34 found
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  1.  54
    Incorporation, Transparency and Cognitive Extension: Why the Distinction Between Embedded and Extended Might Be More Important to Ethics Than to Metaphysics.Mirko Farina & Andrea Lavazza - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-21.
    We begin by introducing our readers to the Extended Mind Thesis and briefly discuss a series of arguments in its favour. We continue by showing of such a theory can be resisted and go on to demonstrate that a more conservative account of cognition can be developed. We acknowledge a stalemate between these two different accounts of cognition and notice a couple of issues that we argue have prevented further progress in the field. To overcome the stalemate, we propose to (...)
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  2.  38
    Mind embedded or extended: transhumanist and posthumanist reflections in support of the extended mind thesis.Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2022 - Synthese 200 (6):1-24.
    The goal of this paper is to encourage participants in the debate about the locus of cognition (e.g., extended mind vs embedded mind) to turn their attention to noteworthy anthropological and sociological considerations typically (but not uniquely) arising from transhumanist and posthumanist research. Such considerations, we claim, promise to potentially give us a way out of the stalemate in which such a debate has fallen. A secondary goal of this paper is to impress trans and post-humanistically inclined readers to embrace (...)
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  3.  24
    COVID-19 and Biomedical Experts: When Epistemic Authority is (Probably) Not Enough.Pietro Pietrini, Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 19 (1):135-142.
    This critical essay evaluates the potential integration of distinct kinds of expertise in policymaking, especially during situations of critical emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. This article relies on two case studies: herd immunity and restricted access to ventilators for disabled people. These case studies are discussed as examples of experts’ recommendations that have not been widely accepted, though they were made within the boundaries of expert epistemic authority. While the fundamental contribution of biomedical experts in devising public health policies (...)
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  4. AI and society: a virtue ethics approach.Mirko Farina, Petr Zhdanov, Artur Karimov & Andrea Lavazza - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    Advances in artificial intelligence and robotics stand to change many aspects of our lives, including our values. If trends continue as expected, many industries will undergo automation in the near future, calling into question whether we can still value the sense of identity and security our occupations once provided us with. Likewise, the advent of social robots driven by AI, appears to be shifting the meaning of numerous, long-standing values associated with interpersonal relationships, like friendship. Furthermore, powerful actors’ and institutions’ (...)
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  5.  11
    Why There Are Still Moral Reasons to Prefer Extended over Embedded: a (Short) Reply to Cassinadri.Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-7.
    In a recent paper, Cassinadri raised substantial criticism about the possibility of using moral reasons to endorse the hypothesis of extended cognition over its most popular alternative, the embedded view. In particular, Cassinadri criticized 4 of the arguments we formulated to defend EXT and argued that our claim that EXT might be preferable to EMB does not stand close scrutiny. In this short reply, we point out—contra Cassinadri—why we still believe that there are moral reasons to prefer EXT over EMB, (...)
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  6. Neither touch nor vision: sensory substitution as artificial synaesthesia?Mirko Farina - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (4):639-655.
    Block (Trends Cogn Sci 7:285–286, 2003) and Prinz (PSYCHE 12:1–19, 2006) have defended the idea that SSD perception remains in the substituting modality (auditory or tactile). Hurley and Noë (Biol Philos 18:131–168, 2003) instead argued that after substantial training with the device, the perceptual experience that the SSD user enjoys undergoes a change, switching from tactile/auditory to visual. This debate has unfolded in something like a stalemate where, I will argue, it has become difficult to determine whether the perception acquired (...)
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  7.  42
    Epistemic Responsibility, Rights and Duties During the COVID-19 Pandemic.Artur Karimov, Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2022 - Social Epistemology 36 (6):686-702.
    We start by introducing the idea of echo chambers. Echo chambers are social and epistemic structures in which opinions, leanings, or beliefs about certain topics are amplified and reinforced due to repeated interactions within a closed system; that is, within a system that has a rather homogeneous sample of sources or people, which all share the same attitudes towards the topics in question. Echo chambers are a particularly dangerous phenomena because they prevent the critical assessment of sources and contents, thus (...)
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  8. Embraining Culture: Leaky Minds and Spongy Brains.Julian Kiverstein & Mirko Farina - 2011 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy (2).
    We offer an argument for the extended mind based on considerations from brain development. We argue that our brains develop to function in partnership with cognitive resources located in our external environments. Through our cultural upbringing we are trained to use artefacts in problem solving that become factored into the cognitive routines our brains support. Our brains literally grow to work in close partnership with resources we regularly and reliably interact with. We take this argument to be in line with (...)
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  9.  21
    The meaning of Freedom after Covid-19.Mirko Farina & Andrea Lavazza - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (1):1-5.
    Many governments have seen digital health technologies as promising tools to tackle the current COVID-19 pandemic. A much-talked example in this context involves the recent deluge of digital contact tracing apps aimed at detecting Covid-19 exposure. In this short contribution we look at the bio-political justification of this phenomenon and reflect on whether DCT apps constitute, as it is often argued, a serious potential breach of our right to privacy. Despite praising efforts attempting to develop legal and ethical frameworks for (...)
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  10. Do Sensory Substitution Extend the Conscious Mind?Julian Kiverstein & Mirko Farina - forthcoming - In Fabio Paglieri (ed.), Consciousness in interaction: the role of the natural and social context in shaping consciousness". Amsterdam: John Benjamins. John Benjamins.
    Is the brain the biological substrate of consciousness? Most naturalistic philosophers of mind have supposed that the answer must obviously be «yes » to this question. However, a growing number of philosophers working in 4e (embodied, embedded, extended, enactive) cognitive science have begun to challenge this assumption, arguing instead that consciousness supervenes on the whole embodied animal in dynamic interaction with the environment. We call views that share this claim dynamic sensorimotor theories of consciousness (DSM). Clark (2009) a founder and (...)
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  11. Three Approaches to Human Cognitive Development: Neo-nativism, Neuroconstructivism, and Dynamic Enskillment.Mirko Farina - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (2):617-641.
    In Section 1, I introduce three views that explain human cognitive development from different standpoints: Marcus’s neo-nativism, standard neuroconstructivism, and neo-neuroconstructivism. In Section 2, I assess Marcus’s attempt to reconcile nativism with developmental flexibility. In Section 3, I argue that in structurally reconfiguring nativism, Marcus ends up transforming it into an unrecognizable form, and I claim that his view could be accommodated within the more general framework provided by standard neuroconstructivism. In Section 4, I focus on recent empirical findings in (...)
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  12. Substituting the senses.Julian Kiverstein, Mirko Farina & Andy Clark - 2015 - In Mohan Matthen (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Perception. Oxford University Press UK.
    Sensory substitution devices are a type of sensory prosthesis that (typically) convert visual stimuli transduced by a camera into tactile or auditory stimulation. They are designed to be used by people with impaired vision so that they can recover some of the functions normally subserved by vision. In this chapter we will consider what philosophers might learn about the nature of the senses from the neuroscience of sensory substitution. We will show how sensory substitution devices work by exploiting the cross-modal (...)
     
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  13.  20
    Infosphere, Datafication, and Decision-Making Processes in the AI Era.Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2023 - Topoi 42 (3):843-856.
    A recent interpretation of artificial intelligence (AI) (Floridi 2013, 2022) suggests that the implementation of AI demands the investigation of the binding conditions that make it possible to build and integrate artifacts into our lived world. Such artifacts can successfully interact with the world because our environment has been designed to be compatible with intelligent machines (such as robots). As the use of AI becomes ubiquitous in society, possibly leading to the formation of increasingly intelligent bio-technological unions, there will likely (...)
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  14.  14
    The Virtues Needed by Experts in Action.Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (4):142-157.
    The current Covid-19 pandemic is illustrative of both the need of more experts and of the difficulties that can arise in the face of their decisions. This happens, we argue, because experts usually interact with society through a strongly naturalistic framework, which often places experts’ epistemic authority (understood as neutrality and objectivity) at the centre, sometimes at the expenses of other pluralistic values (such as axiological ones) that people (often non-experts) cherish. In this paper, we argue that we need to (...)
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  15.  21
    Smart Environments.Shane Ryan, S. Orestis Palermos & Mirko Farina - forthcoming - Social Epistemology.
    This paper proposes epistemic environmentalism as a novel framework for accounting for the contribution of the environment – broadly construed – to epistemic standings and which can be used to improve or protect epistemic environments. The contribution of the environment to epistemic standings is explained through recent developments in epistemology and cognitive science, including embodied cognition, embedded cognition, extended cognition and distributed cognition. The paper examines how these developments support epistemic environmentalism, as well as contributes theoretical resources to make epistemic (...)
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  16.  19
    Dealing with Criminal Behavior: the Inaccuracy of the Quarantine Analogy.Sergei Levin, Mirko Farina & Andrea Lavazza - 2021 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 17 (1):135-154.
    Pereboom and Caruso propose the quarantine model as an alternative to existing models of criminal justice. They appeal to the established public health practice of quarantining people, which is believed to be effective and morally justified, to explain why -in criminal justice- it is also morally acceptable to detain wrongdoers, without assuming the existence of a retrospective moral responsibility. Wrongdoers in their model are treated as carriers of dangerous diseases and as such should be preventively detained (or rehabilitated) until they (...)
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  17.  11
    Machine learning in human creativity: status and perspectives.Mirko Farina, Andrea Lavazza, Giuseppe Sartori & Witold Pedrycz - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-13.
    As we write this research paper, we notice an explosion in popularity of machine learning in numerous fields (ranging from governance, education, and management to criminal justice, fraud detection, and internet of things). In this contribution, rather than focusing on any of those fields, which have been well-reviewed already, we decided to concentrate on a series of more recent applications of deep learning models and technologies that have only recently gained significant track in the relevant literature. These applications are concerned (...)
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  18.  20
    The Quarantine Model and its Limits.Andrea Lavazza, Sergei Levin & Mirko Farina - 2023 - Philosophia 51 (5):2417-2438.
    There are several well-established theories of criminal punishment and of its justification. The quarantine model (advocated by Pereboom and Caruso) has recently emerged as one of the most prominent theories in the field, by denying the very idea of criminal justice. This theory claims that no one ought to be criminally punished because fundamentally people do not deserve any kind of punishment. On these grounds, the quarantine model proposes forms of incapacitation based on public safety considerations. In this article, we (...)
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  19.  6
    Pushing the boundaries of the quarantine model: Philosophical concerns and policy implications.Mirko Farina, Andrea Lavazza & Sergei Levin - forthcoming - Diametros.
    The quarantine model, recently proposed by Pereboom and Caruso, is one of the most influential models developed to date in the context of criminal justice. The quarantine model challenges the very idea of criminal punishment and asserts that nobody deserves punishment on a fundamental level. Instead, in order to deal with offenders, it proposes a series of incapacitation measures based on public safety concerns. In this article, we examine several objections to the quarantine model that demonstrate how, in our view, (...)
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  20. The Extended Mind Thesis.Kiverstein Julian, Mirko Farina & Andy Clark - forthcoming - Oxford Bibliographies Online.
  21. On the Active Boundaries of Vision.Mirko Farina - forthcoming - Biology and Philosophy.
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  22.  22
    Categorizing Phenotypic Plasticity: An Analysis of Its Role in Human Cognitive Evolution.Mirko Farina - 2022 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 53 (2):103-121.
    I identify six types of phenotypic plasticity and categorize them with respect to their cognitive status. I look at differences and relations between some of these types of plasticity and then analyze how phenotypic outcomes are transmitted across generations. I engage with the relevant literature on developmental scaffolding and entrenchment in cultural evolution. I argue that that the typology I present here can be beneficial for such a debate and therefore instructive to better comprehend the evolution and development of human (...)
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  23. Expertise: philosophical perspectives.Mirko Farina, Andrea Lavazza & Duncan Pritchard (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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  24.  9
    Memory Modulation Via Non-invasive Brain Stimulation: Status, Perspectives, and Ethical Issues.Mirko Farina & Andrea Lavazza - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    While research to improve memory or counter decay caused by neurodegenerative diseases has a fairly long history, scientific attempts to erase memories are very recent. The use of non-invasive brain stimulation for memory modulation represents a new and promising application for the treatment of certain disorders [such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder ]. However, numerous ethical issues are related to memory intervention. In particular, the possibility of using forms of non-invasive brain stimulation requires to distinguish treatment interventions from the enhancement of (...)
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  25.  24
    Plasticity, learning and cognition: an integrative approach to sensory substitution devices and embodied, enculturated skills.Mirko Farina - unknown
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  26.  18
    Slaying the chimera: a complementarity approach to the extended mind thesis.Mirko Farina - unknown
    Much of the literature directed at the Extended Mind Thesis has revolved around parity issues, focussing on the problem of how to individuate the functional roles and on the relevance of these roles for the production of human intelligent behaviour. Proponents of EMT have famously claimed that we shouldn’t take the location of a process as a reliable indicator of the mechanisms that support our cognitive behaviour. This functionalist understanding of cognition has however been challenged by opponents of EMT [such (...)
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  27. Overcoming the Myth of Neutrality: Expertise for a New World.Andrea Lavazza & Mirko Farina (eds.) - forthcoming - Routledge.
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  28. The evolved apprentice. How evolution made humans unique: 2012 , $35.00, 264 pages. [REVIEW]Mirko Farina - 2013 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (4):915-923.
  29. Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action and Cognitive Extension - Andy Clark. [REVIEW]Mirko Farina - 2010 - Humana Mente 4 (14).
  30. Beyond the Brain - How Body and Environment Shape Animal and Human Minds. [REVIEW]Mirko Farina - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences.
    Beyond the Brain: How Body and Environment Shape Animal and Human Minds is an eye-opening and thought- provoking book that sets out a much-needed contribution to the study of the relationship between animals, cognition and the environment. The volume provides remarkable new insights into how to understand animal (including human) behavior, raises interesting questions about the role of environmental affordances in the emergence of complex cognitive processes and provides the reader with a refreshing break from the wearisome excess of brain-centric (...)
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  31. Perception, Action, and Consciousness: Sensorimotor Dynamics and Two Visual Systems. [REVIEW]Mirko Farina - 2011 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 32 (4).
    Perception, Action, and Consciousness: Sensorimotor Dynamics and Two Visual Systems is a state-of-the-art collection whose main goal is to explore, from an interdisciplinary perspective, the relationship between action and perception. A second goal of the volume is to investigate how perception and action interact specifically in the production of phenomenal awareness. In presenting and contrasting the major perspectives on the field, this volume marks a good sign of the progress being made on the nature of phenomenally conscious visual experience. By (...)
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  32. Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind - Robert D. Rupert. [REVIEW]Mirko Farina - 2011 - Humana Mente 4 (15).
  33.  75
    Louise Barrett, beyond the brain: how body and environment shape animal and human minds: Princeton University Press, 2011. 304 pp., ISBN: 9781400838349, $29.95. [REVIEW]Mirko Farina - 2012 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (3):415-421.
  34.  37
    Jan Lauwereyns: Brain and the Gaze: on the active boundaries of vision: MIT Press, 2012, 312 pp, Hardcover, $40.00, 7 × 9 in, 49 b&w illus, ISBN: 9780262017916. [REVIEW]Mirko Farina - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (6):1029-1038.