InHow the West Came to Rule, Alexander Anievas and Kerem Nişancıoğlu offer an alternative to both Political Marxism and world-systems analysis by going beyond the nation-state as the unit of analysis in the former and the marginalisation of articulation and combination between modes of production in the latter. Their account also gives more room to non-European actors neglected in other interpretations of the rise of the West. However, I argue that their argument is much closer toWSAand that their critique of (...) Wallerstein regarding Eurocentrism, the origins of capitalism and the role of wage labour in the capitalist world-system is problematic. Furthermore, Anievas and Nişancıoğlu do not offer a sufficiently rigorous definition of combination, leading to an overextension of the concept. (shrink)
The paper takes as the starting point a dense and notorious quote by Lacan where he takes up in a single gesture three concepts of ancient philosophy, tyche, clinamen and den. The contention is that all three aim at the status of the object, although by different means and in different philosophical contexts, and the paper tries to spell out some crucial points concerning each. Tyche, usually translated as chance and put into an opposition with automaton, requires a reading of (...) some passages of Aristotle’s Physics where Lacan took it from, and an account of the problem of repetition in psychoanalysis. Clinamen, the swerve, stemming from Epicure and Lucretius, requires a condensed reading of the tradition which took it up, from Cicero to Hegel, Marx, Deleuze and Badiou, pinpointing the dilemmas and contradictions of this tradition. Den, stemming from Democritus who coined this neologism, brings up an entity which is neither being nor nothing, neither one nor zero nor multiple. It is perhaps the best evocation, at the dawn of philosophy, of what Lacan would call object a, and it allows to sidestep the difficulties and the pitfalls presented by the other two notions. The paper tries to pin down the minimal requirement for the Lacanian theory with the irreducible and incommensurable (non)relation of ‘minus one’ and den. (shrink)
Plutarch tells the story of a man who plucked a nightingale and finding but little to eat exclaimed: "You are just a voice and nothing more." Plucking the feathers of meaning that cover the voice, dismantling the body from which the voice seems to emanate, resisting the Sirens' song of fascination with the voice, concentrating on "the voice and nothing more": this is the difficult task that philosopher Mladen Dolar relentlessly pursues in this seminal work.The voice did not figure (...) as a major philosophical topic until the 1960s, when Derrida and Lacan separately proposed it as a central theoretical concern. In A Voice and Nothing More Dolar goes beyond Derrida's idea of "phonocentrism" and revives and develops Lacan's claim that the voice is one of the paramount embodiments of the psychoanalytic object. Dolar proposes that, apart from the two commonly understood uses of the voice as a vehicle of meaning and as a source of aesthetic admiration, there is a third level of understanding: the voice as an object that can be seen as the lever of thought. He investigates the object voice on a number of different levels--the linguistics of the voice, the metaphysics of the voice, the ethics of the voice, the paradoxical relation between the voice and the body, the politics of the voice--and he scrutinizes the uses of the voice in Freud and Kafka. With this foundational work, Dolar gives us a philosophically grounded theory of the voice as a Lacanian object-cause. (shrink)
This study explores the role that business schools have in developing favorable attitudes toward business involvement in corporate social responsibility. Two cohorts of incoming students from two internationally accredited MBA programs in Chile and two cohorts of graduating students from the same institutions were compared in terms of their attitudes toward the role of business in alleviating social ills and the role they assigned to business schools in preparing managers to effectively address social issues. The attitudes expressed by graduates of (...) the two programs changed after program completion. Faculty attitudes toward business involvement in CSR may play a role in the observed differences between the graduates of both institutions. (shrink)
We conducted an on-line survey to investigate the professor’s idea of “morality” and then to compare their moral thinking at the abstract level with their moral thinking in the real life situations by sampling 257 professors from the University of Novi Sad. We constructed questionnaire based on related theoretical ethical concepts. Our results show (after we performed exploratory factor analysis) that the professor’s idea of “morality” consists of the three moral thinking patterns which are simultaneously activated during the process of (...) their abstract moral thinking. We have identified these patterns in the following manner: deontological, formal and subjective pattern. In addition, our results show that of the three, the subjective pattern is more activated than the other two during their process of the moral thinking at the abstract level. We also discovered that there is a statistically significant difference between professor’s moral thinking patterns activation level at the abstract level and their moral thinking patterns activation level in the real life situation. (shrink)
Interpretability logic is an extension of provability logic. Veltman models and generalized Veltman models are two semantics for interpretability logic. We consider a connection between Veltman semantics and generalized Veltman semantics. We prove that for a complete image-finite generalized Veltman modelW there is a Veltman model W ′ that is bisimular to W.
A generalized Veltman semantics developed by de Jongh is used to investigate correspondences between several extensions of intepretability logic . In this paper we present some new results on independences.
The prevalence and characteristics of research misconduct have mainly been studied in highly developed countries. In moderately or poorly developed countries such as Croatia, data on research misconduct are scarce. The primary aim of this study was to determine the rates at which scientists report committing or observing the most serious forms of research misconduct, such as falsification, fabrication, plagiarism, and violation of authorship rules in the Croatian scientific community. Additionally, we sought to determine the degree of development and the (...) extent of implementation of the system for defining and regulating research misconduct in a typical scientific community in Croatia. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed among 1232 Croatian scientists at the University of Rijeka in 2012/2013 and 237 returned the survey. Based on the respondents who admitted having committed research misconduct, 9 admitted to plagiarism, 22 to data falsification, 9 to data fabrication, and 60 respondents admitted to violation of authorship rules. Based on the respondents who admitted having observed research misconduct of fellow scientists, 72 observed plagiarism, 69 observed data falsification, 46 observed data fabrication, and 132 respondents admitted having observed violation of authorship rules. The results of our study indicate that the efficacy of the system for managing research misconduct in Croatia is poor. At the University of Rijeka there is no document dedicated exclusively to research integrity, describing the values that should be fostered by a scientist and clarifying the forms of research misconduct and what constitutes a questionable research practice. Scientists do not trust ethical bodies and the system for defining and regulating research misconduct; therefore the observed cases of research misconduct are rarely reported. Finally, Croatian scientists are not formally educated about responsible conduct of research at any level of their formal education. All mentioned indicate possible reasons for higher rates of research misconduct among Croatian scientists in comparison with scientists in highly developed countries. (shrink)
To assess the prevalence of plagiarism in manuscripts submitted for publication in the Croatian Medical Journal (CMJ). All manuscripts submitted in 2009–2010 were analyzed using plagiarism detection software: eTBLAST , CrossCheck, and WCopyfind . Plagiarism was suspected in manuscripts with more than 10% of the text derived from other sources. These manuscripts were checked against the Déjà vu database and manually verified by investigators. Of 754 submitted manuscripts, 105 (14%) were identified by the software as suspicious of plagiarism. Manual verification (...) confirmed that 85 (11%) manuscripts were plagiarized: 63 (8%) were true plagiarism and 22 (3%) were self-plagiarism. Plagiarized manuscripts were mostly submitted from China (21%), Croatia (14%), and Turkey (19%). There was no significant difference in the text similarity rate between plagiarized and self-plagiarized manuscripts (25% [95% CI 22–27%] vs. 28% [95% CI 20–33%]; U = 645.50; P = 0.634). Differences in text similarity rate were found between various sections of self-plagiarized manuscripts (H = 12.65, P = 0.013). The plagiarism rate in the Materials and Methods (61% (95% CI 41–68%) was higher than in the Results (23% [95% CI 17–36%], U = 33.50; P = 0.009) or Discussion (25.5 [95% CI 15–35%]; U = 57.50; P < 0.001) sections. Three authors were identified in the Déjà vu database. Plagiarism detection software combined with manual verification may be used to detect plagiarized manuscripts and prevent their publication. The prevalence of plagiarized manuscripts submitted to the CMJ , a journal dedicated to promoting research integrity, was 11% in the 2-year period 2009–2010. (shrink)
Unwelcome or unconsented acknowledgments is an unethical practice seldom addressed. It constitutes a form of authorship abuse perpetrated in the acknowledgments section of published research, where the victim is credited as having made a contribution to the paper, without having given their consent, and often without having seen a draft of the paper. The acknowledgment may be written in such a way as to imply endorsement of the study’s data and conclusions. Through a real-life case, this paper explores the issue (...) of unconsented acknowledgments and makes recommendations to prevent its occurrence, thereby promoting research integrity. (shrink)
The paper takes up the problem of tactility, the sense of touch, as a philosophical problem largely neglected by the philosophical tradition. It tries to show how touch immediately raises some basic philosphical concepts, the notion of inner/outer, subject/object, of difference, of the ways to conceive the limit, of appearance/the thing itself, the basic problem of counting (it takes two to touch), etc. It analyses the classical text on touching by Aristotle in De anima, trying to show how the notion (...) of the limit necessarily becomes complicated the moment one tries to grasp it. Then it pits the Aristotelian notion of flesh as the medium of touch against the modern conception of flesh in Merleau-Ponty, arguing that Merleau-Ponty tries to strategically circumvent the notion of the difference, the lack and the cut. Finally it considers the way that Freud, in Totem and Taboo, posits the prohibition on touching as the elementary social injunction instituting the social, thus posing a concept of touch with coincides with the cut in which 'the object touch' emerges. From there it procedes to an account of the analytic situation which is based on the prohibition of touch (as well as severing all other senses) in combination with the injunction to speech, thus establishing a framework for a reinvention of touch in a paradoxical, roundabout way. (shrink)
Za svjetlo možemo reći da je istinski razbuđivač mišljenja , kako u metafizici tako u prirodnoj filozofiji i znanosti. Želimo ukazati na posebnost Petrića kao onoga mislioca s kojim je dokončana epoha od antike nasljeđene metafizike svjetla i koji otvara put za novovjekovnu fiziku svjetla, naročito u djelu Panaugia, ali ne samo u njemu. Nakon Petrića uslijedila su brojna uzbudljiva znanstvena otkrića koja su rezultirala dubokim uvidima u narav svjetla, u geometriji, a posebice u fizikalnoj optici: svjetlo se širi konačnom (...) brzinom, složeno je, dio je elektromagnetskog spektra zračenja, djeluje na materiju , dovedeno je u svezu s masom i energijom. Ono nas začuđuje dualnošću svoje prirode čestice i vala. Istraživanjem zračenja tamnog tijela, suprotnosti vidljivog svjetla, otvorena je epoha kvantne fizike. Pitamo: Možemo li na osnovu mnoštva znanja o svjetlu do kojih su došli fizičari govoriti o bîti svjetla ? Fotonika je nova epoha u komunikacijskoj tehnologiji. Što tek treba očekivati od istraživanja fotosinteze?Light has been defined as a true instigator of thought both in metaphysicsand in philosophy of natureand science. This article focuses on the exceptional position of Frane Petrić as the philosopher with whom the epoch of metaphysics of light inherited fromantiquityended and the path for the new epoch of the physics of light started – especially inhiswork Panaugia,though not only in it. AfterPetrić, numerousexciting scientific discoveries occurred that resulted in profoundinsights into the nature of light – in geometry,and especiallyinphysical optics: light travels with finite speed, it is complex, it is part of electromagneticspecterof radiation, it has effect on matter , it has been relatedto mass and energy.Lightamazes us with the duality of its natureas both a particle and a wave. The researchon theradiationof dark objects and the contrast with visible light has opened the epoch of quantumphysics.The question this lectureposes is: Based on the body of knowledge about light accumulatedby the physicists, could we talk about the essence of light ? Photonics isanew epoch in communication technology.What then could we expect from the research on photosynthesis? (shrink)
Iako opsežan, ovaj članak ima skromnu svrhu: sažeto i što je moguće jasnije iznijeti osnovne Kantove teze za promišljanje odnosa znanosti i religije, te pozvati na pomnjivo iščitavanje njegova opusa, kako bi u promišljanje odnosa znanosti i religije išli s Kantom, a ne mimo njega. Kantov opus nudi intrigantne povode da ga se pokuša isčitavati s ovoga stanovišta. Polazište je dano rezultatima Kritike čistoga uma. U njoj treba potražiti odgovore na pitanja: Kako je moguća priroda, iskustvo, spoznaja prirode i sama (...) prirodna znanost? Nakon toga biti će potrebno u istom djelu vidjeti kako Kant zasniva praktičnu slobodu koja omogućuje moral koji je osnova religije. Konačno, trebat će vidjeti koje posebnosti ima na umu zasnovana religija.Although extensive, this aricle has a modest purpose: to summarise and clearly expose Kant’s theses on relationship between philosophy, science and religion, and to evoke for close reading of his opus. That is all made in purpose of thinking this relation along with Kant, not without him. Kant’s offers intriguing reasons to be read from this standpoint. This standpoint is given with the results of his work Critique of Pure Reason. There should be found the answers to following questions: how nature is possible, how experience is possible, as well as knowledge of nature and natural science in itself? After that, it should be noted in the same work to see how practical freedom is founded by Kant, which enables morality as foundation of religion. Finally, it should be reflected what are the characteristics of religion based on Reason. (shrink)
Rasprava tematizira osnovne značajke ontologijskog prilaza umjetnosti u djelu Ivana Fochta, jednog od naših najvećih estetičara i ontologa umjetnosti. Problematskog je karaktera i obuhvaća četiri bitne teme njegova mišljenja: Istina i biće umjetnosti uvodi u središnju Fochtovu ˝pred-postavljenost˝, njegov ontologijski prosedê, pitanjem: Što je to biće umjetnosti?; Moderna umjetnost kao ontološki problem raspravlja problematiziranje ontoloških pitanja moderne umjetnosti i njezin promijenjeni status u bitku suvremenog svijeta: umjetnost više nije ˝Schein˝ nego ˝Sein˝ i spoznaje smisao bitka tako što ga pravi; Bit (...) književnosti ispituje ontološke pretpostavke književnog djela kao predmet specijalne ontologije umjetnosti : njezine ontološke ˝planove˝, mjesto među drugim umjetničkim vrstama i u modernoj umjetnosti; Bit glazbe suočava se s ˝tajnom glazbe˝: pitanje Što je glazba? jedno je od najtežih pitanja koja su se postavljala filozofiji umjetnosti; u glazbi, misli Focht, krije se odgovor na pitanje o tajni umjetnosti.The article places its interest on basic characteristics of ontological approach to artin the work of Ivan Focht, one of the greatest aestheticians and ontologists of art. Itconsists of four essential themes in his thought. The Truth and Being of art introducesus into central Focht’s »vor-stellung«, into his ontological procédé,with a question: ‘What is the being of art?’. Modern art as ontological problem discussesthe themes of ontological issues of modern art and its changed status in the Being of contemporary world; the artwork is no more Schein but Sein and it knows the meaning of Being by making it. TheEssence of Literature challenges ontological presuppositions of literary work , as an issue of special ontology of artwork – its ontological »landscapes«, its place amongother artistic forms and in modern art. The part Essence of Music confronts itselfwith »secret of music«; the question ‘What is Music?’ is one of the most complicatedquestions which were asked by philosophy of art. In the music, says Focht, is the hiddenanswer to the question on the secret of art itself. (shrink)
Unified quantum logic based on unified operations of implication is formulated as an axiomatic calculus. Soundness and completeness are demonstrated using standard algebraic techniques. An embedding of quantum logic into a new modal system is carried out and discussed.
Although a large body of research exists concerning connections between personality traits and blood types, no studies can be found within the literature on the links between morality and one’s blood type. We have conducted research examining whether blood type has any impact on the degree to which moral foundations, according to Haidt, are observable in an individual. Our study focused on 240 adult male and female subjects, with an average age of 43.47 years; each group was based on the (...) ABO blood type system and consisted of 60 subjects in total. Based on the data obtained, we can conclude that there is a connection between the Harm and Purity moral foundations and blood group. (shrink)
The very influential theoretical concepts proposed by Rudolf Otto in his 1917 classic The Idea of the Holy are often seen as examples of properly religious content that cannot be approached by any other means except religious. This conclusion is challenged by closer readings of Otto’s writings on naturalism and religion where he, despite of being at times critical of some versions of naturalism, expresses his thorough commitment to naturalist ic explanations. Otto’s views are presented as compatible with recent cognitive-scientific (...) theories of religion and as a constructive contribution to the scientific study of religion. Otto’s theological position, because it is based on his naturalism, is a possible methodological framework for further studies in religion and science in general and cognitive science of religion in particular. (shrink)
The underlying thesis of this book is that "the undiscovered Dewey" is ascertained only by understanding the significance of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution for Dewey's philosophy and for his concept of inquiry. Rogers argues that we must realize the importance of Dewey's Darwinian commitments in order to understand how for Dewey there is a fundamental uncertainty and openness that characterizes the growth of "our natural and social horizons" (11). Routinely, Rogers argues, scholars tend to misunderstand or underestimate Darwin's importance (...) for Dewey's notion of inquiry. According to Rogers, Dewey was a champion of what is known as the Darwinian Enlightenment rather than the Newtonian Enlightenment. Those .. (shrink)
At the beginning of the ’30s—the period of lively debates on the relation between language and society—one of the main issues in linguistics was language heterogeneity. On the example of the texts by Boris Larin, Georgij Danilov and Lev Jakubinskij we shall compare two attitudes about unity and division of a language. If the studies by Larin and Danilov in various ways establish divisions in society and language at the end of the ’20s, in the ’30s there is a marked (...) tendency to recognize language unity and the cohesiveness of the proletarian society, as seen in socio-linguistic analyses by Jakubinskij. The conclusion, suggested at the end of this exposition, claims that the idea of one national language grows in importance in the discourse of the Soviet linguistics at the beginning of 1930s. Disappearance of the contemporary language heterogeneity in the discourse of Soviet linguists of the period corroborates how linguistics adapts to the political conceptions of society. (shrink)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plagiarism detection software and penalty for plagiarizing in detecting and deterring plagiarism among medical students. The study was a continuation of previously published research in which second-year medicals students from 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 school years were required to write an essay based on one of the four scientific articles offered by the instructor. Students from 2004/2005 (N = 92) included in present study were given the same task. Topics of (...) two of the four articles were considered less complex, and two were more complex. One less and one more complex articles were available only as hardcopies, whereas the other two were available in electronic format. The students from 2001/2002 (N = 111) were only told to write an original essay, whereas the students from 2002/2003 (N = 87) were additionally warned against plagiarism, explained what plagiarism was, and how to avoid it. The students from 2004/2005 were warned that their essays would be examined by plagiarism detection software and that those who had plagiarized would be penalized. Students from 2004/2005 plagiarized significantly less of their essays than students from the previous two groups (2% vs. 17% vs. 21%, respectively, P P P < 0.001) as a source for their essays, but it did not influence the rate of plagiarism. Use of plagiarism detection software in evaluation of essays and consequent penalties had effectively deterred students from plagiarizing. (shrink)
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