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Profile: Miriam Solomon (Temple University)
  1.  18
    Social Empiricism.Miriam Solomon - 2001 - MIT Press.
    A new, social epistemology of science that addresses practical as well as theoretical concerns.
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  2.  50
    Social Empiricism.Miriam Solomon - 1994 - Noûs 28 (3):325-343.
  3.  87
    Groupthink Versus The Wisdom of Crowds.Miriam Solomon - 2005 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 44 (Supplement):28-42.
    Trust in the practice of rational deliberation is widespread and largely unquestioned. This paper uses recent work from business contexts to challenge the view that rational deliberation in a group improves decisions. Pressure to reach consensus can, in fact, lead to phenomena such as groupthink and to suppression of relevant data. Aggregation of individual decisions, rather than deliberation to a consensus, surprisingly, can produce better decisions than those of either group deliberation or individual expert judgment. I argue that dissent is (...)
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  4.  84
    Norms of Epistemic Diversity.Miriam Solomon - 2006 - Episteme 3 (1-2):23-36.
    Epistemic diversity is widely approved of by social epistemologists. This paper asks, more specifi cally, how much epistemic diversity, and what kinds of epistemic diversity are normatively appropriate? Both laissez-faire and highly directive approaches to epistemic diversity are rejected in favor of the claim that diversity is a blunt epistemic tool. There are typically a number of diff erent options for adequate diversifi cation. The paper focuses on scientifi c domains, with particular attention to recent theories of smell.
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  5. Just a Paradigm: Evidence-Based Medicine in Epistemological Context.Miriam Solomon - 2011 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (3):451-466.
    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) developed from the work of clinical epidemiologists at McMaster University and Oxford University in the 1970s and 1980s and self-consciously presented itself as a "new paradigm" called "evidence-based medicine" in the early 1990s. The techniques of the randomized controlled trial, systematic review and meta-analysis have produced an extensive and powerful body of research. They have also generated a critical literature that raises general concerns about its methods. This paper is a systematic review of the critical literature. It (...)
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  6.  50
    Scientific Rationality and Human Reasoning.Miriam Solomon - 1992 - Philosophy of Science 59 (3):439-455.
    The work of Tversky, Kahneman and others suggests that people often make use of cognitive heuristics such as availability, salience and representativeness in their reasoning and decision making. Through use of a historical example--the recent plate tectonics revolution in geology--I argue that such heuristics play a crucial role in scientific decision making also. I suggest how these heuristics are to be considered, along with noncognitive factors (such as motivation and social structures) when drawing historical and epistemological conclusions. The normative perspective (...)
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  7.  33
    A Critical Context for Longino's Critical Contextual Empiricism.Miriam Solomon & Alan Richardson - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 36 (1):211-222.
  8.  32
    Epistemological Reflections on the Art of Medicine and Narrative Medicine.Miriam Solomon - 2008 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51 (3):406-417.
  9. Group Judgment and the Medical Consensus Conference.Miriam Solomon - 2011 - In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier.
  10.  47
    Socially Responsible Science and the Unity of Values.Miriam Solomon - 2012 - Perspectives on Science 20 (3):331-338.
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  11. CSW Jobs for Philosophers Employment Study.Miriam Solomon & John Clarke - 2009 - Apa Newsletter on Feminism and Philosophy 8 (2):3-6.
     
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  12.  28
    Quine's Point of View.Miriam Solomon - 1989 - Journal of Philosophy 86 (3):113-136.
    Quine claims to be "working from within" our conceptual scheme and proceeding scientifically. This description makes his views of interest to those who are skeptical of traditional metaphysical projects and to those with confidence in science. This study examines whether Quine is in fact starting within ordinary language and proceeding scientifically and, if not, how his views are to be best understood. I proceed by exploring some central doctrines in Quine's writing, most notably indeterminacy of translation, but also his views (...)
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  13.  17
    Commentary on Alison Gopnik's "the Scientist as Child".Miriam Solomon - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (4):547-551.
  14.  59
    Mechanisms, Continental Approaches, Trials, and Evolutionary Medicine: New Work in the Philosophy of Medicine.Julian Reiss, Miriam Solomon & David Teira - 2011 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (1):1-4.
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  15.  14
    Multivariate Models of Scientific Change.Miriam Solomon - 1994 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:287 - 297.
    Social scientists regularly make use of multivariate models to describe complex social phenomena. It is argued that this approach is useful for modelling the variety of cognitive and social factors contributing to scientific change, and superior to the integrated models of scientific change currently available. It is also argued that care needs to be taken in drawing normative conclusions: cognitive factors are not instrinsically more "rational" than social factors, nor is it likely that social factors, by some "invisible hand of (...)
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  16.  53
    Consensus in Science.Miriam Solomon - 2001 - The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:193-204.
    Because the idea of consensus in contemporary philosophy of science is typically seen as the locus of progress, rationality, and, often, truth, Mill’s views on the undesirability of consensus have been largely dismissed. The historical data, however, shows that there are many examples of scientific progress without consensus, thus refuting the notion that consensus in science has any special epistemic status for rationality, scientific progress (success), or truth. What needs to be developed instead is an epistemology of dissent. I suggest (...)
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  17.  18
    The Whiptail Lizard Reconsidered.Miriam Solomon - 2003 - Perspectives on Science 11 (3):318-325.
    : Harry Collins and Trevor Pinch's introductory text, The Golem: What Everyone Should Know About Science (1993), includes a controversy about the significance of pseudosexual behavior in the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard. Collins and Pinch, basing their account on the work of Greg Myers (1990), claim that "in this area of biology, experiments are seldom possible" and that the debate has "battled to an honorable draw." I argue that a closer look at the publications of the scientists involved shows that, at (...)
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  18.  66
    Review of Martin Carrier, Don Howard, Janet Kourany (Eds.), The Challenge of the Social and the Pressure of Practice: Science and Values Revisited[REVIEW]Miriam Solomon - 2008 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (6).
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  19.  2
    Who Rules in Science? An Opinionated Guide to the Wars. [REVIEW]Miriam Solomon - 2002 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 93:542-543.
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  20.  20
    Standpoint and Creativity.Miriam Solomon - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (4):226 - 237.
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  21.  1
    Legend Naturalism and Scientific Progress: An Essay on Philip Kitcher's : The Advancement of Science.Miriam Solomon - 1995 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 26 (2):205-218.
    Philip Kitcher's The Advancement of Science sets out, programmatically, a new naturalistic view of science as a process of building consensus practices. Detailed historical case studies—centrally, the Darwinian revolutio—are intended to support this view. I argue that Kitcher's expositions in fact support a more conservative view, that I dub ‘Legend Naturalism’. Using four historical examples which increasingly challenge Kitcher's discussions, I show that neither Legend Naturalism, nor the less conservative programmatic view, gives an adequate account of scientific progress. I argue (...)
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  22.  6
    Norms of Epistemic Diversity.Miriam Solomon - 2006 - Episteme: A Journal of Social Epistemology 3 (1):23-36.
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  23.  35
    Responses to Critics.Miriam Solomon - 2008 - Perspectives on Science 16 (3):pp. 280-284.
    In this paper I respond to the criticisms of Helen Longino, Alan Richardson, Naomi Oreskes and Sharyn Clough. There is discussion of the character of social knowledge, the goals of scientific inquiry, the connections between Social Empiricism and other approaches in science studies, productive and unproductive dissent, and the distinction between empirical and non-empirical decision vectors.
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  24.  20
    Book Review:Cognition in the Wild Edwin Hutchins. [REVIEW]Miriam Solomon - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (1):181-.
  25.  8
    Stich`s The Fragmentation of Reason: Preface to a Pragmatic Theory of Cognitive Evaluation.Miriam Solomon - 1994 - Informal Logic 16 (2).
  26.  18
    On Putnam's Argument for the Inconsistency of Relativism.Miriam Solomon - 1990 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 28 (2):213-220.
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  27.  22
    Extensionality, Underdetermination and Indeterminacy.Miriam Solomon - 1990 - Erkenntnis 33 (2):211 - 221.
    A development of Quine's views took place between the denial of analyticity (in "Two Dogmas") and the doctrine of indeterminacy (in Word and Object). Quine argues for the inscrutability of extensional as well as intensional content. The debate with Carnap in the mid-fifties pushes Quine to argue for full indeterminacy. Quine initially resists arguing for indeterminacy because the doctrine seems to lead to general skepticism, not just to skepticism about meanings. Quine draws on Tarski's work on truth to dispel the (...)
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  28.  2
    James Brown.Who Rules in Science? An Opinionated Guide to the Wars. Xi + 256 Pp., Illus., Notes, Bibl., Index. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001. $26. [REVIEW]Miriam Solomon - 2002 - Isis 93 (3):542-543.
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  29. WV Quine, Pursuit of Truth Reviewed By.Miriam Solomon - 1991 - Philosophy in Review 11 (4):284-286.
     
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  30.  14
    Apriority and Metajustification in BonJour's Structure of Empirical Knowledge.Miriam Solomon - 1990 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50 (4):767-777.
  31.  10
    It Isn't The Thought That Counts.Miriam Solomon - 2001 - Argumentation 15 (1):67-75.
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  32.  7
    Guest Editor's Introduction.Miriam Solomon - 2005 - Episteme 2 (1):1-3.
    Since our visual perception of physical things essentially involves our identifying objects by their colours, any theory of visual perception must contain some account of the colours of things. The central problem with colour has to do with relating our normal, everyday colour perceptions to what science, i.e. physics, teaches us about physical objects and their qualities. Although we perceive colours as categorical surface properties of things, colour perceptions are explained by introducing physical properties like reflectance profiles or dispositions to (...)
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  33.  7
    Naturalism and Generality.Miriam Solomon - 1995 - Philosophical Psychology 8 (4):353 – 363.
    Naturalistic epistemologists frequently assume that their aim is to identify generalities (i.e. general laws) about the effectiveness of particular reasoning processes and methods. This paper argues that the search for this kind of generality fails. Work that has been done thus far to identify generalities (e.g. by Goldman, Kitcher and Thagard) overlooks both the complexity of reasoning and the relativity of assessments to particular contexts (domain, stage and goal of inquiry). Examples of human reasoning which show both complexity and contextuality (...)
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  34.  2
    Sizing Up Science: A Reply to Fuller.Miriam Solomon - 1994 - Informal Logic 16 (1).
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  35.  4
    [Book Review: Pathways to Knowledge: Public and Private]. [REVIEW]Miriam Solomon - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (2):452-454.
  36.  2
    Commentary: Making Meaning—a Response to Chokr.Miriam Solomon - 1993 - Social Epistemology 7 (4):359 – 364.
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  37.  2
    Book Review:Born to Rebel Frank Sulloway. [REVIEW]Miriam Solomon - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (1):171-.
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  38. Alvin I. Goldman, Pathways to Knowledge: Public and Private. [REVIEW]Miriam Solomon - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (2):452-454.
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  39. Frank Sulloway's Born to Rebel.Miriam Solomon - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (1):171.
     
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  40. Groupthink Versus The Wisdom of Crowds: The Social Epistemology of Deliberation and Dissent.Miriam Solomon - 2005 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 44 (Supplement):28-42.
    Trust in the practice of rational deliberation is widespread and largely unquestioned. This paper uses recent work from business contexts to challenge the view that rational deliberation in a group improves decisions. Pressure to reach consensus can, in fact, lead to phenomena such as groupthink and to suppression of relevant data. Aggregation of individual decisions, rather than deliberation to a consensus, surprisingly, can produce better decisions than those of either group deliberation or individual expert judgment. I argue that dissent is (...)
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  41. Making Medical Knowledge.Miriam Solomon - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
    How is medical knowledge made? There have been radical changes in recent decades, through new methods such as consensus conferences, evidence-based medicine, translational medicine, and narrative medicine. Miriam Solomon explores their origins, aims, and epistemic strengths and weaknesses; and she offers a pluralistic approach for the future.
     
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  42. Miriam Solomon, Review of Born to Rebel by Frank Sulloway. [REVIEW]Miriam Solomon - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (1):171-181.
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  43. Miriam Solomon, Review of Cognition in the Wild by Edwin Hutchins. [REVIEW]Miriam Solomon - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (1):181-182.
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  44. Part II-Symposia Papers.Miriam Solomon - 2006 - In Borchert (ed.), Philosophy of Science. Macmillan. pp. 73--5.
     
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  45. Quine's Point of View.Miriam Solomon - 1989 - Journal of Philosophy 86 (3):113-136.
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  46. Social Empiricism.Miriam Solomon - 2003 - Philosophy 78 (303):132-136.
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  47. The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine.Miriam Solomon, Jeremy Simon & Harold Kincaid (eds.) - 2016 - Routledge.
    _The_ _Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine _is a comprehensive guide to topics in the fields of epistemology and metaphysics of medicine. It examines traditional topics such as the concept of disease, causality in medicine, the epistemology of the randomized controlled trial, the biopsychosocial model, explanation, clinical judgment and phenomenology of medicine and emerging topics, such as philosophy of epidemiology, measuring harms, the concept of disability, nursing perspectives, race and gender, the metaphysics of Chinese medicine, and narrative medicine. Each of (...)
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  48. W. V. Quine, Pursuit Of Truth. [REVIEW]Miriam Solomon - 1991 - Philosophy in Review 11:284-286.
     
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