27 found
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  1.  15
    COVID-19 and Biomedical Experts: When Epistemic Authority is (Probably) Not Enough.Pietro Pietrini, Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 19 (1):135-142.
    This critical essay evaluates the potential integration of distinct kinds of expertise in policymaking, especially during situations of critical emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. This article relies on two case studies: herd immunity and restricted access to ventilators for disabled people. These case studies are discussed as examples of experts’ recommendations that have not been widely accepted, though they were made within the boundaries of expert epistemic authority. While the fundamental contribution of biomedical experts in devising public health policies (...)
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  2. Neither Touch nor Vision: Sensory Substitution as Artificial Synaesthesia?Mirko Farina - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (4):639-655.
    Block (Trends Cogn Sci 7:285–286, 2003) and Prinz (PSYCHE 12:1–19, 2006) have defended the idea that SSD perception remains in the substituting modality (auditory or tactile). Hurley and Noë (Biol Philos 18:131–168, 2003) instead argued that after substantial training with the device, the perceptual experience that the SSD user enjoys undergoes a change, switching from tactile/auditory to visual. This debate has unfolded in something like a stalemate where, I will argue, it has become difficult to determine whether the perception acquired (...)
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  3. Embraining Culture: Leaky Minds and Spongy Brains.Julian Kiverstein & Mirko Farina - 2011 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy (2).
    We offer an argument for the extended mind based on considerations from brain development. We argue that our brains develop to function in partnership with cognitive resources located in our external environments. Through our cultural upbringing we are trained to use artefacts in problem solving that become factored into the cognitive routines our brains support. Our brains literally grow to work in close partnership with resources we regularly and reliably interact with. We take this argument to be in line with (...)
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  4.  17
    Incorporation, Transparency and Cognitive Extension: Why the Distinction Between Embedded and Extended Might Be More Important to Ethics Than to Metaphysics.Mirko Farina & Andrea Lavazza - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-21.
    We begin by introducing our readers to the Extended Mind Thesis and briefly discuss a series of arguments in its favour. We continue by showing of such a theory can be resisted and go on to demonstrate that a more conservative account of cognition can be developed. We acknowledge a stalemate between these two different accounts of cognition and notice a couple of issues that we argue have prevented further progress in the field. To overcome the stalemate, we propose to (...)
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  5. Three Approaches to Human Cognitive Development: Neo-Nativism, Neuroconstructivism, and Dynamic Enskillment.Mirko Farina - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (2):617-641.
    In Section 1, I introduce three views that explain human cognitive development from different standpoints: Marcus’s neo-nativism, standard neuroconstructivism, and neo-neuroconstructivism. In Section 2, I assess Marcus’s attempt to reconcile nativism with developmental flexibility. In Section 3, I argue that in structurally reconfiguring nativism, Marcus ends up transforming it into an unrecognizable form, and I claim that his view could be accommodated within the more general framework provided by standard neuroconstructivism. In Section 4, I focus on recent empirical findings in (...)
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  6. Do Sensory Substitution Extend the Conscious Mind?Julian Kiverstein & Mirko Farina - forthcoming - In Fabio Paglieri (ed.), Consciousness in interaction: the role of the natural and social context in shaping consciousness". Amsterdam: John Benjamins. John Benjamins.
    Is the brain the biological substrate of consciousness? Most naturalistic philosophers of mind have supposed that the answer must obviously be «yes » to this question. However, a growing number of philosophers working in 4e (embodied, embedded, extended, enactive) cognitive science have begun to challenge this assumption, arguing instead that consciousness supervenes on the whole embodied animal in dynamic interaction with the environment. We call views that share this claim dynamic sensorimotor theories of consciousness (DSM). Clark (2009) a founder and (...)
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  7.  10
    Epistemic Responsibility, Rights, and Duties During the Covid-19 Pandemic.Artur Karimov, Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - forthcoming - Social Epistemology.
  8.  16
    The meaning of Freedom after Covid-19.Mirko Farina & Andrea Lavazza - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (1):1-5.
    Many governments have seen digital health technologies as promising tools to tackle the current COVID-19 pandemic. A much-talked example in this context involves the recent deluge of digital contact tracing apps aimed at detecting Covid-19 exposure. In this short contribution we look at the bio-political justification of this phenomenon and reflect on whether DCT apps constitute, as it is often argued, a serious potential breach of our right to privacy. Despite praising efforts attempting to develop legal and ethical frameworks for (...)
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  9. Substituting the Senses.Julian Kiverstein, Mirko Farina & Andy Clark - forthcoming - In Mohan Matthen (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Perception. Oxford University Press.
    Sensory substitution devices are a type of sensory prosthesis that (typically) convert visual stimuli transduced by a camera into tactile or auditory stimulation. They are designed to be used by people with impaired vision so that they can recover some of the functions normally subserved by vision. In this chapter we will consider what philosophers might learn about the nature of the senses from the neuroscience of sensory substitution. We will show how sensory substitution devices work by exploiting the cross-modal (...)
     
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  10.  10
    The Virtues Needed by Experts in Action.Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (4):142-157.
    The current Covid-19 pandemic is illustrative of both the need of more experts and of the difficulties that can arise in the face of their decisions. This happens, we argue, because experts usually interact with society through a strongly naturalistic framework, which often places experts’ epistemic authority at the centre, sometimes at the expenses of other pluralistic values that people cherish. In this paper, we argue that we need to supplement such a strong naturalistic framework used to promote epistemic authority (...)
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  11. The Evolved Apprentice. How Evolution Made Humans Unique: 2012 , $35.00, 264 Pages. [REVIEW]Mirko Farina - 2013 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (4):915-923.
  12.  12
    AI and society: a virtue ethics approach.Mirko Farina, Petr Zhdanov, Artur Karimov & Andrea Lavazza - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    Advances in artificial intelligence and robotics stand to change many aspects of our lives, including our values. If trends continue as expected, many industries will undergo automation in the near future, calling into question whether we can still value the sense of identity and security our occupations once provided us with. Likewise, the advent of social robots driven by AI, appears to be shifting the meaning of numerous, long-standing values associated with interpersonal relationships, like friendship. Furthermore, powerful actors’ and institutions’ (...)
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  13.  1
    Why There Are Still Moral Reasons to Prefer Extended Over Embedded: A (Short) Reply to Cassinadri.Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-7.
    In a recent paper, Cassinadri raised substantial criticism about the possibility of using moral reasons to endorse the hypothesis of extended cognition over its most popular alternative, the embedded view. In particular, Cassinadri criticized 4 of the arguments we formulated to defend EXT and argued that our claim that EXT might be preferable to EMB does not stand close scrutiny. In this short reply, we point out—contra Cassinadri—why we still believe that there are moral reasons to prefer EXT over EMB, (...)
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  14.  16
    Categorizing Phenotypic Plasticity: An Analysis of Its Role in Human Cognitive Evolution.Mirko Farina - 2022 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 53 (2):103-121.
    I identify six types of phenotypic plasticity and categorize them with respect to their cognitive status. I look at differences and relations between some of these types of plasticity and then analyze how phenotypic outcomes are transmitted across generations. I engage with the relevant literature on developmental scaffolding and entrenchment in cultural evolution. I argue that that the typology I present here can be beneficial for such a debate and therefore instructive to better comprehend the evolution and development of human (...)
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  15. Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action and Cognitive Extension - Andy Clark. [REVIEW]Mirko Farina - 2010 - Humana Mente 4 (14).
  16. The Extended Mind Thesis.Kiverstein Julian, Mirko Farina & Andy Clark - forthcoming - Oxford Bibliographies Online.
  17. Beyond the Brain - How Body and Environment Shape Animal and Human Minds. [REVIEW]Mirko Farina - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences.
    Beyond the Brain: How Body and Environment Shape Animal and Human Minds is an eye-opening and thought- provoking book that sets out a much-needed contribution to the study of the relationship between animals, cognition and the environment. The volume provides remarkable new insights into how to understand animal (including human) behavior, raises interesting questions about the role of environmental affordances in the emergence of complex cognitive processes and provides the reader with a refreshing break from the wearisome excess of brain-centric (...)
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  18. Perception, Action, and Consciousness: Sensorimotor Dynamics and Two Visual Systems. [REVIEW]Mirko Farina - 2011 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 32 (4).
    Perception, Action, and Consciousness: Sensorimotor Dynamics and Two Visual Systems is a state-of-the-art collection whose main goal is to explore, from an interdisciplinary perspective, the relationship between action and perception. A second goal of the volume is to investigate how perception and action interact specifically in the production of phenomenal awareness. In presenting and contrasting the major perspectives on the field, this volume marks a good sign of the progress being made on the nature of phenomenally conscious visual experience. By (...)
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  19.  69
    Louise Barrett, Beyond the Brain: How Body and Environment Shape Animal and Human Minds: Princeton University Press, 2011. 304 Pp., ISBN: 9781400838349, $29.95. [REVIEW]Mirko Farina - 2012 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (3):415-421.
  20. Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind - Robert D. Rupert. [REVIEW]Mirko Farina - 2011 - Humana Mente 4 (15).
  21. On the Active Boundaries of Vision.Mirko Farina - forthcoming - Biology and Philosophy.
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  22.  4
    Memory Modulation Via Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: Status, Perspectives, and Ethical Issues.Mirko Farina & Andrea Lavazza - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    While research to improve memory or counter decay caused by neurodegenerative diseases has a fairly long history, scientific attempts to erase memories are very recent. The use of non-invasive brain stimulation for memory modulation represents a new and promising application for the treatment of certain disorders [such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder ]. However, numerous ethical issues are related to memory intervention. In particular, the possibility of using forms of non-invasive brain stimulation requires to distinguish treatment interventions from the enhancement of (...)
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  23.  5
    Dealing with Criminal Behavior: the Inaccuracy of the Quarantine Analogy.Sergei Levin, Mirko Farina & Andrea Lavazza - forthcoming - Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-20.
    Pereboom and Caruso propose the quarantine model as an alternative to existing models of criminal justice. They appeal to the established public health practice of quarantining people, which is believed to be effective and morally justified, to explain why -in criminal justice- it is also morally acceptable to detain wrongdoers, without assuming the existence of a retrospective moral responsibility. Wrongdoers in their model are treated as carriers of dangerous diseases and as such should be preventively detained until they no longer (...)
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  24.  33
    Jan Lauwereyns: Brain and the Gaze: On the Active Boundaries of Vision: MIT Press, 2012, 312 Pp, Hardcover, $40.00, 7 × 9 in, 49 B&W Illus, ISBN: 9780262017916. [REVIEW]Mirko Farina - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (6):1029-1038.
  25.  18
    Plasticity, Learning and Cognition: An Integrative Approach to Sensory Substitution Devices and Embodied, Enculturated Skills.Mirko Farina - unknown
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  26.  12
    Slaying the Chimera: A Complementarity Approach to the Extended Mind Thesis.Mirko Farina - unknown
    Much of the literature directed at the Extended Mind Thesis has revolved around parity issues, focussing on the problem of how to individuate the functional roles and on the relevance of these roles for the production of human intelligent behaviour. Proponents of EMT have famously claimed that we shouldn’t take the location of a process as a reliable indicator of the mechanisms that support our cognitive behaviour. This functionalist understanding of cognition has however been challenged by opponents of EMT [such (...)
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  27. Mind Embedded or Extended: Transhumanist and Posthumanist Reflections in Support of the Extended Mind Thesis.Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2022 - Synthese 200 (6).
    The goal of this paper is to encourage participants in the debate about the locus of cognition (e.g., extended mind vs embedded mind) to turn their attention to noteworthy anthropological and sociological considerations typically (but not uniquely) arising from transhumanist and posthumanist research. Such considerations, we claim, promise to potentially give us a way out of the stalemate in which such a debate has fallen. A secondary goal of this paper is to impress trans and post-humanistically inclined readers to embrace (...)
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