story interviews, creating a sense of shared intimacy. Inspired by Barthes' refusal in Camera Lucida to reproduce (...) a photograph of his mother, in this article I focus on the dynamics between seeing and looking and suggest that `looking emotionally' at both participants' accounts and their photographic images, is a way to address the complexities of the gaze and discuss the specificity of different `ways of looking'. The notion of `looking emotionally' refers to an engagement, of researchers and audiences of research, with participants' lived emotional experiences that explicitly confronts the historical and social legacies of the visible. Here, photographs are understood not only as illustrative platforms from where experiences are organized, but also as `traps' that both inform and ensnare . As such, the argument aims to problematize the intimate relationship between gaze and photographic image in a context where racism is constrained to the visible, both in its reproduction and also in its pressing ongoing critique. (shrink)
Este artículo muestra que la preocupación filosófica sobre la violencia está presente en más de un momento en la obra de Jorge Millas y que su ensayo "Las máscaras filosóficas de la violencia" expresa una reflexión sobre este fenómeno que destaca por su hondura y penetración crítica. El análisis del declive ideológico que verifican algunas filosofías proporcionando argumentaciones teóricas que enmascaran o justifican la violencia con propósitos instrumentales, junto al privilegio de la perspectiva de las víctimas al momento de comprender (...) y valorar el hecho violento, son los ejes privilegiados en la presentación y ponderación de la postura de Millas. This article shows that the philosophical concern about violence is present more than once in Jorge Millas' work and that his essay Las máscaras filosóficas de la violencia expresses a reflection on this phenomenon that stands out for its depth and critical insight. The analysis of the ideological decline, verified by some philosophies that provide theoretical arguments which mask or justify violence with instrumental purposes, along with the privilege of the victims' perspective at the time of comprehending and assessing the violent act, are the privileged axes in the presentation and consideration of Millas' stance. (shrink)
This analysis of Mexico’s nanotechnology policies utilizes indicators developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, which in 2008 conducted a pilot survey comparing the nanotechnology policies of 24 countries. In this paper, we apply the same questionnaire to the Mexican case, adding business information derived from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography survey on nanotechnologies, also an OECD instrument.
Bioethics has become a field of new challenges for Ibero-America and the Caribbean. A seeming uniformity in the region hides a rich heterogeneous society. A brief survey of bioethical developments in different Ibero- American countries is provided as well as the bioethical problems and approaches peculiar to the region. Some of the unique features of bioethics in this region, it is suggested, could infuse new life into the U.S. and European bioethics discussion. Finally, a bibliography of Ibero-American bioethics literature is (...) provided for North American and European readers. (shrink)
This study presents an analysis of the active relationship between people suffering from schizophrenia and poetic creation, with the aim of questioning the underlying stereotypes between creative activity and schizophrenia. For a long time, artistic production in schizophrenia has been viewed as fragmentary, cryptic and inaccessible. The artistic and creative skills in people suffering from this condition have been seen as processes filtered by the dysfunctional mechanisms of this pathology. Through a study of the work of Javier Fueyo, a Chilean (...) poet who suffers from schizophrenia, we wish to show that his work does not respond to the traditional conceptions and stereotypes, but rather can be seen as a clear model of poetic creativity operated with great rationality, and in no way can be explained as a result of his personal condition, but as a result of his poetic skills instead. (shrink)
Desde que Peirce la creara, la naturaleza de la inferencia abductiva ha sido interpretada de muchas maneras. Se analizan tres interpretaciones de ella y algunas de sus derivaciones, para luego examinar la posibilidad de considerar la abducción como una virtud argumentativa, de carácter cognitivo, en consonancia con las teorías actuales de las virtudes epistemológicas surgidas a partir de la obra de E. Sosa y de las virtudes argumentativas según A. Aberdein. Sobre la base de dicha interpretación se propone que la (...) abducción puede cumplir con el rol de justificación de aquellas reglas de deducción natural que introducen cláusulas hipotéticas. (shrink)