Many Christian scholars, if not all of them, consider Genesis to be foundational texts of the Bible and the spring for all the other doctrines of the Scripture. Therefore, I'm considering the attempt to search and find arguments for cell therapy ethical issues in the fundamental text of Genesis as a challenging and educative task. Moreover, this could be the first step in analyzing the relationships between Christian religions and bioethics, in terms of finding reasonable decisions for ethical challenges, raised (...) by the current biomedical research. As for many other dilemmas of humanity, we have to recall the text of Genesis for analyzing the goodness or evilness of our actions in translational medicine, even though that is not the only way to get a reasonable ethical decision. My contribution is an essay that is trying to correlate the Genesis lessons with the needed arguments in deciding what could be good and what could be evil in the stem cell research, according to the religious convictions. The biggest challenges of biomedical research for Christian religions were due to the human cloning issue, made possible by the somatic cell nuclear transfer, but those challenges update the older debates on birth control pill, technologically assisted reproduction, or gene therapy. Issues related to in vitro fertilization, gene enhancement and gene therapy, human cell cloning, embryonic stem cell using, and chimera cell obtaining for research are being considered and related to the putative arguments extracted from the book of Genesis, describing the origins. As a matter of fact, I may conclude that the single way to reach a reasonable ethical decision in our society is to intersect ethics, science and theology and to engage large debates involving scientists, theologians, civil society representatives, ethicists (experts in applied ethics) and moral philosophers, having the two latest professionals as referees. (shrink)
This article analyses the concept of “the loss of time” in the essays of Mircea Eliade. This concept is shown to be an instrument of knowledge and a form of freedom that saves the human being from falling into historicity, and opens a point of access towards authenticity. The article critically discusses the temporal alternatives of the modern human being: capitalized time, free time, and personal time. The loss of time is subsequently shown to be both a technique for (...) obtaining salvation, and a domination technique de- scribed in scientific works. Finally, the invitation of losing time is seen as a re-activation of an a priori structure that makes possible the “humanitarian engagement” of Eliade in order to re-actualize the sacred at the conscious level of the modern human being, as well as an attempt at revalorization of parusia for the religious Christian. (shrink)
O filósofo Mircea Eliade, dentre seus ofícios, foi um escritor. Para ele, a literatura busca investigar e compreender os significados universais da criação e dos fenômenos – em especial, em seus romances, os fenômenos religiosos. Herdeiro da tradição literária existencialista que marcou, sobretudo, os grandes filósofos e romancistas franceses (como Jean-Paul Sartre e Albert Camus), sua obra literária possui uma unidade fundamental: a inquietação com o tempo e o sagrado. O objetivo desta pesquisa é apresentar a relação de (...) class='Hi'>Mircea Eliade com a literatura, principalmente as ideias e vivências acerca da aproximação entre literatura e religião no pensamento do autor. O método utilizado para esta pesquisa foi, preferencialmente, o analítico, com incidência hermenêutica. Ao analisar os textos e artigos do autor e sobre o autor, conclui-se que a literatura existencial possui um papel fundamental na vida de Eliade e que ela é uma ferramenta entre outras para explorar e apresentar sentidos e significados acerca do ser humano no mundo. Palavras-chave : Mircea Eliade. Literatura. Narrativa. Mundo. Constituição.The philosopher Mircea Eliade was a particularly great writer. According to Eliade, the literature seeks to investigate and understand the universal meanings of creation and phenomena – especially, among his novels, the religious phenomena. Heir to the existential literary tradition that marked, above all, the great French novelists and philosophers (such as Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus), Eliade’s literary work has a fundamental unit: the concern with time and the sacred. The aim of this research is to present the relationship of Mircea Eliade with the literature, especially the ideas and experiences on the approach between literature and religion in Eliade’s thought. The method used for this research was the analytic method with hermeneutic incidence. After the analysis on Eliade’s texts and articles and texts and articles about the author, we conclude that the existential literature has a fundamental function in Eliade’s life and it is an efficient tool to investigate and present to the world the meanings about the human being within the world. Key words: Mircea Eliade. Literature. Narrative. World. Constitution. (shrink)
This article is about Mircea Eliade’s rapport to exile, both his and other Romanians’. His approach of the exilic experience allows an incursion into the “diaspora” semantic field in the study Theorizing Diaspora by Jana Evans Braziler and Anita Mannur and a look at Eliade as a “diasporic subject”. To Eliade, the relationship with homeland and the diasporic identity assume religious significance. He urges members of the Romanian diaspora to hold the native country sacred as a ‘Jerusalem in the (...) Sky’. A strong believer in the salvaging power of cultural creation over the political factor, he wanted his work to be a response to the communist regime in Romania. (shrink)
he article analyzes The Letters for a Provincial, addressed by Mircea Eliade to a hypothetical provincial in order to prepare access to the capital city. The letters are written so as to dislocate the provincial from a cultural model built on fake values and prejudices. From a mere pretext, the letters are turned into a symbolic act through which the historian of religions assumes, on the one hand, the destiny of a messenger of a new humanism, and, on the (...) other hand, transforms the modern areligious man into a destination point for whom the provincial is the archetype. Thus, in all of Eliade’s works one can trace the same pattern of dislocation of the partial man, disconnected from archetypes and milestones, in order to re-install him on the road towards the Center, through anthropology structured on cosmic reintegration, alchemy or androgyny in the books of the Romanian period, recovery of the eternal recursion in the Western treatises, and also through the theory of the irecognoscibility of the miracle, in his last essays. The end of the article proposes an answer from the present provincial, who for Eliade was still in the future, an answer showing that the messages of the historian of religions are not reaching him, because he has lost the road towards the Center; moreover, he is situated in an ill-fated extraterritoriality, that is made possible through the great integrations at a horizontal level, and his chance would be the return to the story. (shrink)
Eliade and the Doctrine of Mystic Lights Eliade believed that in every religion there are reports about an experience of mystic light. Furthermore, all such reports mention that the person who experienced the light subsequently underwent a deep transformation of her or his spirit and began a new life, the life of a holy man or homo religiosus, which is identical – in its purest form – with the life of a mystic. A clear example of one such transformation is (...) Saul turning into Paul. But a closer analysis indicates, says the Author, that these changes can be of two kinds. They either come suddenly to an unsuspecting and unprepared individual, and that was the case of Saul, or they are a result of concentrated spiritual training, and such a case was described by Gregory Palamas. The former transformation leads to a religious conversion, the latter is the beginning of a new, mystic life. The Author argues that these forms of experience are seeing without using eyes, and as such, they may have served as a paradigm of vivid mental understanding. He quotes Plato and Heidegger to support these views. (shrink)
By the end of World War II, religion appeared to be on the decline throughout the United States and Europe. Recent world events had cast doubt on the relevance of religious belief, and modernizing trends made religious rituals look out of place. It was in this atmosphere that the careers of Scholem, Eliade, and Corbin--the twentieth century's legendary scholars in the respective fields of Judaism, History of Religions, and Islam--converged and ultimately revolutionized how people thought about religion. Between 1949 and (...) 1978, all three lectured to Carl Jung's famous Eranos circle in Ascona, Switzerland, where each in his own way came to identify the symbolism of mystical experience as a central element of his monotheistic tradition. In this, the first book ever to compare the paths taken by these thinkers, Steven Wasserstrom explores how they overturned traditional approaches to studying religion by de-emphasizing law, ritual, and social history and by extolling the role of myth and mysticism. The most controversial aspect of their theory of religion, Wasserstrom argues, is that it minimized the binding character of moral law associated with monotheism.The author focuses on the lectures delivered by Scholem, Eliade, and Corbin to the Eranos participants, but also shows how these scholars generated broader interest in their ideas through radio talks, poetry, novels, short stories, autobiographies, and interviews. He analyzes their conception of religion from a broadly integrated, comparative perspective, sets their distinctive thinking into historical and intellectual context, and interprets the striking success of their approaches. (shrink)
The religious consciousness functions symbolically. As the orientation towards the sacred belongs to consciousness, human existence is constituently symbolic. For Eliade, symbolism is an immediate given of consciousness, an essential object of intelligence that belongs to human beings and can be found in any existential situation of man in cosmos. If, according to Eliade, the religious history of humanity begins with the existence of the sacred, with those infinite hierophanies which organize the world and fill it with significances, then we (...) are entitled to state the anthropological importance invested by Eliade into the religious symbolism. (shrink)
The aim of this study is to analyse the fundamentals of Eliade’s view of the History of Religions, with a focus on the origins of this view, in the context of the criticism against the field of study corresponding to religious studies as they have developed over the last two centuries. The first part of the study briefly evaluates religious studies as to where it falls on a spectrum ranging from scientific objectivity to ideology, while the second part aims at (...) developing the hypothesis according to which the principles of the study of religions are found in the notion of “experience,” under the determinative influence of Nae Ionescu’s lectures. (shrink)
his study attempts to reveal how ideology can be a determinative exponent for a negative interpretation of religion. Ideology and its processes are such powerful inducements that even a spirit like Eliade’s (or Heidegger’s, Sartre’s, Cioran’s, and Noica’s, in the 20th century) couldn’t resist them. This text also reveals, in its connotation, that an impersonal interpretation is preferred for one who is defined by political or, generally speaking, ideological motives.
Mircea Eliade, often described by scholars and in the popular press as the world's most influential scholar of religion, symbolism, and myth, was trained as a philosopher, received his Ph.D. in philosophy, and taught in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Bucharest in the 1930s. Although he became a historian and phenomenologist of religion within the field of religious studies, his approach, methodology, and analysis are informed by philosophical assumptions and philosophical normative judgments. In several of his (...) writings, he goes far beyond the history and phenomenology of religion and presents a strong critique of contemporary Western philosophy as part of his larger critique of contemporary Western culture. He submits that contemporary philosophy,as a development of the Enlightenment, claims to be universal, but is in fact ethnocentric and provincial; claims to be innovative and creative, but is in fact increasingly trivial, insignificant, and uncreative. Eliade repeatedly charges that contemporary philosophy is bankrupt and desperately in need of renewal. I shall provide his philosophical critique of dominant Western philosophy, his analysis of self-other encounters, and his alternatives for philosophical renewal through the emerging confrontations, engagements, and creative dialogues between Asian, other non-Western, and Western philosophical perspectives. (shrink)
As Mircea Eliade’s translator and biographer Mac Linscott Rickett states, Eliade involved the whole discipline of the history of religions in the quest for meaning. The paper examines Eliade’s approach of religious documents, with benefits and shortcomings as appraised by some of his American critics, and looks closely at the Eliadean creative hermeneutics and the ambitious mission he envisaged for the discipline he has founded in the United States.
Plusieurs commentateurs n’ont retenu que le premier moment de la dialectique du sacré de Mircea Eliade, celui essentialiste où l’archétype surplombe l’histoire, négligeant de considérer le second où l’archétype n’existe qu’à travers sa réalisation dans l’histoire. Ils donnent ainsi l’impression qu’Eliade est un penseur anhistorique qui conçoit le temps surtout à partir de l’éternité et non pour lui-même. Une analyse plus serrée révèle cependant qu’Eliade est un penseur beaucoup plus historique qu’il n’y paraît à première vue. En effet, Eliade (...) considère le miracle de l’Incarnation comme étant la hiérophanie suprême et les autres hiérophanies comme ses préfigurations. (shrink)
This paper examines philosophical foundations of Mircea Eliade's creative hermeneutics. Analyzing his concept of “terror of history” and autobiography, I will argue that his philosophy of religion is useful for Korean scholars to recognize the meaning of Korean religions, which have been overlooked by Western scholars of religions. Paying attention to the continuities between his life and thought, I will explain Eliade’s “primitive ontology” and defend recent criticisms of his method and theory. His views on “new humanism” and “cosmic (...) religion” are also included in the paper. (shrink)
For the History of Religions as a discipline, Mircea Eliade’s Patterns in Comparative Religion represents a fundamental paper. By carefully analyzing each chapter, we try to catch the accuracy proved by Mircea Eliade in building his arguments and to decipher the meaning of the archetypes dominating the human existence and the way in which the sacred forms are perceived.
This anthology is a collection of key essays by and about the Romanian-American Historian of Religions, Mircea Eliade. It introduces the beginning student to the terms and categories of Eliade's understanding of religious behaviour as a universal phenomenon: apprehension of the sacred by homo religiosus, humanity's religious mode, through hierophanies, revelatory events and objects. The analysis of religious behaviour as the restoration of illud tempus, an alternative continuum of sacred time, through myth, ritual, and symbol is a central feature (...) of that understanding, assumed to have an authentic application in the struggle for freedom from the human condition. As well as Eliade's own understanding and its implication for the study of Religions, the collection alerts the reader to the critical response to the problems of his thought. This includes the issues raised by Eliade's biography, politics, and career as one of the most successful and influential historians of religion of the late 20th Century. Moving from inter-war Romania, through India during the struggle for independence, to war-time London and Lisbon, post-war Paris, and finally to America in the 60s and 70s, Eliade's career traces a complex trajectory involving many problems central to the academic study of religion and culture. (shrink)
Through a biographical exegesis of Eliade's life and writings, Cave sets forward a structural description of what this "new humanism" might have meant for Eliade, and what it signifies for modern culture.