Hate speech is a phenomenon which has been in the focus of scholarly interest of linguists, philosophers, sociologists, human-rights advocates, legal and media experts. Much of this interest has been devoted to establishing criteria for identifying what constitutes hate speech across disciplines. In this paper, we argue that hate speech has profiled as a distinct subgenre of the language of politics with typical patterns and ways of addressing which can be recognized in political campaigns across the world. Therefore, we present (...) the findings of the case study of translation exercises of English and Serbian texts containing samples of hateful language during presidential campaigns in the USA and Serbia in 2016 and 2017. Our aim is to identify the linguistico-pragmatic commonalities of hate speech in Serbian and English and examine students’ attitudes towards ethically and morally challenging language contents in their mother tongue and English as their foreign language. The results indicate that in both English and Serbian the same groups are targeted with the hateful language which in both languages uses vulgarisms, taboo words, sexist and chauvinistic declarative expressions to achieve political goals. In addition, L1>L2 and L2>L1 translation data indicate that personal moral and ethical norms in translators are stronger in L1 thus restrictively affecting translational L2>L1 output. (shrink)
A normalizable natural deduction formulation, with subformula property, of the implicative fragment of classical logic is presented. A traditional notion of normal deduction is adapted and the corresponding weak normalization theorem is proved. An embedding of the classical logic into the intuitionistic logic, restricted on propositional implicational language, is described as well. We believe that this multiple-conclusion approach places the classical logic in the same plane with the intuitionistic logic, from the proof-theoretical viewpoint.
A new set of conversions for derivations in the system of sequents for intuitionistic predicate logic will be defined. These conversions will be some modifications of Zucker's conversions from the system of sequents from , which will have the following characteristics: (1) these conversions will be sufficient for transforming a derivation into a cut-free one, and (2) in the natural deduction the image of each of these conversions will be either in the set of conversions for normalization procedure, or an (...) identity of derivations. This will be used to give a new proof of the normalization theorem for natural deduction, as a consequence of the cut-elimination theorem for the system of sequents. (shrink)
In the text the author considers politics of interpretation of South-Slavic peoples' recent past, which was demonstrated by the most prominent activists of Serbian non-governmental organizations. By summarizing the interpretation in a few points, the author attempts to identify its key features: arrogance and extremism as a style, counter factuality as a strategy and anti-Serbian nationalism and racism as an ideological strongpoint. In the final section of the text, what is pleaded is a precise legal regulation of that delicate area (...) of civil activism, which in the last decade has presented a malignant protuberance on destroyed social tissue of Serbia and serious threat to the rest of its considerably lost national interests. (shrink)
The nature of the international politics, after the Cold War directed by the U.S. as the only current super-power, are considered in the text. The author’s intention is to stress the main points of divergence between moralistic-valuable rhetoric and the foreign policy practice of the U.S. In that sense, the examples of the American stand, i.e. the active treatment of the Yugoslav crisis, on the one hand, and the crisis in the Persian Gulf, on the other hand, is considered. The (...) author’s conclusion is that the foreign policy of the only current super-power is still directed by interests rather then by values. In the concluding part, the author presents an anthropologic argument in favor of reestablishing "balance of power" as the only guarantee for peace and stability of the world. (shrink)
In this individual project the relationship between interests and moral in politics will be considered, taking into consideration the disintegration of former Yugoslavia and the processes of globalization. The starting thesis of the research is that the main actors of global politics are still guided by the modern principles of real-politics with interests as its basic category and power as its supreme value. In that context the main elements of external politics of USA as the key actor of the processes (...) will be specially considered. In the concluding part of the research author will be argue in favor of the affirmation of a new model of global politics, matching the character and scope of the problems faced by humanity at the turn of the century and the millenium. (shrink)
In this paper we give a new proof of cut elimination in Gentzen's sequent system for intuitionistic first-order predicate logic. The point of this proof is that the elimination procedure eliminates the cut rule itself, rather than the mix rule.
This paper presents a cut-elimination procedure for classical and intuitionistic logic, in which cut is eliminated directly, without introducing the mix rule. The well-known problem of cut eliminations, when in the derivation the contractions of the cut-formulae are above the premisses of the cut, will be solved by new transformations of the derivation.
Using the time-dependent wave function we have studied the properties of the atomic transverse motion in an interferometer, and the cause of the non-classical behavior of atoms reported by Kurtsiefer, Pfau, and Mlynek [Nature 386, 150 (1997)]. The transverse wave function is derived from the solution of the two-dimensional Schrödinger's equation, written in the form of the Fresnel–Kirchhoff diffraction integral. It is assumed that the longitudinal motion is classical. Comparing data of the space distribution and of the transverse momentum distribution (...) in interferometers with one and two open slits, it follows that the atomic motion is influenced by the atomic matter wave and violates the laws of classical mechanics. However, the negative values of Wigner's function should not be taken as evidence that the atoms in an interferometer violate the classical statistical law of the addition of positive probabilities. This inference follows from the comparison of properties of Wigner's function and of the de Broglian probability density in phase space. (shrink)
A compatible statistical interpretation of a wave packet is proposed. De Broglian probabilities which unite wave and particle features of quantons are evaluated for free wave packets and Jor a superposition of wave packets. The obtained expressions provide a very plausible and physically appealing explanation of coherence in apparently incoherent beams and of the characteristic modulation of the momentum distribution, found recently in neutron interferometry combined with spectral filtering. Certain conclusions about dualism and objectivity in quantum domain are also derived.
The new techniques and ideas in quantum interferometry with neutrons, photons, atoms, electrons, and Bose condensates that fluorished in the last two decades have influenced in a decisive way the thinking and the research in the foundations and interpretation of quantum mechanics. The controversies existing among different schools on the reality of matter waves of quantum theory, the postulates of quantum measurement theory, and the (in)completeness of quantum mechanics have to be approached now in a new way. Our argumentation follows (...) the spirit of the Paris school. (shrink)
The article contains an explanation of the topic to be dealt with by the author in the next research cycle. In the first part of the article author try to identify the main obstacles facing Serbia in the imperative processes of its European integrations. According to the author, those obstacles are numerous and mostly unique, based on the fact that in the last decade Serbian people was a subject of complete state disintegration to which the most powerful external contribution was (...) given by the USA and Western Europe itself. In spite of those obstacles, Serbia faces inevitable duty to carry out a complete political, economic and cultural reconstitution of its destroyed society as a condition sine qua non its own survival and successful development. In the final section of the text, what is pleaded is realistic approach to the multitude of the problems facing Serbia on the threshold of the new millennium. (shrink)
The well-known picture that sequent derivations without cuts and normal derivations “are the same” will be changed. Sequent derivations without maximum cuts (i.e. special cuts which correspond to maximum segments from natural deduction) will be considered. It will be shown that the natural deduction image of a sequent derivation without maximum cuts is a normal derivation, and the sequent image of a normal derivation is a derivation without maximum cuts. The main consequence of that property will be that sequent derivations (...) without maximum cuts and normal derivations “are the same”. (shrink)
The paper focuses on the ethical aspects of NATO aggression , exerted against the FRY, actually Serbia, in the period from March to June 1999. The paper has been conceived as a critical dialogue with Jürgen Habermas, or rather the positions presented by him in a text entitled “Bestialität und Humanität: Eine Krieg an der Grenze zwischen Recht und Moral”. Following a short presentation of Habermas’s point of view, in the introduction to her paper the author discusses the moral implications (...) of, as he points out, “the surgical precision of the air-strikes, as well as the programmatic sparing of the civilian population”, which are, according to him, the characteristics of this aggression with “a highly legitimating effect”. She then focuses on the key and declaratively moral argument that served to justify the aggression - the protection of human rights of Kosmet Albanians and the prevention of the humanitarian catastrophe they had been allegedly exposed to. After analyzing this argument thoroughly, in several steps, the author concludes that the aggression was not, as Habermas claimed, a “war on the border between law and morality”, but that it was actually beyond the borders of both law and morality and was deeply situated into a domain of interest-driven armed acts of the US foreign policy. (shrink)