The aim of being able to reason about quantities, time or space has been the main objective of the many efforts on the integration of propositional planning with extensions to handle different theories. Planning modulo theories are an approximation inspired by satisfiability modulo theories that generalize the integration of arbitrary theories with propositional planning. Parallel plans are crucial to reduce plan lengths and hence the time needed to reach a feasible plan in many approaches. Parallelization of actions relies on the (...) notion of interference, which is usually determined syntactically at compile time. In this paper we define a semantic notion of interference between actions in PMT. Apart from being strictly stronger than any syntactic notion of interference, we show how semantic interference can be easily and efficiently checked by calling an off-the-shelf SMT solver at compile time, constituting a technique orthogonal to the solving method. (shrink)
Biologists and philosophers often use the language of determination in order to describe the nature of developmental phenomena. Accounts in terms of determination have often been reductionist. One common idea is that DNA is supposed to play a special explanatory role in developmental explanations, namely, that DNA is a developmental determinant. In this article we try to make sense of determination claims in developmental biology. Adopting a manipulationist approach, we shall first argue that the notion of developmental determinant is causal. (...) We suggest that two different theses concerning developmental determination can be articulated: determination of occurrence and structural determination. We shall argue that, while the first thesis is problematic, the second, opportunely qualified, is feasible. Finally, we shall argue that an analysis of biological causation in terms of determination cannot account for entangled dynamics. Characterising causal entanglement as a particular kind of interactive causation whereby difference-making causes ascribable to different levels of biological organisation influence a particular ontogenetic outcome, we shall, via two illustrative examples, diagnose some potential limits of a reductionist, molecular and intra-level understanding of biological causation. (shrink)
This article explores links between the modern theory of rational choice and ethics. Ethics allows us to answer an unsolved question in modern decision theory: the structuring problem in decisions. Such a problem cannot be solved coming from the principle of expected utility. This principle can solve the problem of ‚choosing’ among given alternatives, but does not establish which alternatives should be taken into account in decision. In order to understand the structuring problem, the act of ‚choosing’ has to be (...) completed with three human acts: operating, predicting and evaluating. At the same time, the subjective criteria of rational choice – probability and utility – have to be completed with three objective criteria: efficiency, truth and goodness. Utility is a subjective value of an alternative considered in relation to another. Efficiency, truth and goodness are objective qualities of the joint alternatives in relation to the reality: the real operating possibilities of the agent, the real possibilities of his environment and the true good produced. So, the rule that guarantees a decision to be optimal would be: “do that which most certainly maximises our preferences, according to real operative resources, true knowledge and the right will”. However, this rule cannot be applied without the development of virtues, which could be seen as the main moral competences in decision-making. (shrink)
This article is a conceptual contribution on how to make human habitat more sustainable. Taking Heidegger’s conception of “dwelling” as a starting point, a new form of understanding the organization of the city as a human habitat is proposed. It is argued that human habitat is today in crisis and that such crisis has its roots in a spatial understanding of human dwelling, disregarding its temporal-historical dimension. For long time, the city has been considered as a physical “place” and its (...) organization—the urban planning—has been addressed in terms of “locating”. Many of the challenges in organizing habitat are the result of reducing the organization of the city to the organization of physical space. One of these is the conflict between preservation and development, a central issue in approaching sustainability. The aim of this article is to propose a new perspective on the organization of human dwelling, which overcomes the spatial-based conception of habitat and involves its temporal dimension. The meaning of human “habitat” as a historical process for developing “habits” will be recovered, and the implications for organization of the city considered. Human habitat is above all an ethical space, constituted in a spatial–temporal process of developing learning and capabilities. This habitat can be shared and developed infinitely so that a pathway is opened for overcoming the logic of competition and the conflict between sustainability and development. Finally, three forms of the human habitat as an “ethical space” are proposed. (shrink)
As is well known,taṣawwurandtaṣdīq,conceptualization and assent, are essential notions in the epistemology of Arabo-Islamic philosophy. Conceptualization amounts to the definition of an object of knowledge, and assent to the recognition,viasome kind of reasoning, that this definition is true. One of the authors who dealt with both topics in greatest depth was al-Fārābī, whoseoeuvreexerted a profound influence on Ibn Bājja. This article analyzes the materials ontaṣawwurandtaṣdīqfound in Ibn Bājja's notes regarding al-Fārābī's writings on logic and scientific method, namely the glosses toKitāb (...) al-Burhān. The analysis shows, on the one hand, that he understood perfectly the importance of both terms in al-Fārābī's construal of Aristotle's scientific method; and on the other, that he used them to deal with human thought processes. Indeed, conceptualization and assent were essential notions for Ibn Bājja, and underlie some of his best-known works.RésuméIl est bien connu que les notions detaṣawwur et detaṣdīq sont tout à fait centrales dans l’épistémologie de la philosophie arabo-islamique. La “conceptualisation” désigne la définition d'un objet de connaissance, et l’“assentiment” la reconnaissance de la véracité de la définition, par un raisonnement d'un certain type. Parmi les auteurs ayant traité ces deux thèmes le plus en profondeur figure al-Fārābī, qui a exercé sur Ibn Bājja une influence décisive. Cet article analyse les passages relatifs àtaṣawwurettaṣdīqdans les notes d'Ibn Bājja aux écrits de logique et de méthodologie scientifique d'al-Fārābī, en particulier ses gloses auKitāb al-Burhān. On montre ainsi qu'Ibn Bājja a parfaitement saisi l'importance de ces deux termes dans la lecture farabienne de la méthode scientifique aristotélicienne, et qu'il les a employés pour traiter de certaines activités mentales. En effet ces deux notions, centrales chez Ibn Bājja, sont à la base de certaines de ses œuvres les plus fameuses. (shrink)
This article lists the medical works written by Ibn Bājja, overviews those that have come down to us and studies the super-commentary of Galen's commentary to Hippocrates'Aphorisms. This text shows a deep influence of al-Fārābī, namely in a conception of medical experience which stems from the latter's construal of experience as the inductive process described by Aristotle inPosterior Analyticswhich brings the premises of demonstration. On this basis, Ibn Bājja advocated for a less scholastic, more empiric medicine, and his claim was (...) echoed by Ibn Rushd. There are some similarities between Ibn Bājja's text and Ibn Rushd'sK. al-Kulliyyāt fī al-ṭibbwhich suggest that the latter had readSharḥ fī al-Fuṣūl.This work gives moreover some evidence that human dissection could have been performed during Ibn Bājja's time.RésuméLe présent article propose la liste des œuvres médicales composées par Ibn Bājja, donne une présentation synthétique de celles qui nous ont été transmises et étudie le métacommentaire au commentaire de Galien sur lesAphorismesd'Hippocrate. Ce texte montre une influence profonde d'al- Fārābī, en particulier dans sa conception de l'expérience médicale, qui remonte à la façon dont ce dernier construit l'expérience comme le procédé inductif, décrit par Aristote dans lesSeconds Analytiques, produisant les prémisses de la démonstration. Sur cette base, Ibn Bājja défend la pertinence d'une médecine moins scolastique et plus empirique, une position dont Ibn Rushd se fera l'écho. Des similitudes entre le texte d'Ibn Bājja et leK. al-Kulliyyāt fī al-ṭibbd'Ibn Rushd suggèrent que celui-ci avait lu leSharḥ fī al-Fuṣūl. Cette œuvre, en outre, pourrait bien attester que la dissection humaine était pratiquée à l'époque d'Ibn Bājja. (shrink)
Desde la actual teoría general de la acción se han levantado objeciones contra lavalidez como saber transcendental de la Crítica de la razónpráctica. Se la acusa de haber deducido la libertad del «Faktum» moral en vez de deducir la moralidad de una libertad moralmente neutray íranscendentalmente ya asentada en el desarrollo crítico teórico. Un estudio atento de la obra revela, sin embargo, que en ella no se abandona la «reflexión» crítica y es justamente por ello que la moralidad puede entenderse (...) como la doctrina transcendental de la libertad. (shrink)
This article attempts to show that, in opposition to analytical and phenomenological traditions, when Bergson examines the epistemological problem of the measurement of sensations, he tries to connect it with the philosophical question of human freedom, which science cannot solve. It is not possible to conclude that every philosophical problem is a scientific problem. But philosophy does not come first. It needs an indirect approach and a metaphorical language. As Bergson says, intuition is riding intelligence. The problem of measuring sensation (...) concerns the difficulty of establishing sensation as a mental object or a representation that can be compared or distinguished from others. What sensation does is not separate from what it does to us. It is not only something thought, it is something lived and connected with duration, like human freedom, which is nothing but a specific feeling. This living is not a phenomenological illusion, it is a naturalistic puzzle. If we take the Bergsonian conclusion, sensation is simply a spiritualistic reality. We contest this dual approach, but we try to separate this wrong solution from the very accurate puzzle that Bergson presents us with. (shrink)
This paper contains a joint study of two sentential logics that combine a many-valued character, namely tetravalence, with a modal character; one of them is normal and the other one quasinormal. The method is to study their algebraic counterparts and their abstract models with the tools of Abstract Algebraic Logic, and particularly with those of Brown and Suszko's theory of abstract logics as recently developed by Font and Jansana in their "A General Algebraic Semantics for Sentential Logics". The logics studied (...) here arise from the algebraic and lattice-theoretical properties we review of Tetravalent Modal Algebras, a class of algebras studied mainly by Loureiro, and also by Figallo, Landini and Ziliani, at the suggestion of the late Antonio Monteiro. (shrink)
Advancing the reductionist conviction that biology must be in agreement with the assumptions of reductive physicalism (the upward hierarchy of causal powers, the upward fixing of facts concerning biological levels) A. Rosenberg argues that downward causation is ontologically incoherent and that it comes into play only when we are ignorant of the details of biological phenomena. Moreover, in his view, a careful look at relevant details of biological explanations will reveal the basic molecular level that characterizes biological systems, defined by (...) wholly physical properties, e.g., geometrical structures of molecular aggregates (cells). In response, we argue that contrary to his expectations one cannot infer reductionist assumptions even from detailed biological explanations that invoke the molecular level, as interlevel causal reciprocity is essential to these explanations. Recent very detailed explanations that concern the structure and function of chromatin—the intricacies of supposedly basic molecular level—demonstrate this. They show that what seem to be basic physical parameters extend into a more general biological context, thus rendering elusive the concepts of the basic level and causal hierarchy postulated by the reductionists. In fact, relevant phenomena are defined across levels by entangled, extended parameters. Nor can the biological context be explained away by basic physical parameters defining molecular level shaped by evolution as a physical process. Reductionists claim otherwise only because they overlook the evolutionary significance of initial conditions best defined in terms of extended biological parameters. Perhaps the reductionist assumptions (as well as assumptions that postulate any particular levels as causally fundamental) cannot be inferred from biological explanations because biology aims at manipulating organisms rather than producing explanations that meet the coherence requirements of general ontological models. Or possibly the assumptions of an ontology not based on the concept of causal powers stratified across levels can be inferred from biological explanations. The incoherence of downward causation is inevitable, given reductionist assumptions, but an ontological alternative might avoid this. We outline desiderata for the treatment of levels and properties that realize interlevel causation in such an ontology. (shrink)
Nous interrogeons le phénomène de la folie à la lumière de l’enseignement de Jacques Lacan. Elle a supposé une restitution de la dimension du sujet de la parole et du langage, ainsi que du sujet de la jouissance, dans un renversement éthique qui n’est repérable que dans l’expérience de la psychanalyse. Nous faisons un parcours des premiers textes de Lacan, lors de son passage de la psychiatrie à la psychanalyse, jusqu’aux conséquences repérables dans la dernière partie de son enseignement, où (...) les termes du « sinthome » et de « lalangue » permettent de replacer le sujet de la folie dans la structure. (shrink)
Desde la actual teoría general de la acción se han levantado objeciones contra la validez como saber transcendental de la critica de la razón práctica. Se la acusa de haber deducido la libertad del "faktum" moral en vez de deducir la moralidad de una libertad moralmente neutra y transcendentalmente ya asentada en el desarrollo critico teórico. Un estudio atento a la obra revela, sin embargo, que en ella no se abandona la "reflexión" crítica y es justamente por ello que la (...) moralidad puede entenderse como la doctrina transcendental de la libertad. (shrink)
There is both individual and collective widespread concern in society about the impact of human activity and the effects of our decisions on the physical and social environment. This concern is included within the idea of sustainability. The meaning of the concept is still ambiguous and its practical effectiveness disputed. Like many other authors, this article uses as a starting point the definition proposed by the World Commission on Environment and Development, considering it to be a proposal for changing the (...) assessment of the effects of decisions, from at least two perspectives: what effects we should consider and how we should assess them. Based on this double perspective, sustainability is explored as a method for decision-making which both expands the assessment of the consequences, and also provides an objective criterion for such assessment. It will be argued that the idea of sustainability, seen from this perspective, brings to decision-making two qualities which had been partially lost: realism and impartiality. In turn, the criteria for realism and impartiality in decision-making can be used to identify the limitations of some partial approaches to sustainability, which suffer from insufficient realism, insufficient impartiality or both phenomena at once. The article concludes by demonstrating how realism and impartiality provide the basis for a new form of sustainable decision-making, which is dependent on the development of two moral virtues, prudence and benevolence, and which brings practical effectiveness and ethical sense to the concept of sustainability. (shrink)
A través de Filón la consideración escritutaria en torno a la disimilitud esencial entre Dios y sus criaturas irrumpió en el seno de la reflexión filosófica propia de Grecia. Dicha disimilitud comportaba la perfecta trascendencia de Aquél, y esto llevó a Filón a contemplarlo también como carente de cualidades (apoios), proclamando que de Él no pueden predicarse sino propiedades (idiotetes). Se pretende asimismo mostrar que la introducción de aquella disimilitud está en el origen del Uno o Primer Principio de Plotino.
Philo introduced into Greek Philosophy the idea of God’s absolute unlikeness with respect to his creatures, a thesis which implies that He is perfectly transcendent and consequently that He is without qualities (apoios) and that nothing can be predicated of Him except proprieties (idiotetes). Our aim is also to clarify that Philo’s consideration of God’s Nature is in the origen of Plotinus’ First Principle or One.
El propósito del artículo es dar cuenta de ciertas peculiaridades de la controversia predestinataria queprotagonizaron, en el siglo IX, Godescalco y sus seguidores, por un lado, y Rabano Mauro e Hincmarode Reims como sus máximos oponentes. En particular nos parece de interés advertir que las diversas interpretacionesacerca de la predestinación divina tuvieron un modo distinto de aproximación por parte delas dos facciones, algo que tendría un origen, a nuestro parecer, en las antagónicas geografías espiritualesen las que se produjeron dichas especulaciones, (...) y ello pudo estar también en la base de la mutua incomprensiónentre quienes defendían posiciones doctrinales que, a la postre —algo que se entiende probarasimismo en el artículo— no estaban tan distanciadas entre sí como podría hacer sospechar elencarnizamiento con que se produjo la polémica.The aim of this paper is to clarify certain details of the predestinarian controversy that took place inFrance in the ninth century, between Gottschalck and his followers, on one side, and their opponents RabanMaur and Hincmar of Reims on the other. We consider it interesting to point out that their interpretationsconcerning divine predestination had their origins in different places in France, and we can refer, in thissense, to distinct spiritual geographies in their opposed approaches to God’s foreknowledge of futureevents. We will also try to prove that the two proposals concerning the nature of predestination were not so conflicting as the intensity of the controversy seems to reflect. (shrink)
El silencio como alabanza a Dios se halla, en la teología de Maimónides, imbricado con sus consideraciones en torno a la naturaleza de la esencia de Aquél, que se revelará como absolutamente incognoscible. En Guía I Maimónides destaca que el conocimiento divino y el humano no tienen nada de común entre sí, pero aun siendo así podemos orientar nuestro intelecto hacia la consideración de Su naturaleza a través de la ‘expresión aproximativa’ , si bien ello no nos permitirá alcanzar a (...) entender Su esencia. Según el de Córdoba, alabamos a Dios a través del silencio, aunque expresamos también nuestro acercamiento a él mediante los atributos de acción y por la vía de la negación de cualquier atributo que pudiera asociarse a Su naturaleza. (shrink)
El objetivo del artículo es exponer la doctrina acosmista que se halla en la cábala de Luria, tal como la describe Abraham Cohen de Herrera en Puerta del cielo, y cómo pudo ocurrir que a través de la lectura de esta obra aquella doctrina influyera en la concepción de Spinoza sobre la irrealidad de los modos.
Silence as praise to God is directly linked in Maimonides’ theology to some asserts concerning divine nature which makes Him absolutely unknowable. In Guide I (chapters 50 to 60) Maimonides considers that divine and human knowledge and nature have nothing in common, but even so we can direct our mind towards God through ‘looseness of expression’ (tasāmuh), a device which, nevertheless, doesn’t allow us to grasp His essence. According to Maimonides, we worship God through silence even if we can express (...) our attempt to approach him through attributes of action and the negation of any attribute that could express an essence. (shrink)
In Visión Deleytable, after explaining the absurdities and contradictions contained in several opinions on providence, Sabieza declares that it will be revealed the one she considers true, but then she argues that all they are partly true. Our aim in this paper is to prove that, in the study of the contradictions found in the Prologue of Maimonides’ Guide of the Perplexed, as well as in the various conceptions of God that coexist in this work, and even in Rabbinical Literature, (...) is traceable in nuce a Kabbalistic doctrine that could foreshadow Alfonso de la Torre’s conception of providence, namely, that truth is in multiplicity merely ‘from the perspective of the recipients’. (shrink)