Results for 'Mitochondrial DNA'

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  1.  9
    Adverse Childhood Experiences Run Deep: Toxic Early Life Stress, Telomeres, and Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number, the Biological Markers of Cumulative Stress.Kathryn K. Ridout, Mariam Khan & Samuel J. Ridout - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800077.
  2.  10
    Known Unknowns of Mammalian Mitochondrial DNA Maintenance.Jaakko L. O. Pohjoismäki, Josefin M. E. Forslund, Steffi Goffart, Rubén Torregrosa-Muñumer & Sjoerd Wanrooij - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800102.
    Mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and repair have been studied intensively for the last 50 years. Although recently advances in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of mtDNA maintenance and the proteins involved in these have been made, there are disturbing gaps between the existing theoretical models and experimental observations. Conflicting data and hypotheses exist about the role of RNA and ribonucleotides in mtDNA replication, but also about the priming of replication and the formation of pathological rearrangements. In the presented review, (...)
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  3.  9
    Intracellular Evolution of Mitochondrial DNA and the Tragedy of the Cytoplasmic Commons.David Haig - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (6):549-555.
    Mitochondria exist in large numbers per cell. Therefore, the strength of natural selection on individual mtDNAs for their contribution to cellular fitness is weak whereas the strength of selection in favor of mtDNAs that increase their own replication without regard for cellular functions is strong. This problem has been solved for most mitochondrial genes by their transfer to the nucleus but a few critical genes remain encoded by mtDNA. Organisms manage the evolution of mtDNA to prevent mutational decay of (...)
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  4.  12
    Of Circles, Forks and Humanity: Topological Organisation and Replication of Mammalian Mitochondrial DNA.Jaakko Lo Pohjoismäki & Steffi Goffart - 2011 - Bioessays 33 (4):290-299.
  5.  18
    Mitochondrial Dna Analyses for the Molecular Taxonomy of South African Mammals.M. F. Essop, M. Emmanuel & E. H. Harley - 1988 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 46 (4):291-293.
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  6.  4
    Known Unknowns of Mammalian Mitochondrial DNA Maintenance.Jaakko L. O. Pohjoismäki, Josefin M. E. Forslund, Steffi Goffart, Rubén Torregrosa‐Muñumer & Sjoerd Wanrooij - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9).
  7.  13
    Replication of Mitochondrial DNA: The Art of Staying Paired to Avoid Dangerous Changes. [REVIEW]Miria Ricchetti - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (11):1016-1016.
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  8.  13
    Running on Empty: Does Mitochondrial DNA Mutation Limit Replicative Lifespan in Yeast?Cory D. Dunn - 2011 - Bioessays 33 (10):742-748.
  9.  5
    A Study of Hake Population Diversity Using Restriction Endonuclease Analysis of Mitochondrial Dna: A Practical Application of Molecular Biology to a South African Taxonomic Problem.Inga I. Becker & Ralph Kirby - 1988 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 46 (4):313-315.
  10.  6
    Transmission of Mitochondrial DNA ‐ Playing Favorites?Jeffrey L. Boore - 1997 - Bioessays 19 (9):751-753.
  11.  5
    Mitochondrial DNA and Genetic Disease.Jo Poulton - 1992 - Bioessays 14 (11):763-768.
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  12.  13
    Using Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Markers to Reconstruct Human Evolution.Lynn B. Jorde, Michael Bamshad & Alan R. Rogers - 1998 - Bioessays 20 (2):126-136.
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  13. Why is an Egg Donor a Genetic Parent, but Not a Mitochondrial Donor?Monika Piotrowska - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (3):488-498.
    What’s the basis for considering an egg donor a genetic parent but not a mitochondrial donor? I will argue that a closer look at the biological facts will not give us an answer to this question because the process by which one becomes a genetic parent, i.e., the process of reproduction, is not a concept that can be settled by looking. It is, rather, a concept in need of philosophical attention. The details of my argument will rest on recent (...)
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  14. The Need for Donor Consent in Mitochondrial Replacement.G. Owen Schaefer - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (12):825-829.
    Mitochondrial replacement therapy requires oocytes of women whose mitochondrial DNA will be transmitted to resultant children. These techniques are scientifically, ethically and socially controversial; it is likely that some women who donate their oocytes for general in vitro fertilisation usage would nevertheless oppose their genetic material being used in MRT. The possibility of oocytes being used in MRT is therefore relevant to oocyte donation and should be included in the consent process when applicable. In present circumstances, specific consent (...)
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  15.  8
    Gender And The Human Genome.R. Chadwick - 2009 - Mens Sana Monographs 7 (1):10.
    _Gender issues arise in relation to the human genome across a number of dimensions: the level of attention given to the nuclear genome as opposed to the mitochondrial; the level of basic scientific research; decision-making in the clinic related to both reproductive decision-making on the one hand, and diagnostic and predictive testing on the other; and wider societal implications. Feminist bioethics offers a useful perspective for addressing these issues._.
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  16. The Ethical Challenges of the Clinical Introduction of Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques.John B. Appleby - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (4):501-514.
    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases are a group of neuromuscular diseases that often cause suffering and premature death. New mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) may offer women with mtDNA diseases the opportunity to have healthy offspring to whom they are genetically related. MRTs will likely be ready to license for clinical use in the near future and a discussion of the ethics of the clinical introduction ofMRTs is needed. This paper begins by evaluating three concerns about the safety of MRTs (...)
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  17.  25
    Lesbian Motherhood and Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Reproductive Freedom and Genetic Kinship.Giulia Cavaliere & César Palacios-González - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (12):835-842.
    In this paper, we argue that lesbian couples who wish to have children who are genetically related to both of them should be allowed access to mitochondrial replacement techniques. First, we provide a brief explanation of mitochondrial diseases and MRTs. We then present the reasons why MRTs are not, by nature, therapeutic. The upshot of the view that MRTs are non-therapeutic techniques is that their therapeutic potential cannot be invoked for restricting their use only to those cases where (...)
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  18.  33
    Does Egg Donation for Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques Generate Parental Responsibilities?César Palacios-González - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (12):817-822.
    Children created through mitochondrial replacement techniques are commonly presented as possessing 50% of their mother’s nuclear DNA, 50% of their father’s nuclear DNA and the mitochondrial DNA of an egg donor. This lab-engineered genetic composition has prompted two questions: Do children who are the product of an MRT procedure have three genetic parents? And, do MRT egg donors have parental responsibilities for the children created? In this paper, I address the second question and in doing so I also (...)
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  19.  21
    Ethics of Modifying the Mitochondrial Genome.A. L. Bredenoord, W. Dondorp, G. Pennings & G. De Wert - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (2):97-100.
    Recent preclinical studies have shown the feasibility of specific variants of nuclear transfer to prevent mitochondrial DNA disorders. Nuclear transfer could be a valuable reproductive option for carriers of mitochondrial mutations. A clinical application of nuclear transfer, however, would entail germ-line modification, more specifically a germ-line modification of the mitochondrial genome. One of the most prominent objections against germ-line modification is the fear that it would become possible to alter ‘essential characteristics’ of a future person, thereby possibly (...)
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  20.  7
    The Evolution of Sex: A New Hypothesis Based on Mitochondrial Mutational Erosion.Justin C. Havird, Matthew D. Hall & Damian K. Dowling - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (9):951-958.
    The evolution of sex in eukaryotes represents a paradox, given the “twofold” fitness cost it incurs. We hypothesize that the mutational dynamics of the mitochondrial genome would have favored the evolution of sexual reproduction. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) exhibits a high‐mutation rate across most eukaryote taxa, and several lines of evidence suggest that this high rate is an ancestral character. This seems inexplicable given that mtDNA‐encoded genes underlie the expression of life's most salient functions, including energy conversion. We propose (...)
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  21.  41
    Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques, Scientific Tourism, and the Global Politics of Science.Sarah Chan, César Palacios-González & María De Jesús Medina Arellano - 2017 - Hastings Center Report 47 (5):7-9.
    The United Kingdom is the first and so far only country to pass explicit legislation allowing for the licensed use of the new reproductive technology known as mitochondrial replacement therapy. The techniques used in this technology may prevent the transmission of mitochondrial DNA diseases, but they are controversial because they involve the manipulation of oocytes or embryos and the transfer of genetic material. Some commentators have even suggested that MRT constitutes germline genome modification. All eyes were on the (...)
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  22.  26
    Speciation Through Cytonuclear Incompatibility: Insights From Yeast and Implications for Higher Eukaryotes.Jui-Yu Chou & Jun-Yi Leu - 2010 - Bioessays 32 (5):401-411.
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  23.  15
    Base Composition, Speciation, and Why the Mitochondrial Barcode Precisely Classifies.Donald R. Forsdyke - 2017 - Biological Theory 12 (3):157-168.
    While its mechanism and biological significance are unknown, the utility of a short mitochondrial DNA sequence as a “barcode” providing accurate species identification has revolutionized the classification of organisms. Since highest accuracy was achieved with recently diverged species, hopes were raised that barcodes would throw light on the speciation process. Indeed, a failure of a maternally donated, rapidly mutating, mitochondrial genome to coadapt its gene products with those of a paternally donated nuclear genome could result in developmental failure, (...)
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  24.  30
    Response to “Germ Line Therapy to Cure Mitochondrial Disease: Protocol and Ethics of In Vitro Ovum Nuclear Transplantation” by Donald S. Rubenstein, David C. Thomasma, Eric A. Schon, and Michael J. Zinaman (CQ Vol 4, No 3). [REVIEW]Imre Szebik - 1999 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (3):369-374.
    Technical, ethical, and social questions of germ-line gene interventions have been widely discussed in the literature. The majority of these discussions focus on planned interventions executed on the nuclear DNA (nDNA). However, human cells also contain another set of genes that is the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). As the characteristics of the mtDNA grossly differ from those of nDNA, so do the social, ethical, psychological, and safety considerations of possible interventions on this part of the genetic substance.
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  25.  11
    Mutated mtDNA Distribution in Exponentially Growing Cell Cultures and How the Segregation Rate is Increased by the Mitochondrial Compartments.Christine Reder - 2001 - Acta Biotheoretica 49 (4):235-245.
    A cell contains many copies of mitochondrial DNA. The distribution of a mitochondrial gene mutation in a cell culture is governed by the way in which the mtDNA molecules of a cell are replicated and partitioned between the two daughter cells during mitosis. Assuming that this partition process is random, we describe the evolution of the mitochondrial genetic state of a cell culture. The mutated mtDNA is ultimately segregated and the rate of the trend to segregation is (...)
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  26.  17
    Response to “Germ Line Therapy to Cure Mitochondrial Disease: Protocol and Ethics of In Vitro Ovum Nuclear Transplantation” by Donald S. Rubenstein, David C. Thomasma, Eric A. Schon, and Michael J. Zinaman (CQ Vol 4, No 3) Altering the Mitochondrial Genome: Is It Just a Technical Issue? [REVIEW]Imre Szebik - 1999 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (3):369-374.
    Technical, ethical, and social questions of germ-line gene interventions have been widely discussed in the literature. The majority of these discussions focus on planned interventions executed on the nuclear DNA (nDNA). However, human cells also contain another set of genes that is the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). As the characteristics of the mtDNA grossly differ from those of nDNA, so do the social, ethical, psychological, and safety considerations of possible interventions on this part of the genetic substance.
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  27. A Perpetual Source of DNA or Something Really Different: Ethical Issues in the Creation of Cell Lines for African Genomics Research.Janet Seeley, Odile Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Patricia Marshall, Ebony Madden, Katherine Littler, James Brandful, Akin Abayomi & Jantina de Vries - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1).
    BackgroundThe rise of genomic studies in Africa – not least due to projects funded under H3Africa – is associated with the development of a small number of biorepositories across Africa. For the ultimate success of these biorepositories, the creation of cell lines including those from selected H3Africa samples would be beneficial. In this paper, we map ethical challenges in the creation of cell lines.DiscussionThe first challenge we identified relates to the moral status of cells living in culture. There is no (...)
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  28. Rendered Invisible? The Absent Presence of Egg Providers in U.K. Debates on the Acceptability of Research and Therapy for Mitochondrial Disease.Ken Taylor & Erica Haimes - 2015 - Monash Bioethics Review 33 (4):360-378.
    Techniques for resolving some types of inherited mitochondrial diseases have recently been the subject of scientific research, ethical scrutiny, media coverage and regulatory initiatives in the UK. Building on research using eggs from a variety of providers, scientists hope to eradicate maternally transmitted mutations in mitochondrial DNA by transferring the nuclear DNA of a fertilised egg, created by an intending mother at risk of transmitting mitochondrial disease, and her male partner, into an enucleated egg provided by another (...)
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  29.  8
    Mitochondrial Quality Control Pathways as Determinants of Metabolic Health.Ntsiki M. Held & Riekelt H. Houtkooper - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (8):867-876.
    Mitochondrial function is key for maintaining cellular health, while mitochondrial failure is associated with various pathologies, including inherited metabolic disorders and age‐related diseases. In order to maintain mitochondrial quality, several pathways of mitochondrial quality control have evolved. These systems monitor mitochondrial integrity through antioxidants, DNA repair systems, and chaperones and proteases involved in the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. Additional regulation of mitochondrial function involves dynamic exchange of components through mitochondrial fusion and fission. (...)
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  30.  25
    Graphical Representation and Similarity Analysis of DNA Sequences Based on Trigonometric Functions.Guo-Sen Xie, Xiao-Bo Jin, Chunlei Yang, Jiexin Pu & Zhongxi Mo - 2018 - Acta Biotheoretica 66 (2):113-133.
    In this paper, we propose two four-base related 2D curves of DNA primary sequences and their corresponding single-base related 2D curves. The constructions of these graphical curves are based on the assignments of individual base to four different sinusoidal functions; then by connecting all these points on these four sinusoidal functions, we can get the F-B curves; similarly, by connecting the points on each of the four sinusoidal functions, we get the single-base related 2D curves. The proposed 2D curves are (...)
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  31.  27
    Zinc Deficiency Induces Apoptosis Via Mitochondrial P53- and Caspase-Dependent Pathways in Human Neuronal Precursor Cells. James - 2014 - Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 59 (65).
    Previous studies have shown that zinc deficiency leads to apoptosis of neuronal precursor cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition to the role of p53 as a nuclear transcription factor in zinc deficient cultured human neuronal precursors (NT-2), we have now identified the translocation of phosphorylated p53 to the mitochondria and p53-dependent increases in the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein BAX leading to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as demonstrated by a 25% decrease in JC-1 red:green fluorescence ratio. (...)
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  32.  1
    Heat Shock Proteins in the “Hot” Mitochondrion: Identity and Putative Roles.Mohamed A. Nasr, Galina I. Dovbeshko, Stephen L. Bearne, Nagwa El‐Badri & Chérif F. Matta - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (9):1900055.
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  33. Better Humans?: Understanding the Enhancement Project.Michael Hauskeller - 2013 - Routledge.
    Developments in medical science have afforded us the opportunity to improve and enhance the human species in ways unthinkable to previous generations. Whether it's making changes to mitochondrial DNA in a human egg, being prescribed Prozac, or having a facelift, our desire to live longer, feel better and look good has presented philosophers, medical practitioners and policy-makers with considerable ethical challenges. But what exactly constitutes human improvement? What do we mean when we talk of making "better" humans? In this (...)
     
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  34.  32
    What Is the Value of Three-Parent IVF?Tina Rulli - 2016 - Hastings Center Report 46 (4):38-47.
    In February 2016, the Institute of Medicine released a report, commissioned by the United States Food and Drug Administration, on the ethical and social-policy implications of so-called three-parent in vitro fertilization. The IOM endorses commencement of clinical trials on three-parent IVF, subject to some initial limitations. Also called mitochondrial replacement or transfer, three-parent IVF is an intervention comprising two distinct procedures in which the genetic materials of three people—the DNA of the father and mother and the mitochondrial DNA (...)
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  35.  49
    Hard Lessons: Learning From the Charlie Gard Case.Dominic Wilkinson & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (7):438-442.
    On 24 July 2017, the long-running, deeply tragic and emotionally fraught case of Charlie Gard reached its sad conclusion. Following further medical assessment of the infant, Charlie’s parents and doctors finally reached agreement that continuing medical treatment was not in Charlie’s best interests. Life support was subsequently withdrawn and Charlie died on 28 July 2017.Box 1 ### Case summary and timeline21–23 Charlie Gard was born at full term, apparently healthy, in August 2016. At a few weeks of age his parents (...)
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  36.  39
    A 14-Day Limit for Bioethics: The Debate Over Human Embryo Research.Giulia Cavaliere - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):38.
    BackgroundThis article explores the reasons in favour of revising and extending the current 14-day statutory limit to maintaining human embryos in culture. This limit is enshrined in law in over a dozen countries, including the United Kingdom. In two recently published studies, scientists have shown that embryos can be sustained in vitro for about 13 days after fertilisation. Positive reactions to these results have gone hand in hand with calls for revising the 14-day rule, which only allows embryo research until (...)
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  37.  27
    Are There Moral Differences Between Maternal Spindle Transfer and Pronuclear Transfer?César Palacios-González - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 20 (4):503-511.
    This paper examines whether there are moral differences between the mitochondrial replacement techniques that have been recently developed in order to help women afflicted by mitochondrial DNA diseases to have genetically related children absent such conditions: maternal spindle transfer and pronuclear transfer. Firstly, it examines whether there is a moral difference between MST and PNT in terms of the divide between somatic interventions and germline interventions. Secondly, it considers whether PNT and MST are morally distinct under a therapy/creation (...)
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  38.  20
    Ethical Implications of Medical Crowdfunding: The Case of Charlie Gard.Gabrielle Dressler & Sarah A. Kelly - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (7):453-457.
    Patients are increasingly turning to medical crowdfunding as a way to cover their healthcare costs. In the case of Charlie Gard, an infant born with encephalomyopathic mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, crowdfunding was used to finance experimental nucleoside therapy. Although this treatment was not provided in the end, we will argue that the success of the Gard family’s crowdfunding campaign reveals a number of potential ethical concerns. First, this case shows that crowdfunding can change the way in which communal healthcare (...)
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  39.  26
    Charlie Gard and the Limits of Parental Authority.Arthur Caplan & Kelly McBride Folkers - 2017 - Hastings Center Report 47 (5):15-16.
    The parents of Charlie Gard, who was born August 4, 2016, with an exceedingly rare and incurable disease called mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, fought a prolonged and heated legal battle to allow him access to experimental treatment that they hoped would prolong his life and to prevent his doctors from withdrawing life-sustaining care. Charlie's clinicians at the Great Ormond Street Hospital in London believed that the brain damage Charlie had suffered as a result of frequent epileptic seizures, along with (...)
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  40.  10
    Relatively Material: mtDNA and Genetic Relatedness in Law and Policy.Ingrid Holme & Caroline Jones - 2013 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 9 (1):1-14.
    Mitochondrial donation poses the latest regulatory challenge for policy-makers in the context of assisted conception. Since 2010 the Human Genetics Commission, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority and the Nuffield Council on Bioethics have all considered the policy implications of permitting use of these techniques in treatment. The Nuffield Council on Bioethics reported its recommendations in June 2012 following a consultation on the ethical issues raised by these techniques; and a separate consultation by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (...)
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  41.  1
    Who's Afraid of the Big Bad (Germline Editing) Wolf?R. Alta Charo - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (1):93-100.
    The surprise announcement in November 2018 that a Chinese researcher had implanted and brought to term two gene-edited embryos, resulting in the birth of twin girls, had the effect of galvanizing a debate that goes back decades. Should we make heritable changes in our children's DNA? Until recently, this was hypothetical only, and the easy response was to say it is too uncertain and too unnecessary to be tolerated. Suddenly, however, the possibility that there might be real uses for (...) DNA replacement or for germline editing has led to a more nuanced debate, ranging from calls to double-down on prohibiting this technology to discussions of how to permit it for a... (shrink)
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  42.  26
    Tri-Parent Baby Technology and Preservation of Lineage: An Analysis From the Perspective of Maqasid Al-Shari’Ah Based Islamic Bioethics.Abdul Halim Ibrahim, Noor Naemah Abdul Rahman, Shaikh Mohd Saifuddeen & Madiha Baharuddin - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (1):129-142.
    Tri-parent baby technology is an assisted reproductive treatment which aims to minimize or eliminate maternal inheritance of mutated mitochondrial DNA. The technology became popular following the move by the United Kingdom in granting license to a group of researchers from the Newcastle Fertility Centre, Newcastle University to conduct research on the symptoms of defective mtDNA. This technology differs from other assisted reproductive technology because it involves the use of gamete components retrieved from three different individuals. Indirectly, it affects the (...)
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  43. Recent Speciation Between the Baltimore Oriole and the Black-Backed Oriole.Jason M. Baker - unknown
    A recent phylogenetic survey of the New World orioles (genus Icterus; Omland et al. 1999) suggested that the Baltimore Oriole (I. galbula) and the Black-backed Oriole (I. abeillei) are sister taxa. That survey examined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a single representative of each species in the genus. Here, we examine mtDNA sequences from 15 Blackbacked and 20 Baltimore Orioles. The two species appear to be very recently diverged, with average sequence divergences for both cytochrome b (cyt b) and the (...)
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  44. Christian Theism and Cosmic Evolution.Joseph M. Zycinski - 2005 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 61 (1):211-223.
    Interpreting John Paul II's message ca the Pontifical Academy of Sciences in the context of the new scientific discoveries concerning the mitochondrial DNA, one can argue that the human species emerged in Africa some 200,000 years ago. The very problem of the emergence of the human soul in the process of biological evolution represents a subject outside the cognitive competence of science. Attempts can be undertaken to explain this issue in the epistemological perspective of philosophy and theology. In traditional (...)
     
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  45.  10
    What Was Politics to the Denisovan?Kennan Ferguson - 2014 - Political Theory 42 (2):167-187.
    What does it mean that humans were not the only hominin? Or, more importantly, what does it mean that other hominins held cultural, biological, and perhaps even linguistic equivalence to human beings? Drawing on mitochondrial DNA analyses, theories of deep history, and attention to the inhuman, this essay argues that such equivalence entails not only the reality of human/nonhuman genetic compatibility but the existence of politics in places and times without humans. Such a politics of non-humans would entail political (...)
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  46.  11
    Christian Theism and the Philosophical Meaning of Cosmic Evolution.Joseph M. Zycinski - 2005 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 61 (1):211 - 223.
    Interpreting John Paul II's message to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences in the context of the new scientific discoveries concerning the mitochondrial DNA, one can argue that the human species emerged in Africa some 200,000 years ago. The very problem of the emergence of the human soul in the process of biological evolution represents a subject outside the cognitive competence of science. Attempts can be undertaken to explain this issue in the epistemological perspective of philosophy and theology. In traditional (...)
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  47.  2
    Human Genome Diversity: Ethics and Practice in Australia.Sheila van Holst Pellekaan - 2000 - Global Bioethics 13 (3-4):97-107.
    Researchers who propose projects about the human past frequently fail to distinguish between scientific value and the impact of both the proposal and the possible outcome for participant groups. It is only in recent years, and still in relatively few cases, that Aboriginal Australians have been directly involved in projects about themselves. The legacy of previous research experiences is a lingering distrust of ‘white’ researchers who visit communities briefly, take material/information, publish papers, and are rarely seen again. This distrust is (...)
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  48.  26
    Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity.Anthony Wrigley, Stephen Wilkinson & John B. Appleby - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (9):631-638.
    Mitochondrial replacement techniques have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer and Maternal Spindle Transfer. It examines how questions of (...)
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  49.  20
    The Mitochondrial Replacement ‘Therapy’ Myth.Tina Rulli - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):368-374.
    This article argues that two forms of mitochondrial replacement therapy, maternal spindle transfer and pro-nuclear transfer, are not therapies at all because they do not treat children who are coming into existence. Rather, these technologies merely create healthy children where none was inevitable. Even if creating healthy lives has some value, it is not to be confused with the medical value of a cure or therapy. The article addresses a recent Bioethics article, ‘Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity,’ by (...)
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  50.  38
    Do Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques Affect Qualitative or Numerical Identity?S. Matthew Liao - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):20-26.
    Mitochondrial replacement techniques, known in the popular media as 'three-parent' or 'three-person' IVFs, have the potential to enable women with mitochondrial diseases to have children who are genetically related to them but without such diseases. In the debate regarding whether MRTs should be made available, an issue that has garnered considerable attention is whether MRTs affect the characteristics of an existing individual or whether they result in the creation of a new individual, given that MRTs involve the genetic (...)
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