42 found
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  1.  49
    The Doomsday Argument and the Self–Indication Assumption: Reply to Olum.Nick Bostrom & Milan M. Ćirković - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (210):83–91.
    In a recent paper in this journal, Ken Olum attempts to refute the Doomsday argument by appealing to the self-indication assumption (SIA), the idea that your very existence gives you reason to think that there are many observers. In contrast to earlier refutation attempts that use this strategy, Olum confronts and try to counter some of the objections that have been made against SIA. We argue that his defense of SIA is unsuccessful. This does not, however, mean that one has (...)
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  2.  15
    Space Colonization Remains the Only Long-Term Option for Humanity: A Reply to Torres.Milan M. Cirkovic - unknown
    Recent discussion of the alleged adverse consequences of space colonization by Phil Torres in this journal is critically assessed. While the concern for suffering risks should be part of any strategic discussion of the cosmic future of humanity, the Hobbesian picture painted by Torres is largely flawed and unpersuasive. Instead, there is a very real risk that the skeptical arguments will be taken too seriously and future human flourishing in space delayed or prevented.
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  3.  65
    Anthropic Shadow: Observation Selection Effects and Human Extinction Risks.Milan M. Ćirković, Anders Sandberg & Nick Bostrom - unknown
    We describe a significant practical consequence of taking anthropic biases into account in deriving predictions for rare stochastic catastrophic events. The risks associated with catastrophes such as asteroidal/cometary impacts, supervolcanic episodes, and explosions of supernovae/gamma-ray bursts are based on their observed frequencies. As a result, the frequencies of catastrophes that destroy or are otherwise incompatible with the existence of observers are systematically underestimated. We describe the consequences of the anthropic bias for estimation of catastrophic risks, and suggest some directions for (...)
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  4. Confronting Existential Risks With Voluntary Moral Bioenhancement.Vojin Rakić & Milan M. Ćirković - 2016 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 26 (2):48-59.
    We outline an argument favoring voluntary moral bioenhancement as a response to existential risks humanity exposes itself to. We consider this type of enhancement a solution to the antithesis between the extinction of humanity and the imperative of humanity to survive at any cost. By opting for voluntary moral bioenhancement; we refrain from advocating illiberal or even totalitarian strategies that would allegedly help humanity preserve itself. We argue that such strategies; by encroaching upon the freedom of individuals; already inflict a (...)
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  5. The Thermodynamical Arrow of Time: Reinterpreting the Boltzmann–Schuetz Argument. [REVIEW]Milan M. Cirkovic - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 33 (3):467-490.
    The recent surge of interest in the origin of the temporal asymmetry of thermodynamical systems (including the accessible part of the universe itself) has put forward two possible explanatory approaches to this age-old problem. Hereby we show that there is a third possible alternative, based on the generalization of the classical (“Boltzmann–Schuetz”) anthropic fluctuation picture of the origin of the perceived entropy gradient. This alternative (which we dub the Acausal-Anthropic approach) is based on accepting Boltzmann's statistical measure at its face (...)
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  6.  34
    Enhancing a Person, Enhancing a Civilization: A Research Program at the Intersection of Bioethics, Future Studies, and Astrobiology.Milan M. Ćirković - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (3):459-468.
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  7. Forecast for the Next Eon: Applied Cosmology and the Long-Term Fate of Intelligent Beings. [REVIEW]Milan M. Ćirković - 2004 - Foundations of Physics 34 (2):239-261.
    Cosmology seems extremely remote from everyday human practice and experience. It is usually taken for granted that cosmological data cannot rationally influence our beliefs about the fate of humanity—and possible other intelligent species—except perhaps in the extremely distant future, when the issue of “heat death” (in an ever-expanding universe) becomes actual. Here, an attempt is made to show that it may become a practical question much sooner, if an intelligent community wishes to maximize its creative potential. We estimate, on the (...)
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  8. Anthropic Fluctuations Vs. Weak Anthropic Principle.Milan M. Ćirković - 2002 - Foundations of Science 7 (4):453-463.
    A modern assessment of the classical Boltzmann-Schuetz argument for large-scale entropy fluctuations as the origin of our observable cosmological domain is given.The emphasis is put on the central implication of this picture which flatly contradicts the weak anthropic principle as an epistemological statement about the universe. Therefore, to associate this picture with the anthropic principle as it is usually done is unwarranted. In particular, Feynman's criticism of theanthropic principle based on the entropy-fluctuation picture is a product of this semantic confusion.
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  9.  94
    Book Review: Modern Cosmology. By Scott Dodelson. Academic Press, London, San Diego, California, 2003. Xiii + 440 Pp., $70 (Hardcover). ISBN 0-12-219141-2. [REVIEW]Milan M. Ćirković - 2004 - Foundations of Physics 34 (3):541-544.
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  10.  21
    Enhancing a Person, Enhancing a Civilization: A Research Program at the Intersection of Bioethics, Future Studies, and Astrobiology.Milan M. Ćirković - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (3):459-468.
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  11.  62
    Agencies, Capacities, and Anthropic Self-Selection.Milan M. Cirkovic - 2004 - In Margaret A. Simons, Marybeth Timmermann & Mary Beth Mader (eds.), Philosophical Writings. University of Illinois Press. pp. 27.
  12.  76
    Book Review: By Nick Bostrom. Routledge, New York and London, 2002, Xiii+ 224 Pp., $70 (Hardcover). ISBN 0-415-93858-9. [REVIEW]Milan M. Ćirković - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (11):1797-1801.
  13.  76
    Is the Universe Really That Simple?Milan M. Ćirković - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (7):1141-1157.
    The intriguing recent suggestion of Tegmark that the universe—contrary to all our experiences and expectations—contains only a small amount of information due to an extremely high degree of internal symmetry is critically examined. It is shown that there are several physical processes, notably Hawking evaporation of black holes and non-zero decoherence time effects described by Plaga, as well as thought experiments of Deutsch and Tegmark himself, which can be construed as arguments against the low-information universe hypothesis. Some ramifications for both (...)
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  14.  62
    Misuse of the Anthropic Principle: Quasireligious Pseudoscience Caught in Act.Milan M. Ćirković - 2006 - Theoria 49 (1-2):21-35.
  15. Anthropic Reasoning and the Contemporary Design Argument in Astrophysics: A Reply to Robert Klee.Mark Walker & Milan M. Cirkovic - unknown
    In a recent study of astrophysical “fine-tunings” (or “coincidences”), Robert Klee critically assesses the support that such astrophysical evidence might be thought to lend to the design argument (i.e., the argument that our universe has been designed by some deity). Klee argues that a proper assessment indicates that the universe is not as “fine-tuned” as advertised by proponents of the design arguments. We argue (i) that Klee’s assessment of the data is, to a certain extent, problematic; and (ii) even if (...)
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  16. Is Quantum Suicide Painless? On an Apparent Violation of the Principal Principle.Milan M. Ćirković - 2004 - Foundations of Science 11 (3):287-296.
    The experimental setup of the self-referential quantum measurement, jovially known as the ‘quantum suicide’ or the ‘quantum Russian roulette’ is analyzed from the point of view of the Principal Principle of David Lewis. It is shown that the apparent violation of this principle – relating objective probabilities and subjective chance – in this type of thought experiment is just an illusion due to the usage of some terms and concepts ill-defined in the quantum context. We conclude that even in the (...)
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  17.  4
    The Doomsday Argument and the Self-Indication Assumption: Reply to Olum.Nick Bostrom & Milan M. Ćirković - unknown
    In a recent paper in this journal, Ken Olum attempts to refute the Doomsday argument by appealing to the self-indication assumption, the idea that your very existence gives you reason to think that there are many observers. In contrast to earlier refutation attempts that use this strategy, Olum confronts and try to counter some of the objections that have been made against SIA. We argue that his defense of SIA is unsuccessful. This does not, however, mean that one has to (...)
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  18.  5
    The Doomsday Argument and the Self–Indication Assumption: Reply to Olum.Nick Bostrom & Milan M. Ćirković - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (210):83-91.
    In a recent paper in this journal, Ken Olum attempts to refute the doomsday argument by appealing to the self–indication assumption (SIA) that your very existence gives you reason to think that there are many observers. Unlike earlier users of this strategy, Olum tries to counter objections that have been made against (SIA). We argue that his defence of (SIA) is unsuccessful. This does not, however, mean that one has to accept the doomsday argument (or the other counter–intuitive results that (...)
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  19.  6
    Is Contact a Process?Milan M. Cirkovic - unknown
    Both “optimists” and “sceptics” in regard to extraterrestrial intelligence tend to hold the view that we are entitled to an epistemically clear position: either there will be a signal, in the sufficiently general sense, proving the existence of extraterrestrial intelligence, or no such signal is forthcoming. The distinction, I wish to argue here, is not at all so clear-cut. On the contrary, there are arguments, intrinsic to the subject matter, to the effect that the detection of ETI will be a (...)
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  20.  51
    Stationary Cosmologies and the Anthropic Principle.Milan M. Ćirković - 1999 - Theoria 42 (1-2):81-111.
  21.  43
    Astrophysical Fine Tuning, Naturalism, and the Contemporary Design Argument.Mark A. Walker & Milan M. Ćirković - 2006 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 20 (3):285-307.
    Evidence for instances of astrophysical ‘fine tuning’ is thought by some to lend support to the design argument. We assess some of the relevant empirical and conceptual issues. We argue that astrophysical fine tuning calls for some explanation, but this explanation need not appeal to the design argument. A clear and strict separation of the issue of anthropic fine tuning on one hand and any form of Eddingtonian numerology and teleology on the other, may help clarify arguably the most significant (...)
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  22.  5
    Post-Postbiological Evolution?Milan M. Cirkovic - unknown
    It has already become a commonplace to discuss postbiological evolution in various contexts of futures studies, bioethics, cognitive sciences, philosophical anthropology, or even economics and SETI studies. The assumption is that technological/cultural evolution will soon entirely substitute for the biological processes which underlie human existence – and, by analogy, the existence of other independently evolved intelligent beings, if any. Various modes of postbiological evolution of humans have been envisioned in both fictional and discursive contexts. Little thought has been devoted so (...)
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  23.  12
    Alternative Explanations of the Cosmic Microwave Background: A Historical and an Epistemological Perspective.Milan M. Ćirković & Slobodan Perović - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 62:1-18.
    We historically trace various non-conventional explanations for the origin of the cosmic microwave background and discuss their merit, while analyzing the dynamics of their rejection, as well as the relevant physical and methodological reasons for it. It turns out that there have been many such unorthodox interpretations; not only those developed in the context of theories rejecting the relativistic paradigm entirely but also those coming from the camp of original thinkers firmly entrenched in the relativistic milieu. In fact, the orthodox (...)
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  24.  76
    Too Early? On the Apparent Conflict of Astrobiology and Cosmology.Milan M. Ćirković - 2006 - Biology and Philosophy 21 (3):369-379.
    An interesting consequence of the modern cosmological paradigm is the spatial infinity of the universe. When coupled with naturalistic understanding of the origin of life and intelligence, which follows the basic tenets of astrobiology, and with some fairly incontroversial assumptions in the theory of observation selection effects, this infinity leads, as Ken Olum has recently shown, to a paradoxical conclusion. Olum's paradox is related, to the famous Fermi's paradox in astrobiology and “SETI” studies. We, hereby, present an evolutionary argument countering (...)
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  25.  75
    Three's a Crowd: On Causes, Entropy and Physical Eschatology. [REVIEW]Milan M. Ćirković & Vesna Milošević-Zdjelar - 2004 - Foundations of Science 9 (1):1-24.
    Recent discussions of theorigins of the thermodynamical temporal asymmetry (thearrow of time) by Huw Price and others arecritically assessed. This serves as amotivation for consideration of relationshipbetween thermodynamical and cosmologicalcauses. Although the project of clarificationof the thermodynamical explanandum is certainlywelcome, Price excludes another interestingoption, at least as viable as the sort ofAcausal-Particular approach he favors, andarguably more in the spirit of Boltzmannhimself. Thus, the competition of explanatoryprojects includes three horses, not two. Inaddition, it is the Acausal-Particular approachthat could benefit enormously (...)
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  26.  60
    On a Possible Physical Metatheory of Consciousness.M. Dugic, Milan M. Cirkovic & D. Rakovic - 2002 - Open Systems and Information Dynamics 9:153-166.
  27.  31
    Evolutionary Contingency and SETI Revisited.Milan M. Ćirković - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):539-557.
    The well-known argument against the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) due to George Gaylord Simpson is re-analyzed almost half a century later, in the light of our improved understanding of preconditions for the emergence of life and intelligence brought about by the ongoing “astrobiological revolution”. Simpson’s argument has been enormously influential, in particular in biological circles, and it arguably fueled the most serious opposition to SETI programmes and their funding. I argue that both proponents and opponents of Simpson’s argument have (...)
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  28.  20
    On the Failure of Reductionism in Cosmology.Milan M. Ćirković - 2008 - Theoria: Beograd 51 (1):19-29.
  29.  16
    On the Importance of SETI for Transhumanism.Milan M. Cirkovic - 2003 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 13 (2).
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  30.  20
    Physics Versus Semantics: A Puzzling Case of the Missing Quantum Theory. [REVIEW]Milan M. Ćirković - 2005 - Foundations of Physics 35 (5):817-838.
    A case for the project of excising of confusion and obfuscation in the contemporary quantum theory initiated and promoted by David Deutsch has been made. It has been argued that at least some theoretical entities which are conventionally labelled as “interpretations” of quantum mechanics are in fact full-blooded physical theories in their own right, and as such are falsifiable, at least in principle. The most pertinent case is the one of the so-called “Many-Worlds Interpretation” (MWI) of Everett and others. This (...)
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  31.  6
    Putting the Cart Before the Horse: Co-Evolution of the Universe and Observers as an Explanatory Hypothesis.Milan M. Ćirković & Jelena Dimitrijević - 2018 - Foundations of Science 23 (3):427-442.
    The answer to the fine-tuning problem of the universe has been traditionally sought in terms of either design or multiverse. In philosophy circles, this is sometimes expanded by adding the option of explanatory nihilism—the claim that there is no explanation for statements of that high level of generality: fine-tunings are brute facts. In this paper, we consider the fourth option which, at least in principle, is available to us: co-evolution of the universe and observers. Although conceptual roots of this approach (...)
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  32.  33
    Backward Causation, Isolation and the Pursuit of Justice.Milan M. Cirkovic & Suzana Cveticanin - 2002 - Epistemologia 25 (1):145-162.
    The recent operationalization of the famous Newcomb's game by Schmidt (1998) offers an interesting and thought-provoking look at the plausibility of backward causation in a Newtonian universe. Hereby we investigate two details of the Schmidt's scenario which may, at least in principle, invalidate his conclusion in two different domains: one dealing with the issue of Newtonian predictability in specific instance of human actions, and the other stemming from a possible strategy aimed at obviating the anthropically oriented view of backward causation (...)
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  33.  8
    Anthropic Arguments Outside of Cosmology and String Theory.Milan M. Cirkovic - unknown
    Anthropic reasoning has lately been strongly associated with the string theory landscape and some theories of particle cosmology, such as cosmological inflation. The association is not, contrary to multiple statements by physicists and philosophers alike, necessary. On the contrary, there are clear reasons and instances in which the anthropic reasoning is useful in a diverse range of fields such as planetary sciences, geophysics, future studies, risk analysis, origin of life studies, evolutionary theory, astrobiology and SETI studies, ecology, or even strategic (...)
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  34.  15
    Book Review: Anthropic Bias: Observation Selection Effects in Science and Philosophy. By Nick Bostrom. Routledge, New York and London, 2002, Xiii+224 Pp., $70 (Hardcover). ISBN 0-415-93858-9. [REVIEW]Milan M. Ćirković - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (11):1797-1801.
  35.  31
    Nick Bostrom, Anthropic Bias: Observation Selection Effects in Science and Philosophy. [REVIEW]Milan M. Ćirković - 2003 - Foundations of Science 8 (4):417-423.
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  36.  11
    Kant and Extragalactic Revolution in Astronomy.Milan M. Ćirković - 2004 - Theoria 47 (1-2):95-109.
  37.  6
    Putting the Cart Before the Horse: Co-Evolution of the Universe and Observers as an Explanatory Hypothesis.Milan M. Cirkovic & Jelena Dimitrijevic - unknown
    The answer to the fine-tuning problem of the universe has been traditionally sought in terms of either design or multiverse. In philosophy circles, this is sometimes expanded by adding the option of explanatory nihilism – the claim that there is no explanation for statements of that high level of generality: fine-tunings are brute facts. In this paper, we consider the fourth option which, at least in principle, is available to us: co-evolution of the universe and obsevers. Although conceptual roots of (...)
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  38.  13
    Arsenijević, Dyson, Singularity.Milan M. Ćirković - 2000 - Theoria 43 (1-2):87-103.
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  39.  7
    Cosmological Forecast and Its Practical Significance.Milan M. Ćirković - 2002 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 12 (1).
  40. A Review of Ian McDonald's Brasyl. [REVIEW]Milan M. Cirkovic - 2008 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 17 (1):84-92.
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  41. Book Review: Justina Robson's Natural History. [REVIEW]Milan M. Cirkovic - 2007 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 16 (1):167-170.
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  42. Sailing the Archipelago.Milan M. Cirkovic - 2009 - Collapse 5.
     
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