Agrawal's carefully constructed arguments create a framework for environmental policy analysis. One only wishes the message were in a language and form that would draw in policy and advocacy readers, not just scholars.
While the human papillomavirus vaccine is medically indicated to reduce the risk of genital warts and certain types of cancer, rates of HPV vaccination repeatedly fall short of public health goals. Individual-level factors contributing to low vaccination rates are well documented. However, system-level barriers, particularly the need for parental consent, have been less explored. To date, there is no legal or ethical consensus in the USA regarding whether adolescents might permissibly self-consent to the HPV vaccine. Consequently, there is considerable variability (...) in medical practice at the provider and state level. In this essay, we explore the ethical acceptability of vaccinating adolescents for HPV without parental consent. We argue that the same ethical considerations that justify permitting minors to consent to treatment for sexual and reproductive health care—namely, public health benefit and adolescents’ developing autonomy—similarly justify permitting minors to consent to HPV vaccination. Based on this analysis, we conclude that allowing adolescents to self-consent to the HPV vaccine is ethically justifiable and should be reflected in US state policies. (shrink)
Manipulation of physical models such as tangrams and tiles is a popular approach to teaching early mathematics concepts. This pedagogical approach is extended by new computational media, where mathematical entities such as equations and vectors can be virtually manipulated. The cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting such manipulation-based learning—particularly how actions generate new internal structures that support problem-solving—are not understood. We develop a model of the way manipulations generate internal traces embedding actions, and how these action-traces recombine during problem-solving. This model (...) is based on a study of two groups of sixth-grade students solving area problems. Before problem-solving, one group manipulated a tangram, the other group answered a descriptive test. Eye-movement trajectories during problem-solving were different between the groups. A second study showed that this difference required the tangram's geometrical structure, just manipulation was not enough. We propose a theoretical model accounting for these results, and discuss its implications. (shrink)
We have analyzed a 3D seismic survey acquired for a carbon sequestration project on top of the Moxa Arch in southwestern Wyoming. We observed a zone of discontinuous reflectors on vertical slices of seismic amplitude volume, whereas, the northwest–southeast lineations were observed on the time slices. We performed a seismic to well tie that suggested that the lineations occur within the Nugget Sandstone. The Nugget Sandstone is an eolian sandstone deposit of Early Jurassic age, deposited as a subtropical dune field, (...) and equivalent to the Navajo Sandstone of southwestern Utah. Petrophysical analysis indicates that the Nugget Sandstone is dominated by clean sandstone, whereas evaporites, including halite and anhydrite, are present in certain zones. Previous outcrop studies on the Navajo Sandstone indicate the wind direction to be predominantly northeast–southwest. Seismic attributes, including coherence and curvature, displayed on stratal slices within the Nugget Sandstone interval indicate the presence of lineations in the northwest–southeast direction with irregular spacing. These lineations are approximately perpendicular to the inferred dominant wind direction. We computed the dominant wind direction from the average azimuth of the lineations as seen on the curvature attribute in the Nugget Sandstone interval. Geological feature: Eolian sand dunes with interdunal evaporites Seismic appearance: Parallel lineations with irregular spacing on seismic attribute horizon slices Alternative interpretations: Canyons at continental slopes; slope failures Features with a similar appearance: Marine bars; contourites Formation: The Nugget Sandstone — equivalent to the Navajo Sandstone Age: Early Jurassic Location: Moxa Arch, Wyoming Seismic data: Obtained by the University of Wyoming with US DOE funding Contributors: Dhruv Agrawal, Brady Lujan, Sumit Verma, Shuvajit Bhattacharya, and Subhashis Mallick Analysis tools: Coherence and curvature attributes; seismic inversion; petrophysical inversion. (shrink)
The present study is a correlational field study because the purpose of this study is to ascertain the nature of relationship between Anasakti and adjustment. Anasakti, the concept of Bhagavad Gita, refers to an intense though disinterested action, performed with a spirit of passion, without nurturing concerns regarding success or failure, loss or gain, likes or dislikes. The present study is conducted on 291 Hindu graduate adults in the age range of 45–65 years. Incidental-cum-purposive sampling technique is used for data (...) collection. A positive correlation is found between Anasakti and adjustment. The study reveals that if Anasakti increases then adjustment level also increases. (shrink)
This paper presents a human–robot interaction framework where a robot can infer implicit affective cues of a human and respond to them appropriately. Affective cues are inferred by the robot in real-time from physiological signals. A robot-based basketball game is designed where a robotic “coach” monitors the human participant’s anxiety to dynamically reconfigure game parameters to allow skill improvement while maintaining desired anxiety levels. The results of the above-mentioned anxiety-based sessions are compared with performance-based sessions where in the latter sessions, (...) the game is adapted only according to the player’s performance. It was observed that 79% of the participants showed lower anxiety during anxiety-based session than in the performance-based session, 64% showed a greater improvement in performance after the anxiety-based session and 71% of the participants reported greater overall satisfaction during the anxiety-based sessions. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that the impact of real-time affective communication between a robot and a human has been demonstrated experimentally. (shrink)
Student support services are the cardinal features of the Open and Distance Learning System. In India, the Indira Gandhi National Open University, 13 state open universities and over 200 Distance Education Institutes attached to conventional universities and private/autonomous institutes offering programmes through the distance mode have all created adequate provisions for learner support services and the systems, rules, regulations and norms have been put in place. However, it is significant that a learner in the ODL system remains away from the (...) teacher and the peer group. Thus, the learner feels isolated and needs the empathy of all the functionaries concerned. It has been our experience at IGNOU that more often than not the functionaries fail to realize the value of a learner and the learner fails to understand the value attributed to him by the ODL system. Without such realization the rules and regulations lose their significance. Hence, inculcation of values is of paramount importance in the functioning of the ODL system. In this article we have discussed about ‘inculcation of values’ among the ‘learners’ as well as the ‘functionaries’ for developing ‘best practices’ in learner support services in the ODL system. The inputs are based primarily on direct experiences of the authors. (shrink)
Stone, J. Thoughts on supposed "Death of law".--Krishna Iyer, V. R. Jurisprudence and jurisconscience.--Sharma, G. S. Law and social change in India.--Sharma, S. D. The concept of justice in Manu.--Chand, H. Legal values for a developing country.--Ramarao, T. S. The new international law relating to the rights and duties of States.--Sinha, B. S. Custom and customary law in Indian jurisprudence.--Mazumdar, D. L. Techno-economic structure of our industrial society.--Subrahamanian, N. Law and social change.
Most writers on resource management presume that local populations, if they act in their self-interest, seldom conserve or protect natural resources without external intervention or privatization. Using the example of forest management by villagers in the Indian Himalayas, this paper argues that rural populations can often use resources sustainably and successfully, even under assumptions of self-interested rationality. Under a set of specified social and environmental conditions, conditions that prevail in large areas of the Himalayas and may also exist in other (...) mountain regions, community institutions are more efficient in managing resources than either private individuals or the central government. In advancing this argument, the paper undermines the often dogmatic belief in the universal superiority of private forms of ownership and management. (shrink)