The aim of this paper is to prove strong completeness theorems for several Anderson-like variants of Gödels theory wrt. classes of modal structures, in which: (i). 1st order terms order receive only rigid extensions in the constant objectual 1st order domain; (ii). 2nd order terms receive non-rigid extensions in preselected world-relative objectual domains of 2nd order and rigid intensions in the constant conceptual 2nd order domain.
Karin Peter and Nikolaus Wandinger, James G. Williams, and Mathias Moosbrugger give in their essays in this volume of Contagion some basic information about the correspondence between these two “beautiful minds”: René Girard and Raymund Schwager. I would now like to go “step-by-step” along the way of some selected letters, and this only insofar as they discussed the question of sacrifice.1 Going this way the reader can get an idea how these two men were dealing with each other. These excerpts (...) show on the one hand the dynamic of their correspondence, on the other hand the different positions of the partners. Girard is not a theologian, so he shows uncertainty with regard to theological questions. Schwager is firmly .. (shrink)
Anderson-like ontological proofs, studied in this paper, employ contingent identity, free principles of quantification of the 1st order variables and classical principles of quantification of the 2nd order variables. All these theories are strongly complete wrt. classes of modal structures containing families of world-varying objectual domains of the 1st order and constant conceptual domains of the 2nd order. In such structures, terms of the 1st order receive only rigid extensions, which are elements of the union of all 1st order domains. (...) Terms of the 2nd order receive extensions and intensions. Given a family of preselected world-varying objectual domains of the 2nd order, non-rigid extensions of the 2nd order terms belong always to a preselected domain connected with a given world. Rigid intensions of the 2nd order terms are chosen from among members of a conceptual domain of the 2nd order, which is the set of all functions from the set of worlds to the union of all 2nd order preselected domains such that values of these functions at a given world belong to a preselected domain connected with this world. (shrink)
In the paper we introduce a wide range of Anderson-like variants of Gödel's theory and prove for each of them strong completeness theorem wrt. corresponding class of modal structures. These theories — all formulated in the 2nd order modal language with a 2nd order unary predicate of positiveness — differ among themselves with respect of: properties of the necessity operator and of the predicate of positiveness, axioms characterizing identity between 1st sort terms, definitions of identity between 2nd sort terms, the (...) treatment of Godlikeness as a term of the 2nd order, the treatment of necessary existence as a term of the 2nd order if there exists the necessity of its presence, the treatment of Ix is read: terms x, y are identical), for every 1st sort term x, as a term of the 2nd order if there exists the necessity of its presence. Concerning to semantical commitments, the following are essential: 1st order terms order receive only rigid extensions in the constant objectual 1st order domain; 2nd order terms receive non-rigid extensions in the constant objectual domain of 2nd order and rigid intensions in the constant conceptual 2nd order domain; The behavior of the identity between 1st sort terms shifts from possible worlds to possible worlds. (shrink)
Starting with the words that finish, or interrupt Master Wincenty’s Polish Chronicle, I interpret its historiographic content as characteristic of 12th century humanism, expression of love, of wisdom. The infallible condition of ethicalarete may be found to be formulated in the last words of the Chronicle concerning humanity which consists in tolerant indulgence of others’ vices and modesty about one’s virtues.
Problem moralności w świetle języków słowiańskich.Artykuł jest próbą odpowiedzi na stawiane często pytanie: czy istnieje różnica między pojęciami Moral i Sitte. Na ogół odpowiada się, że pojęcia te są przez Kanta używane synonimicznie, oddanie różnicy miedzy nimi – jeśli miałaby być podkreślona – sprawia trudności tłumaczom dzieł Kanta. Ważnych intuicji dotyczących sposobu oddawania niuansów kantowskiej terminologii w języku polskim dostarczają pisma Krzysztofa Celestyn Mrongowiusza, ucznia Kanta i autora zbiorów notatek z wykładów Kanta o moralności, tłumacza i pisarza.