Results for 'Miriam Pinkesz'

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  1. Country Reports.Ma'N. H. Zawati, Don Chalmers, Sueli G. Dallari, Marina de Neiva Borba, Miriam Pinkesz, Yann Joly, Haidan Chen, Mette Hartlev, Liis Leitsalu, Sirpa Soini, Emmanuelle Rial-Sebbag, Nils Hoppe, Tina Garani-Papadatos, Panagiotis Vidalis, Krishna Ravi Srinivas, Gil Siegal, Stefania Negri, Ryoko Hatanaka, Maysa Al-Hussaini, Amal Al-Tabba', Lourdes Motta-Murgía, Laura Estela Torres Moran, Aart Hendriks, Obiajulu Nnamuchi, Rosario Isasi, Dorota Krekora-Zajac, Eman Sadoun, Calvin Ho, Pamela Andanda, Won Bok Lee, Pilar Nicolás, Titti Mattsson, Vladislava Talanova, Alexandre Dosch, Dominique Sprumont, Chien-Te Fan, Tzu-Hsun Hung, Jane Kaye, Andelka Phillips, Heather Gowans, Nisha Shah & James W. Hazel - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (4):582-704.
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  2. Permission to Believe: Why Permissivism Is True and What It Tells Us About Irrelevant Influences on Belief.Miriam Schoenfield - 2014 - Noûs 48 (2):193-218.
    In this paper, I begin by defending permissivism: the claim that, sometimes, there is more than one way to rationally respond to a given body of evidence. Then I argue that, if we accept permissivism, certain worries that arise as a result of learning that our beliefs were caused by the communities we grew up in, the schools we went to, or other irrelevant influences dissipate. The basic strategy is as follows: First, I try to pinpoint what makes irrelevant influences (...)
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  3. Making Medical Knowledge.Miriam Solomon - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
    How is medical knowledge made? There have been radical changes in recent decades, through new methods such as consensus conferences, evidence-based medicine, translational medicine, and narrative medicine. Miriam Solomon explores their origins, aims, and epistemic strengths and weaknesses; and she offers a pluralistic approach for the future.
     
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  4.  27
    Miriam Van Reijen, Lars Aagaard-Mogensen, Judy Wubnig, Philip L. Peterson.Miriam Van Reijen, Lars Aagaard-Mogensen, Judy Wubnig & Philip L. Peterson - 1988 - Philosophie Et Culture: Actes du XVIIe Congrès Mondial de Philosophie 5:615-615.
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  5. Bridging Rationality and Accuracy.Miriam Schoenfield - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy 112 (12):633-657.
    This paper is about the connection between rationality and accuracy. I show that one natural picture about how rationality and accuracy are connected emerges if we assume that rational agents are rationally omniscient. I then develop an alternative picture that allows us to relax this assumption, in order to accommodate certain views about higher order evidence.
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  6. Conditionalization Does Not Maximize Expected Accuracy.Miriam Schoenfield - 2017 - Mind 126 (504):1155-1187.
    Greaves and Wallace argue that conditionalization maximizes expected accuracy. In this paper I show that their result only applies to a restricted range of cases. I then show that the update procedure that maximizes expected accuracy in general is one in which, upon learning P, we conditionalize, not on P, but on the proposition that we learned P. After proving this result, I provide further generalizations and show that much of the accuracy-first epistemology program is committed to KK-like iteration principles (...)
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  7. Permissivism and the Value of Rationality: A Challenge to the Uniqueness Thesis.Miriam Schoenfield - 2019 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 99 (2):286-297.
    In recent years, permissivism—the claim that a body of evidence can rationalize more than one response—has enjoyed somewhat of a revival. But it is once again being threatened, this time by a host of new and interesting arguments that, at their core, are challenging the permissivist to explain why rationality matters. A version of the challenge that I am especially interested in is this: if permissivism is true, why should we expect the rational credences to be more accurate than the (...)
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  8. An Accuracy Based Approach to Higher Order Evidence.Miriam Schoenfield - 2018 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 96 (3):690-715.
    The aim of this paper is to apply the accuracy based approach to epistemology to the case of higher order evidence: evidence that bears on the rationality of one's beliefs. I proceed in two stages. First, I show that the accuracy based framework that is standardly used to motivate rational requirements supports steadfastness—a position according to which higher order evidence should have no impact on one's doxastic attitudes towards first order propositions. The argument for this will require a generalization of (...)
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  9. The Accuracy and Rationality of Imprecise Credences.Miriam Schoenfield - 2017 - Noûs 51 (4):667-685.
    It has been claimed that, in response to certain kinds of evidence, agents ought to adopt imprecise credences: doxastic states that are represented by sets of credence functions rather than single ones. In this paper I argue that, given some plausible constraints on accuracy measures, accuracy-centered epistemologists must reject the requirement to adopt imprecise credences. I then show that even the claim that imprecise credences are permitted is problematic for accuracy-centered epistemology. It follows that if imprecise credal states are permitted (...)
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  10. A Dilemma for Calibrationism.Miriam Schoenfield - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 91 (2):425-455.
    The aim of this paper is to describe a problem for calibrationism: a view about higher order evidence according to which one's credences should be calibrated to one's expected degree of reliability. Calibrationism is attractive, in part, because it explains our intuitive judgments, and provides a strong motivation for certain theories about higher order evidence and peer disagreement. However, I will argue that calibrationism faces a dilemma: There are two versions of the view one might adopt. The first version, I (...)
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  11. Social Empiricism.Miriam Solomon - 1994 - Noûs 28 (3):325-343.
    A new, social epistemology of science that addresses practical as well as theoretical concerns.
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  12.  18
    Book Review: The Grip of the "Medical Miracle": Improving Media Coverage of Medicine: An Essay Review by Miriam Shuchman, MD. [REVIEW]Miriam Schuman - 1991 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 6 (1):55 – 57.
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  13. The Global Order: A Case of Background Injustice?A Practice-Dependent Account.Miriam Ronzoni - 2009 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 37 (3):229-256.
  14. Moral Vagueness Is Ontic Vagueness.Miriam Schoenfield - 2016 - Ethics 126 (2):257-282.
    The aim of this essay is to argue that, if a robust form of moral realism is true, then moral vagueness is ontic vagueness. The argument is by elimination: I show that neither semantic nor epistemic approaches to moral vagueness are satisfactory.
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  15. Social Empiricism.Miriam Solomon - 2003 - Philosophy 78 (303):132-136.
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  16. Chilling Out on Epistemic Rationality: A Defense of Imprecise Credences.Miriam Schoenfield - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 158 (2):197-219.
    A defense of imprecise credences (and other imprecise doxastic attitudes).
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  17. GroupthinkversusThe Wisdom of Crowds: The Social Epistemology of Deliberation and Dissent.Miriam Solomon - 2006 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 44 (S1):28-42.
    Trust in the practice of rational deliberation is widespread and largely unquestioned. This paper uses recent work from business contexts to challenge the view that rational deliberation in a group improves decisions. Pressure to reach consensus can, in fact, lead to phenomena such as groupthink and to suppression of relevant data. Aggregation of individual decisions, rather than deliberation to a consensus, surprisingly, can produce better decisions than those of either group deliberation or individual expert judgment. I argue that dissent is (...)
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  18. Decision Making in the Face of Parity.Miriam Schoenfield - 2014 - Philosophical Perspectives 28 (1):263-277.
    Abstract: This paper defends a constraint that any satisfactory decision theory must satisfy. I show how this constraint is violated by all of the decision theories that have been endorsed in the literature that are designed to deal with cases in which opinions or values are represented by a set of functions rather than a single one. Such a decision theory is necessary to account for the existence of what Ruth Chang has called “parity” (as well as for cases in (...)
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  19.  10
    Evaluation of Evidence in Causal Inference.Miriam W. Schustack & Robert J. Sternberg - 1981 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 110 (1):101-120.
  20. The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine.Miriam Solomon, Jeremy R. Simon & Harold Kincaid (eds.) - 2016 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    _The_ _Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine _is a comprehensive guide to topics in the fields of epistemology and metaphysics of medicine. It examines traditional topics such as the concept of disease, causality in medicine, the epistemology of the randomized controlled trial, the biopsychosocial model, explanation, clinical judgment and phenomenology of medicine and emerging topics, such as philosophy of epidemiology, measuring harms, the concept of disability, nursing perspectives, race and gender, the metaphysics of Chinese medicine, and narrative medicine. Each of (...)
     
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  21.  23
    Light Verbs in Urdu and Grammaticalization Miriam Butt and Wilhelm Geuder.Miriam Butt - 2003 - In Regine Eckardt, Klaus von Heusinger & Christoph Schwarze (eds.), Words in Time: Diachronic Semantics From Different Points of View. Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 143--295.
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  22. Scientific Rationality and Human Reasoning.Miriam Solomon - 1992 - Philosophy of Science 59 (3):439-455.
    The work of Tversky, Kahneman and others suggests that people often make use of cognitive heuristics such as availability, salience and representativeness in their reasoning and decision making. Through use of a historical example--the recent plate tectonics revolution in geology--I argue that such heuristics play a crucial role in scientific decision making also. I suggest how these heuristics are to be considered, along with noncognitive factors (such as motivation and social structures) when drawing historical and epistemological conclusions. The normative perspective (...)
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  23. Believing Against the Evidence: Agency and the Ethics of Belief.Miriam Schleifer McCormick - 2014 - Routledge.
    The question of whether it is ever permissible to believe on insufficient evidence has once again become a live question. Greater attention is now being paid to practical dimensions of belief, namely issues related to epistemic virtue, doxastic responsibility, and voluntarism. In this book, McCormick argues that the standards used to evaluate beliefs are not isolated from other evaluative domains. The ultimate criteria for assessing beliefs are the same as those for assessing action because beliefs and actions are both products (...)
     
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  24. Internalism Without Luminosity.Miriam Schoenfield - 2015 - Philosophical Issues 25 (1):252-272.
    Internalists face the following challenge: what is it about an agent's internal states that explains why only these states can play whatever role the internalist thinks these states are playing? Internalists have frequently appealed to a special kind of epistemic access that we have to these states. But such claims have been challenged on both empirical and philosophical grounds. I will argue that internalists needn't appeal to any kind of privileged access claims. Rather, internalist conditions are important because of the (...)
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  25. Life is Not a Camping Trip - on the Desirability of Cohenite Socialism.Miriam Ronzoni - 2012 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 11 (2):171-185.
    In Why Not Socialism?, GA Cohen defines socialism as the combined application of two moral principles: the egalitarian principle and the principle of community. The desirability of a social order organized around these two principles is illustrated by the ‘camping trip’ example. After describing the fundamental features of the camping trip scenario at reasonable length, Cohen argues that the desirability of such a social model is nearly self-explanatory, concluding therefore that the most significant challenges to socialism lie in its feasibility. (...)
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  26.  62
    Two Conceptions of State Sovereignty and Their Implications for Global Institutional Design.Miriam Ronzoni - 2012 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 15 (5):573-591.
    Social liberals and liberal nationalists often argue that cosmopolitans neglect the normative importance of state sovereignty and self-determination. This paper counter-argues that, under current global political and socio-economic circumstances, only the establishment of supranational institutions with some (limited, but significant) sovereign powers can allow states to exercise sovereignty, and peoples? self-determination, in a meaningful way. Social liberals have largely neglected this point because they have focused on an unduly narrow, mainly negative, conception of state sovereignty. I contend, instead, that we (...)
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  27. On the Meta-Ethical Status of Constructivism: Reflections on G.A. Cohen's `Facts and Principles'.Miriam Ronzoni & Laura Valentini - 2008 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 7 (4):403-422.
    The Queen's College, Oxford, UK In his article `Facts and Principles', G.A. Cohen attempts to refute constructivist approaches to justification by showing that, contrary to what their proponents claim, fundamental normative principles are fact- in sensitive. We argue that Cohen's `fact-insensitivity thesis' does not provide a successful refutation of constructivism because it pertains to an area of meta-ethics which differs from the one tackled by constructivists. While Cohen's thesis concerns the logical structure of normative principles, constructivists ask how normative principles (...)
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  28.  75
    Locked-in Syndrome: A Challenge for Embodied Cognitive Science.Miriam Kyselo & Ezequiel Di Paolo - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (3):517-542.
    Embodied approaches in cognitive science hold that the body is crucial for cognition. What this claim amounts to, however, still remains unclear. This paper contributes to its clarification by confronting three ways of understanding embodiment—the sensorimotor approach, extended cognition and enactivism—with Locked-in syndrome. LIS is a case of severe global paralysis in which patients are unable to move and yet largely remain cognitively intact. We propose that LIS poses a challenge to embodied approaches to cognition requiring them to make explicit (...)
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  29. Constructivism and Practical Reason: On Intersubjectivity, Abstraction, and Judgment.Miriam Ronzoni - 2010 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 7 (1):74-104.
    The article offers an account of the constructivist methodology in ethics and political philosophy as 1) deriving from an agnostic moral ontology and 2) proposing intersubjective justifiability as the criterion of justification for normative principles. It then asks whether constructivism, conceived in this way, can respond to the challenge of “content skepticism about practical reason”, namely whether it can provide sufficiently precise normative guidance whilst remaining faithful to its methodological commitment. The paper critically examines to alternative way of meeting this (...)
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  30.  66
    How Social Democrats May Become Reluctant Radicals: Thomas Piketty's Capital and Wolfgang Streeck's Buying Time.Miriam Ronzoni - 2018 - European Journal of Political Theory 17 (1):118-127.
    The continuing ramifications of the financial crisis of 2007–2008 have forced social scientists to raise fundamental questions about the relationship between capitalism, democracy and inequality. In particular, Thomas Piketty’s Capital and Wolfgang Streeck’s Buying Time focus on, respectively, the economic and the political contradictions of capitalistic societies. Piketty argues that capitalism naturally tends towards the exacerbation of rent-based wealth inequality, whereas Streeck suggests that capitalism and democracy are ultimately incompatible. A striking feature of these two contributions is that their authors (...)
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  31. Just a Paradigm: Evidence-Based Medicine in Epistemological Context.Miriam Solomon - 2011 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (3):451-466.
    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) developed from the work of clinical epidemiologists at McMaster University and Oxford University in the 1970s and 1980s and self-consciously presented itself as a "new paradigm" called "evidence-based medicine" in the early 1990s. The techniques of the randomized controlled trial, systematic review and meta-analysis have produced an extensive and powerful body of research. They have also generated a critical literature that raises general concerns about its methods. This paper is a systematic review of the critical literature. It (...)
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  32. Norms of Epistemic Diversity.Miriam Solomon - 2006 - Episteme 3 (1-2):23-36.
    Epistemic diversity is widely approved of by social epistemologists. This paper asks, more specifi cally, how much epistemic diversity, and what kinds of epistemic diversity are normatively appropriate? Both laissez-faire and highly directive approaches to epistemic diversity are rejected in favor of the claim that diversity is a blunt epistemic tool. There are typically a number of diff erent options for adequate diversifi cation. The paper focuses on scientifi c domains, with particular attention to recent theories of smell.
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  33.  6
    Dangers of Neglecting Non-Financial Conflicts of Interest in Health and Medicine.Miriam Wiersma, Ian Kerridge & Wendy Lipworth - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (5):319-322.
    Non-financial interests, and the conflicts of interest that may result from them, are frequently overlooked in biomedicine. This is partly due to the complex and varied nature of these interests, and the limited evidence available regarding their prevalence and impact on biomedical research and clinical practice. We suggest that there are no meaningful conceptual distinctions, and few practical differences, between financial and non-financial conflicts of interest, and accordingly, that both require careful consideration. Further, a better understanding of the complexities of (...)
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  34. Seneca: A Philosopher in Politics.Miriam T. Griffin - 1992 - Clarendon Press.
    For this Clarendon Paperback, Dr Griffin has written a new Postscript to bring the original book fully up to date. She discusses further important and controversial questions of fact or interpretation in the light of the scholarship of the intervening years and provides additional argument where necessary. The connection between Seneca's prose works and his career as a first-century Roman statesman is problematic. Although he writes in the first person, he tells us little of his external life or of the (...)
     
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  35.  58
    A Critical Context For Longino’s Critical Contextual Empiricism.Miriam Solomon & Alan Richardson - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 36 (1):211-222.
  36.  27
    The European Union as a Demoicracy: Really a Third Way?Miriam Ronzoni - 2017 - European Journal of Political Theory 16 (2):210-234.
    Should the EU be a federal union or an intergovernmental forum? Recently, demoicrats have been arguing that there exists a third alternative. The EU should be conceived as a demoicracy, namely a ‘Union of peoples who govern together, but not as one’. The demoi of Europe recognise that they affect one another’s democratic health, and hence establish a union to guarantee their freedom qua demoi – which most demoicrats cash out as non-domination. This is more than intergovernmentalism, because the demoi (...)
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  37. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: The Failure of the Self-Regulatory Model of Corporate Governance in the Global Business Environment.Miriam F. Weismann - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (4):615-661.
    The American regulatory model of corporate governance rests on the theory of self-regulation as␣the most effective and efficient means to achieve corporate self-restraint in the marketplace. However, that model fails to achieve regular compliance with baseline ethical and legal behaviors as evidenced by a century of repeated corporate debacles, the most recent being Enron, WorldCom, and Refco. Seemingly impervious to its domestic failure, Congress imprinted the same self-regulation paradigm on legislation restraining global business behavior, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. This (...)
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  38.  61
    Enlightened Empiricism: An Examination of W. V. Quine's Theory of Knowledge.Miriam Solomon - 1991 - Philosophical Review 100 (3):484-487.
  39. What Makes a Basic Structure Just?Miriam Ronzoni - 2008 - Res Publica 14 (3):203-218.
    In his multi-faceted attack on Rawls’s account of justice, G.A. Cohen has argued that the notion of basic structure is necessarily insensitive to the importance of informal social norms to social justice. The paper argues that the most plausible account of the basic structure is not blind to informal social norms in any meaningful sense. Whereas informal, non-legally coercive institutions are not part of the basic structure as such, their careful consideration is necessary for the assessment of whether the basic (...)
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  40.  9
    Republicanism and Global Institutions: Three Desiderata in Tension.Miriam Ronzoni - 2017 - Social Philosophy and Policy 34 (1):186-208.
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  41.  56
    Rational Hope.Miriam Schleifer McCormick - 2017 - Philosophical Explorations 20 (sup1):127-141.
    My main aim in this paper is to specify conditions that distinguish rational, or justified, hope from irrational, or unjustified hope. I begin by giving a brief characterization of hope and then turn to offering some criteria of rational hope. On my view both theoretical and practical norms are significant when assessing hope’s rationality. While others have recognized that there are theoretical and practical components to the state itself, when it comes to assessing its rationality, depending on the account, only (...)
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  42. The Role of Emotions in Complex Problem Solving.Miriam Spering, Dietrich Wagener & Joachim Funke - 2005 - Cognition and Emotion 19 (8):1252-1261.
    The assumption that positive affect leads to a better performance in simple cognitive tasks has become well established. We address the question whether positive and negative emotions differentially influence performance in complex problem-solving in the same way. Emotions were induced by positive or negative feedback in 74 participants who had to manage a computer-simulated complex problem-solving scenario. Results show that overall scenario performance is not affected, but positive and negative emotions elicit distinguishable problem-solving strategies: Participants with negative emotions are more (...)
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  43. Belief Integration in Action: A Defense of Extended Beliefs.Miriam Kyselo & Sven Walter - 2011 - Philosophical Psychology 24 (2):245-260.
  44. Locked-in Syndrome and BCI - Towards an Enactive Approach to the Self.Miriam Kyselo - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (3):579-591.
    It has been argued that Extended Cognition (EXT), a recently much discussed framework in the philosophy of cognition, would serve as the theoretical basis to account for the impact of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) on the self and life of patients with Locked-in Syndrome (LIS). In this paper I will argue that this claim is unsubstantiated, EXT is not the appropriate theoretical background for understanding the role of BCI in LIS. I will critically assess what a theory of the extended (...)
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  45.  26
    Models Versus Theories as a Primary Carrier of Nursing Knowledge: A Philosophical Argument.Miriam Bender - 2018 - Nursing Philosophy 19 (1):e12198.
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  46. The Minimal Self Needs a Social Update.Miriam Kyselo - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (7):1057-1065.
    REVIEW ESSAY The minimal self needs a social update Self and other: Exploring subjectivity, empathy, and shame, by Dan Zahavi, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015, 304 pp.
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  47. Taking Control of Belief.Miriam McCormick - 2011 - Philosophical Explorations 14 (2):169-183.
    I investigate what we mean when we hold people responsible for beliefs. I begin by outlining a puzzle concerning our ordinary judgments about beliefs and briefly survey and critique some common responses to the puzzle. I then present my response where I argue a sense needs to be articulated in which we do have a kind of control over our beliefs if our practice of attributing responsibility for beliefs is appropriate. In developing this notion of doxastic control, I draw from (...)
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  48.  13
    Global Tax Governance: The Bullets Internationalists Must Bite – And Those They Must Not.Miriam Ronzoni - 2014 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 1 (1):37-59.
    Under conditions of high capital mobility, states are pressurised into various forms of tax competition to attract or retain capital and investors. When this occurs, the capacity of domestic institutions autonomously to generate fiscal policies is constrained. What exactly, if anything, is unjust about this phenomenon? This paper argues that tax competition puts particular pressure on internationalists, who must acknowledge that its occurrence makes our obligations of global justice more demanding, and that such obligations require supranational institutions in order to (...)
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  49.  11
    Status, Respect, and Stigma: A Qualitative Study of Non-financial Interests in Medicine.Miriam Wiersma, Ian Kerridge & Wendy Lipworth - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (2):203-216.
    Conflicts of interest in health and medicine have been the source of considerable public and professional debate. Much of this debate has focused on financial, rather than non-financial COI, which is a significant lacuna because non-financial COI can be just as influential as financial COI. In an effort to explore the nature and effects of non-financial, as well as financial COI, we conducted semi-structured interviews with eleven Australian medical professionals regarding their experiences of, and attitudes towards, COI. We found that (...)
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  50.  42
    Re-Conceptualizing the Nursing Metaparadigm: Articulating the Philosophical Ontology of the Nursing Discipline That Orients Inquiry and Practice.Miriam Bender - 2018 - Nursing Inquiry 25 (3):e12243.
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