Results for 'Miriam Sebold'

1000+ found
Order:
  1. Stronger Prejudices Are Associated With Decreased Model-Based Control.Miriam Sebold, Hao Chen, Aleyna Önal, Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Negin Mojtahedzadeh, Maria Garbusow, Stephan Nebe, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Quentin J. M. Huys, Florian Schlagenhauf, Michael A. Rapp, Michael N. Smolka & Andreas Heinz - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Background: Prejudices against minorities can be understood as habitually negative evaluations that are kept in spite of evidence to the contrary. Therefore, individuals with strong prejudices might be dominated by habitual or “automatic” reactions at the expense of more controlled reactions. Computational theories suggest individual differences in the balance between habitual/model-free and deliberative/model-based decision-making.Methods: 127 subjects performed the two Step task and completed the blatant and subtle prejudice scale.Results: By using analyses of choices and reaction times in combination with computational (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2.  14
    Processing Speed Enhances Model-Based Over Model-Free Reinforcement Learning in the Presence of High Working Memory Functioning.Daniel J. Schad, Elisabeth Jã¼Nger, Miriam Sebold, Maria Garbusow, Nadine Bernhardt, Amir-Homayoun Javadi, Ulrich S. Zimmermann, Michael N. Smolka, Andreas Heinz, Michael A. Rapp & Quentin J. M. Huys - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  3.  28
    Miriam Van Reijen, Lars Aagaard-Mogensen, Judy Wubnig, Philip L. Peterson.Miriam Van Reijen, Lars Aagaard-Mogensen, Judy Wubnig & Philip L. Peterson - 1988 - Philosophie Et Culture: Actes du XVIIe Congrès Mondial de Philosophie 5:615-615.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4.  19
    Book Review: The Grip of the "Medical Miracle": Improving Media Coverage of Medicine: An Essay Review by Miriam Shuchman, MD. [REVIEW]Miriam Schuman - 1991 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 6 (1):55 – 57.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5.  23
    Light Verbs in Urdu and Grammaticalization Miriam Butt and Wilhelm Geuder.Miriam Butt - 2003 - In Regine Eckardt, Klaus von Heusinger & Christoph Schwarze (eds.), Words in Time: Diachronic Semantics From Different Points of View. Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 143--295.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. Permission to Believe: Why Permissivism Is True and What It Tells Us About Irrelevant Influences on Belief.Miriam Schoenfield - 2014 - Noûs 48 (2):193-218.
    In this paper, I begin by defending permissivism: the claim that, sometimes, there is more than one way to rationally respond to a given body of evidence. Then I argue that, if we accept permissivism, certain worries that arise as a result of learning that our beliefs were caused by the communities we grew up in, the schools we went to, or other irrelevant influences dissipate. The basic strategy is as follows: First, I try to pinpoint what makes irrelevant influences (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   174 citations  
  7.  3
    Making Medical Knowledge.Miriam Solomon - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
    How is medical knowledge made? There have been radical changes in recent decades, through new methods such as consensus conferences, evidence-based medicine, translational medicine, and narrative medicine. Miriam Solomon explores their origins, aims, and epistemic strengths and weaknesses; and she offers a pluralistic approach for the future.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   50 citations  
  8.  3
    Continental Anti-Realism: A Critique.Richard Sebold - 2014 - Rowman & Littlefield International.
    Sebold provides a critique of the arguments for anti-realism in Continental philosophy, engaging specifically with Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche, and Husserl. Utilizing resources from both the analytic and continental philosophical traditions, it provides realist ways of reading those aspects of Continental anti-realism that are found to be problematic.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  9. Bridging Rationality and Accuracy.Miriam Schoenfield - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy 112 (12):633-657.
    This paper is about the connection between rationality and accuracy. I show that one natural picture about how rationality and accuracy are connected emerges if we assume that rational agents are rationally omniscient. I then develop an alternative picture that allows us to relax this assumption, in order to accommodate certain views about higher order evidence.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   55 citations  
  10. Permissivism and the Value of Rationality: A Challenge to the Uniqueness Thesis.Miriam Schoenfield - 2019 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 99 (2):286-297.
    In recent years, permissivism—the claim that a body of evidence can rationalize more than one response—has enjoyed somewhat of a revival. But it is once again being threatened, this time by a host of new and interesting arguments that, at their core, are challenging the permissivist to explain why rationality matters. A version of the challenge that I am especially interested in is this: if permissivism is true, why should we expect the rational credences to be more accurate than the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   25 citations  
  11. Believing Against the Evidence: Agency and the Ethics of Belief.Miriam Schleifer McCormick - 2014 - Routledge.
    The question of whether it is ever permissible to believe on insufficient evidence has once again become a live question. Greater attention is now being paid to practical dimensions of belief, namely issues related to epistemic virtue, doxastic responsibility, and voluntarism. In this book, McCormick argues that the standards used to evaluate beliefs are not isolated from other evaluative domains. The ultimate criteria for assessing beliefs are the same as those for assessing action because beliefs and actions are both products (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   40 citations  
  12. Conditionalization Does Not Maximize Expected Accuracy.Miriam Schoenfield - 2017 - Mind 126 (504):1155-1187.
    Greaves and Wallace argue that conditionalization maximizes expected accuracy. In this paper I show that their result only applies to a restricted range of cases. I then show that the update procedure that maximizes expected accuracy in general is one in which, upon learning P, we conditionalize, not on P, but on the proposition that we learned P. After proving this result, I provide further generalizations and show that much of the accuracy-first epistemology program is committed to KK-like iteration principles (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   38 citations  
  13.  2
    Social Empiricism.Miriam Solomon - 2001 - Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
    For the last forty years, two claims have been at the core of disputes about scientific change: that scientists reason rationally and that science is progressive. For most of this time discussions were polarized between philosophers, who defended traditional Enlightenment ideas about rationality and progress, and sociologists, who espoused relativism and constructivism. Recently, creative new ideas going beyond the polarized positions have come from the history of science, feminist criticism of science, psychology of science, and anthropology of science. Addressing the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   90 citations  
  14. An Accuracy Based Approach to Higher Order Evidence.Miriam Schoenfield - 2018 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 96 (3):690-715.
    The aim of this paper is to apply the accuracy based approach to epistemology to the case of higher order evidence: evidence that bears on the rationality of one's beliefs. I proceed in two stages. First, I show that the accuracy based framework that is standardly used to motivate rational requirements supports steadfastness—a position according to which higher order evidence should have no impact on one's doxastic attitudes towards first order propositions. The argument for this will require a generalization of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   31 citations  
  15. A Dilemma for Calibrationism.Miriam Schoenfield - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 91 (2):425-455.
    The aim of this paper is to describe a problem for calibrationism: a view about higher order evidence according to which one's credences should be calibrated to one's expected degree of reliability. Calibrationism is attractive, in part, because it explains our intuitive judgments, and provides a strong motivation for certain theories about higher order evidence and peer disagreement. However, I will argue that calibrationism faces a dilemma: There are two versions of the view one might adopt. The first version, I (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   41 citations  
  16. The Accuracy and Rationality of Imprecise Credences.Miriam Schoenfield - 2017 - Noûs 51 (4):667-685.
    It has been claimed that, in response to certain kinds of evidence, agents ought to adopt imprecise credences: doxastic states that are represented by sets of credence functions rather than single ones. In this paper I argue that, given some plausible constraints on accuracy measures, accuracy-centered epistemologists must reject the requirement to adopt imprecise credences. I then show that even the claim that imprecise credences are permitted is problematic for accuracy-centered epistemology. It follows that if imprecise credal states are permitted (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   27 citations  
  17. Moral Vagueness Is Ontic Vagueness.Miriam Schoenfield - 2016 - Ethics 126 (2):257-282.
    The aim of this essay is to argue that, if a robust form of moral realism is true, then moral vagueness is ontic vagueness. The argument is by elimination: I show that neither semantic nor epistemic approaches to moral vagueness are satisfactory.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   24 citations  
  18.  88
    Locked-in Syndrome: A Challenge for Embodied Cognitive Science.Miriam Kyselo & Ezequiel Di Paolo - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (3):517-542.
    Embodied approaches in cognitive science hold that the body is crucial for cognition. What this claim amounts to, however, still remains unclear. This paper contributes to its clarification by confronting three ways of understanding embodiment—the sensorimotor approach, extended cognition and enactivism—with Locked-in syndrome. LIS is a case of severe global paralysis in which patients are unable to move and yet largely remain cognitively intact. We propose that LIS poses a challenge to embodied approaches to cognition requiring them to make explicit (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  19. Chilling Out on Epistemic Rationality: A Defense of Imprecise Credences.Miriam Schoenfield - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 158 (2):197-219.
    A defense of imprecise credences (and other imprecise doxastic attitudes).
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   37 citations  
  20. Decision Making in the Face of Parity.Miriam Schoenfield - 2014 - Philosophical Perspectives 28 (1):263-277.
    Abstract: This paper defends a constraint that any satisfactory decision theory must satisfy. I show how this constraint is violated by all of the decision theories that have been endorsed in the literature that are designed to deal with cases in which opinions or values are represented by a set of functions rather than a single one. Such a decision theory is necessary to account for the existence of what Ruth Chang has called “parity” (as well as for cases in (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   24 citations  
  21. Social Empiricism.Miriam Solomon - 1994 - Noûs 28 (3):325-343.
    A new, social epistemology of science that addresses practical as well as theoretical concerns.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   174 citations  
  22.  94
    Accuracy and Verisimilitude: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.Miriam Schoenfield - 2022 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 73 (2):373-406.
    It seems like we care about at least two features of our credence function: gradational-accuracy and verisimilitude. Accuracy-first epistemology requires that we care about one feature of our credence function: gradational-accuracy. So if you want to be a verisimilitude-valuing accuracy-firster, you must be able to think of the value of verisimilitude as somehow built into the value of gradational-accuracy. Can this be done? In a recent article, Oddie has argued that it cannot, at least if we want the accuracy measure (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  23. Social Empiricism.Miriam Solomon - 2005 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 70 (2):495-498.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   126 citations  
  24.  64
    Rational Hope.Miriam Schleifer McCormick - 2017 - Philosophical Explorations 20 (sup1):127-141.
    My main aim in this paper is to specify conditions that distinguish rational, or justified, hope from irrational, or unjustified hope. I begin by giving a brief characterization of hope and then turn to offering some criteria of rational hope. On my view both theoretical and practical norms are significant when assessing hope’s rationality. While others have recognized that there are theoretical and practical components to the state itself, when it comes to assessing its rationality, depending on the account, only (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  25. Taking Control of Belief.Miriam McCormick - 2011 - Philosophical Explorations 14 (2):169-183.
    I investigate what we mean when we hold people responsible for beliefs. I begin by outlining a puzzle concerning our ordinary judgments about beliefs and briefly survey and critique some common responses to the puzzle. I then present my response where I argue a sense needs to be articulated in which we do have a kind of control over our beliefs if our practice of attributing responsibility for beliefs is appropriate. In developing this notion of doxastic control, I draw from (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  26. The Body Social: An Enactive Approach to the Self.Kyselo Miriam - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5:1-16.
    This paper takes a new look at an old question: what is the human self? It offers a proposal for theorizing the self from an enactive perspective as an autonomous system that is constituted through interpersonal relations. It addresses a prevalent issue in the philosophy of cognitive science: the body-social problem. Embodied and social approaches to cognitive identity are in mutual tension. On the one hand, embodied cognitive science risks a new form of methodological individualism, implying a dichotomy not between (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  27. Locked-in Syndrome and BCI - Towards an Enactive Approach to the Self.Miriam Kyselo - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (3):579-591.
    It has been argued that Extended Cognition (EXT), a recently much discussed framework in the philosophy of cognition, would serve as the theoretical basis to account for the impact of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) on the self and life of patients with Locked-in Syndrome (LIS). In this paper I will argue that this claim is unsubstantiated, EXT is not the appropriate theoretical background for understanding the role of BCI in LIS. I will critically assess what a theory of the extended (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  28. Social Empiricism.Miriam Solomon - 2003 - Philosophy 78 (303):132-136.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   120 citations  
  29.  12
    Evaluation of Evidence in Causal Inference.Miriam W. Schustack & Robert J. Sternberg - 1981 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 110 (1):101-120.
  30. Internalism Without Luminosity.Miriam Schoenfield - 2015 - Philosophical Issues 25 (1):252-272.
    Internalists face the following challenge: what is it about an agent's internal states that explains why only these states can play whatever role the internalist thinks these states are playing? Internalists have frequently appealed to a special kind of epistemic access that we have to these states. But such claims have been challenged on both empirical and philosophical grounds. I will argue that internalists needn't appeal to any kind of privileged access claims. Rather, internalist conditions are important because of the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  31.  6
    Women Quotas Vs. Men Quotas in Academia: Students Perceive Favoring Women as Less Fair Than Favoring Men.Miriam K. Zehnter & Erich Kirchler - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  32. The Minimal Self Needs a Social Update.Miriam Kyselo - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (7):1057-1065.
    REVIEW ESSAY The minimal self needs a social update Self and other: Exploring subjectivity, empathy, and shame, by Dan Zahavi, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015, 304 pp.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  33.  58
    Excusing Economic Envy: On Injustice and Impotence.Miriam Bankovsky - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 35 (2):257-279.
    From the Ancient Greeks, through medieval Christian doctrine, and into the modern age, philosophers have long held envy to be irrational, a position that increasingly accompanies the political view that envy is not a justification for redistributing material goods. After defining the features of envy, and considering two arguments in favour of its irrationality, this article opposes the dominant philosophical and political consensus. It does so by deploying Rawls's much-ignored concept of ‘excusable envy’ to identify a form of envy that (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  34.  5
    The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine.Miriam Solomon, Jeremy R. Simon & Harold Kincaid (eds.) - 2016 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    _The_ _Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine _is a comprehensive guide to topics in the fields of epistemology and metaphysics of medicine. It examines traditional topics such as the concept of disease, causality in medicine, the epistemology of the randomized controlled trial, the biopsychosocial model, explanation, clinical judgment and phenomenology of medicine and emerging topics, such as philosophy of epidemiology, measuring harms, the concept of disability, nursing perspectives, race and gender, the metaphysics of Chinese medicine, and narrative medicine. Each of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  35.  19
    What Makes a Movement a Gesture?Miriam A. Novack, Elizabeth M. Wakefield & Susan Goldin-Meadow - 2016 - Cognition 146:339-348.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  36.  62
    Enlightened Empiricism: An Examination of W. V. Quine's Theory of Knowledge.Miriam Solomon - 1991 - Philosophical Review 100 (3):484-487.
  37. Responding to Skepticism About Doxastic Agency.Miriam McCormick - 2018 - Erkenntnis 83 (4):627-645.
    My main aim is to argue that most conceptions of doxastic agency do not respond to the skeptic’s challenge. I begin by considering some reasons for thinking that we are not doxastic agents. I then turn to a discussion of those who try to make sense of doxastic agency by appeal to belief’s reasons-responsive nature. What they end up calling agency is not robust enough to satisfy the challenge posed by the skeptics. To satisfy the skeptic, one needs to make (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  38.  29
    The Enactive Approach and Disorders of the Self - the Case of Schizophrenia.Miriam Kyselo - 2016 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 15 (4):591-616.
    The paper discusses two recent approaches to schizophrenia, a phenomenological and a neuroscientific approach, illustrating how new directions in philosophy and cognitive science can elaborate accounts of psychopathologies of the self. It is argued that the notion of the minimal and bodily self underlying these approaches is still limited since it downplays the relevance of social interactions and relations for the formation of a coherent sense of self. These approaches also illustrate that we still lack an account of how 1st (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  39. GroupthinkversusThe Wisdom of Crowds: The Social Epistemology of Deliberation and Dissent.Miriam Solomon - 2006 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 44 (S1):28-42.
    Trust in the practice of rational deliberation is widespread and largely unquestioned. This paper uses recent work from business contexts to challenge the view that rational deliberation in a group improves decisions. Pressure to reach consensus can, in fact, lead to phenomena such as groupthink and to suppression of relevant data. Aggregation of individual decisions, rather than deliberation to a consensus, surprisingly, can produce better decisions than those of either group deliberation or individual expert judgment. I argue that dissent is (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   40 citations  
  40.  10
    Dangers of Neglecting Non-Financial Conflicts of Interest in Health and Medicine.Miriam Wiersma, Ian Kerridge & Wendy Lipworth - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (5):319-322.
    Non-financial interests, and the conflicts of interest that may result from them, are frequently overlooked in biomedicine. This is partly due to the complex and varied nature of these interests, and the limited evidence available regarding their prevalence and impact on biomedical research and clinical practice. We suggest that there are no meaningful conceptual distinctions, and few practical differences, between financial and non-financial conflicts of interest, and accordingly, that both require careful consideration. Further, a better understanding of the complexities of (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  41. Scientific Rationality and Human Reasoning.Miriam Solomon - 1992 - Philosophy of Science 59 (3):439-455.
    The work of Tversky, Kahneman and others suggests that people often make use of cognitive heuristics such as availability, salience and representativeness in their reasoning and decision making. Through use of a historical example--the recent plate tectonics revolution in geology--I argue that such heuristics play a crucial role in scientific decision making also. I suggest how these heuristics are to be considered, along with noncognitive factors (such as motivation and social structures) when drawing historical and epistemological conclusions. The normative perspective (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   55 citations  
  42. The Global Order: A Case of Background Injustice?A Practice-Dependent Account.Miriam Ronzoni - 2009 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 37 (3):229-256.
  43.  8
    Rigidity, Chaos and Integration: Hemispheric Interaction and Individual Differences in Metaphor Comprehension.Miriam Faust & Yoed N. Kenett - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  44.  43
    Epistemological Reflections on the Art of Medicine and Narrative Medicine.Miriam Solomon - 2008 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51 (3):406-417.
  45.  34
    Models Versus Theories as a Primary Carrier of Nursing Knowledge: A Philosophical Argument.Miriam Bender - 2018 - Nursing Philosophy 19 (1):e12198.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  46.  17
    An Enactive and Dynamical Systems Theory Account of Dyadic Relationships.Miriam Kyselo & Wolfgang Tschacher - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  47.  57
    Re-Conceptualizing the Nursing Metaparadigm: Articulating the Philosophical Ontology of the Nursing Discipline That Orients Inquiry and Practice.Miriam Bender - 2018 - Nursing Inquiry 25 (3):e12243.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  48.  13
    Status, Respect, and Stigma: A Qualitative Study of Non-financial Interests in Medicine.Miriam Wiersma, Ian Kerridge & Wendy Lipworth - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (2):203-216.
    Conflicts of interest in health and medicine have been the source of considerable public and professional debate. Much of this debate has focused on financial, rather than non-financial COI, which is a significant lacuna because non-financial COI can be just as influential as financial COI. In an effort to explore the nature and effects of non-financial, as well as financial COI, we conducted semi-structured interviews with eleven Australian medical professionals regarding their experiences of, and attitudes towards, COI. We found that (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  49. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: The Failure of the Self-Regulatory Model of Corporate Governance in the Global Business Environment.Miriam F. Weismann - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (4):615-661.
    The American regulatory model of corporate governance rests on the theory of self-regulation as␣the most effective and efficient means to achieve corporate self-restraint in the marketplace. However, that model fails to achieve regular compliance with baseline ethical and legal behaviors as evidenced by a century of repeated corporate debacles, the most recent being Enron, WorldCom, and Refco. Seemingly impervious to its domestic failure, Congress imprinted the same self-regulation paradigm on legislation restraining global business behavior, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. This (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  50.  26
    On the Limitations of Thought Experiments in Physics and the Consequences for Physics Education.Miriam Reiner & Lior M. Burko - 2003 - Science & Education 12 (4):365-385.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
1 — 50 / 1000