Results for 'Models and truth'

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  1.  15
    Models and Truth: The Functional Decomposition Approach.Uskali Mäki - 2009 - In Mauricio Suárez, Miklós Rédei & Mauro Dorato (eds.), EPSA Epistemology and Methodology of Science: Launch of the European Philosophy of Science Association. Springer.
    Science is often said to aim at truth. And much of science is heavily dependent on the construction and use of theoretical models. But the notion of model has an uneasy relationship with that of truth. -/- Not so long ago, many philosophers held the view that theoretical models are different from theories in that they are not accompanied by any ontological commitments or presumptions of truth, whereas theories are (e.g. Achinstein 1964). More recently, some (...)
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  2. Models and Truth.Uskali Mäki - 2010 - In M. Dorato M. Suàrez (ed.), Epsa Epistemology and Methodology of Science. Springer. pp. 177--187.
    In what follows, I will give examples of the sorts of step that can be taken towards spelling out the intuition that, after all, good models might be true. Along the way, I provide an outline of my account of models as ontologically and pragmatically constrained representations. And I emphasize the importance of examining models as functionally composed systems in which different components play different roles and only some components serve as relevant truth bearers. This disputes (...)
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  3. Models and the Locus of Their Truth.Uskali Mäki - 2011 - Synthese 180 (1):47 - 63.
    If models can be true, where is their truth located? Giere (Explaining science, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1998) has suggested an account of theoretical models on which models themselves are not truth-valued. The paper suggests modifying Giere’s account without going all the way to purely pragmatic conceptions of truth—while giving pragmatics a prominent role in modeling and truth-acquisition. The strategy of the paper is to ask: if I want to relocate truth (...)
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  4. Models and Fiction.Roman Frigg - 2010 - Synthese 172 (2):251-268.
    Most scientific models are not physical objects, and this raises important questions. What sort of entity are models, what is truth in a model, and how do we learn about models? In this paper I argue that models share important aspects in common with literary fiction, and that therefore theories of fiction can be brought to bear on these questions. In particular, I argue that the pretence theory as developed by Walton has the resources to (...)
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  5.  73
    Causal Models and the Logic of Counterfactuals.Jonathan Vandenburgh - manuscript
    Causal models provide a framework for making counterfactual predictions, making them useful for evaluating the truth conditions of counterfactual sentences. However, current causal models for counterfactual semantics face limitations compared to the alternative similarity-based approach: they only apply to a limited subset of counterfactuals and the connection to counterfactual logic is not straightforward. This paper argues that these limitations arise from the theory of interventions where intervening on variables requires changing structural equations rather than the values of (...)
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  6.  16
    Models for Truth‐Telling in Physician‐Patient Encounters: What Can We Learn From Yoruba Concept of Ooto?Cornelius Ewuoso - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics.
    Empirical studies have now established that many patients make clinical decisions based on models other than Anglo American model of truth-telling and patient autonomy. Some scholars also add that current medical ethics frameworks and recent proposals for enhancing communication in health professional-patient relationship have not adequately accommodated these models. In certain clinical contexts where health professional and patients are motivated by significant cultural and religious values, these current frameworks cannot prevent communication breakdown, which can, in turn, jeopardize (...)
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  7.  13
    Models and Cognition.Jonathan A. Waskan - 2006 - Bradford.
    Jonathan Walkan challenges cognitive science's dominant model of mental representation and proposes a novel, well-devised alternative. The traditional view in the cognitive sciences uses a linguistic model of mental representation. That logic-based model of cognition informs and constrains both the classical tradition of artificial intelligence and modeling in the connectionist tradition. It falls short, however, when confronted by the frame problem---the lack of a principled way to determine which features of a representation must be updated when new information becomes available. (...)
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  8. Truth, Correspondence, Models, and Tarski.Panu Raatikainen - 2007 - In Approaching Truth: Essays in Honour of Ilkka Niiniluoto. London: College Press. pp. 99-112.
    In the early 20th century, scepticism was common among philosophers about the very meaningfulness of the notion of truth – and of the related notions of denotation, definition etc. (i.e., what Tarski called semantical concepts). Awareness was growing of the various logical paradoxes and anomalies arising from these concepts. In addition, more philosophical reasons were being given for this aversion.1 The atmosphere changed dramatically with Alfred Tarski’s path-breaking contribution. What Tarski did was to show that, assuming that the syntax (...)
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  9.  66
    Remarks on Models and Their Truth.Uskali Mäki - 2006 - Storia Del Pensiero Economico. Nuova Serie 3 (1):7-19.
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  10.  28
    14. Models, Metaphors and Truth.Mary Hesse - 1995 - In Zdravko Radman (ed.), From a Metaphorical Point of View: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Cognitive Content of Metaphor. De Gruyter. pp. 351-372.
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  11. Models of Success Versus the Success of Models: Reliability Without Truth.Eric Winsberg - 2006 - Synthese 152 (1):1-19.
    In computer simulations of physical systems, the construction of models is guided, but not determined, by theory. At the same time simulations models are often constructed precisely because data are sparse. They are meant to replace experiments and observations as sources of data about the world; hence they cannot be evaluated simply by being compared to the world. So what can be the source of credibility for simulation models? I argue that the credibility of a simulation model (...)
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  12.  91
    Models, Truth, and Realism.Barry Taylor - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    Barry Taylor's book mounts a major new argument against one of the fundamental tenets of much contemporary philosophy, the idea that we can make sense of reality as existing objectively, independently of our capacities to come to know it. He concludes that there is no defensible notion of truth which preserves the theses of traditional realism, nor any extant position sufficiently true to the ideals of that doctrine to inherit its title. In presenting his case Taylor engages with many (...)
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  13. Theories of Truth Without Standard Models and Yablo’s Sequences.Eduardo Alejandro Barrio - 2010 - Studia Logica 96 (3):375-391.
    The aim of this paper is to show that it’s not a good idea to have a theory of truth that is consistent but ω -inconsistent. In order to bring out this point, it is useful to consider a particular case: Yablo’s Paradox. In theories of truth without standard models, the introduction of the truth-predicate to a first order theory does not maintain the standard ontology. Firstly, I exhibit some conceptual problems that follow from so introducing (...)
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  14. Science and Partial Truth: A Unitary Approach to Models and Scientific Reasoning.Newton C. A. Da Costa & Steven French - 2003 - Oxford University Press USA.
    In the past thirty years, two fundamental issues have emerged in the philosophy of science. One concerns the appropriate attitude we should take towards scientific theories--whether we should regard them as true or merely empirically adequate, for example. The other concerns the nature of scientific theories and models and how these might best be represented. In this ambitious book, da Costa and French bring these two issues together by arguing that theories and models should be regarded as partially (...)
     
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  15.  2
    Incoherence and Truth in Models of the Ultimate: A Badiouan Approach.David R. Brockman - 2013 - In Jeanine Diller & Asa Kasher (eds.), Models of God and Alternative Ultimate Realities. Springer. pp. 941--954.
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  16.  25
    Review of Newton C.A. Da Costa, Steven French, Science and Partial Truth: A Unitary Approach to Models and Scientific Reasoning[REVIEW]Barbara Tuchanska - 2004 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2004 (3).
  17.  55
    Defective Truth Tables and Falsifying Cards: Two Measurement Models Yield No Evidence of an Underlying Fleshing-Out Propensity.Jean-François Bonnefon & Stéphane Vautier - 2008 - Thinking and Reasoning 14 (3):231-243.
    Using a latent variable modelling strategy we study individual differences in patterns of answers to the selection task and to the truth table task. Specifically we investigate the prediction of mental model theory according to which the individual tendency to select the false consequent card (in the selection task) is negatively correlated with the tendency to judge the false antecedent cases as irrelevant (in the truth table task). We fit a psychometric model to two large samples ( N (...)
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  18. Perspectival Models and Theory Unification.Alexander Rueger - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (3):579-594.
    Given that scientific realism is based on the assumption that there is a connection between a model's predictive success and its truth, and given the success of multiple incompatible models in scientific practice, the realist has a problem. When the different models can be shown to arise as different approximations to a unified theory, however, one might think the realist to be able to accommodate such cases. I discuss a special class of models and argue that (...)
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  19.  8
    Molecular models and scientific realism.Gabriela García Zerecero - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (3):467-476.
    The practice of theoretical research in chemistry largely consists in the construction of models without which experimentation would be impossible. The best-known theoretical models in chemistry are those of the molecular structures of chemical compounds. What is the correspondence between these models and the unobservable entities that they are meant to explain? What is the ontological status of molecular models? The anti-realists question the basis of the realists’ belief in these entities and the truth claims (...)
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  20.  29
    Models, Postulates, and Generalized Nomic Truth Approximation.Theo Kuipers - 2016 - Synthese 193 (10).
    The qualitative theory of nomic truth approximation, presented in Kuipers in his, in which ‘the truth’ concerns the distinction between nomic, e.g. physical, possibilities and impossibilities, rests on a very restrictive assumption, viz. that theories always claim to characterize the boundary between nomic possibilities and impossibilities. Fully recognizing two different functions of theories, viz. excluding and representing, this paper drops this assumption by conceiving theories in development as tuples of postulates and models, where the postulates claim to (...)
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  21. Models and the Semantic View.Martin Thomson-Jones - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):524-535.
    I begin by distinguishing two notions of model, the notion of a truth-making structure and the notion of a mathematical model (in one specific sense). I then argue that although the models of the semantic view have often been taken to be both truth-making structures and mathematical models, this is in part due to a failure to distinguish between two ways of truth-making; in fact, the talk of truth-making is best excised from the view (...)
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  22.  92
    Mathematical Models and Reality: A Constructivist Perspective. [REVIEW]Christian Hennig - 2010 - Foundations of Science 15 (1):29-48.
    To explore the relation between mathematical models and reality, four different domains of reality are distinguished: observer-independent reality, personal reality, social reality and mathematical/formal reality. The concepts of personal and social reality are strongly inspired by constructivist ideas. Mathematical reality is social as well, but constructed as an autonomous system in order to make absolute agreement possible. The essential problem of mathematical modelling is that within mathematics there is agreement about ‘truth’, but the assignment of mathematics to informal (...)
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  23.  10
    Embracing Intensionality: Paradoxicality and Semi-Truth Operators in Fixed Point Models.Nicholas Tourville & Roy T. Cook - 2020 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 28 (5):747-770.
    The Embracing Revenge account of semantic paradox avoids the expressive limitations of previous approaches based on the Kripkean fixed point construction by replacing a single language with an indefinitely extensible sequence of languages, each of which contains the resources to fully characterize the semantics of the previous languages. In this paper we extend the account developed in Cook, Cook, Schlenker, and Tourville and Cook via the addition of intensional operators such as ``is paradoxical''. In this extended framework we are able (...)
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  24.  16
    On the Tractable Counting of Theory Models and its Application to Truth Maintenance and Belief Revision.Adnan Darwiche - 2001 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 11 (1-2):11-34.
    We address in this paper the problem of counting the models of a propositional theory under incremental changes to its literals. Specifcally, we show that if a propositional theory Δ is in a special form that we call smooth, deterministic, decomposable negation normal form, then for any consistent set of literals S, we can simultaneously count the models of Δ ∪ S and the models of every theory Δ ∪ T where T results from adding, removing or (...)
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  25.  2
    On the Tractability of Counting Theory Models and its Application to Belief Revision and Truth Maintenance.Adnan Darwiche - 2001 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 11 (1-2):11-34.
    We address in this paper the problem of counting the models of a propositional theory under incremental changes to its literals. Specifcally, we show that if a propositional theory Δ is in a special form that we call smooth, deterministic, decomposable negation normal form, then for any consistent set of literals S, we can simultaneously count the models of Δ ∪ S and the models of every theory Δ ∪ T where T results from adding, removing or (...)
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  26.  64
    Mental Models and Causal Explanation: Judgements of Probable Cause and Explanatory Relevance.Denis J. Hilton - 1996 - Thinking and Reasoning 2 (4):273 – 308.
    Good explanations are not only true or probably true, but are also relevant to a causal question. Current models of causal explanation either only address the question of the truth of an explanation, or do not distinguish the probability of an explanation from its relevance. The tasks of scenario construction and conversational explanation are distinguished, which in turn shows how scenarios can interact with conversational principles to determine the truth and relevance of explanations. The proposed model distinguishes (...)
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  27.  25
    Models of Weak Theories of Truth.Mateusz Łełyk & Bartosz Wcisło - 2017 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 56 (5-6):453-474.
    In the following paper we propose a model-theoretical way of comparing the “strength” of various truth theories which are conservative over PA\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ PA $$\end{document}. Let Th\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\mathfrak {Th}}$$\end{document} denote the class of models of PA\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ PA $$\end{document} which admit an expansion to a model of theory Th\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} (...)
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  28. Models and Modality.Patricia A. Blanchette - 2000 - Synthese 124 (1-2):45-72.
    This paper examines the connection between model-theoretic truth and necessary truth. It is argued that though the model-theoretic truths of some standard languages are demonstrably ''''necessary'''' (in a precise sense), the widespread view of model-theoretic truth as providing a general guarantee of necessity is mistaken. Several arguments to the contrary are criticized.
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  29. Isolation, Idealization and Truth in Economics.Uskali Mäki - 1994 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 38:147-168.
    Challenges the widely held view that good models must necessarily be simplifications and hence cannot be true. This is done by distinguishing between whole truth (complete description) and truth (essential description, attained by the method of isolation).
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  30.  38
    Truth and the Liar in De Morgan-Valued Models.Hannes Leitgeb - 1999 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 40 (4):496-514.
    The aim of this paper is to give a certain algebraic account of truth: we want to define what we mean by De Morgan-valued truth models and show their existence even in the case of semantical closure: that is, languages may contain their own truth predicate if they are interpreted by De Morgan-valued models. Before we can prove this result, we have to repeat some basic facts concerning De Morgan-valued models in general, and we (...)
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  31.  89
    Modeling, Truth, and Philosophy.Paul Teller - 2012 - Metaphilosophy 43 (3):257-274.
    Knowledge requires truth, and truth, we suppose, involves unflawed representation. Science does not provide knowledge in this sense but rather provides models, representations that are limited in their accuracy, precision, or, most often, both. Truth as we usually think of it is an idealization, one that serves wonderfully in most ordinary applications, but one that can terribly mislead for certain issues in philosophy. This article sketches how this happens for five important issues, thereby showing how philosophical (...)
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  32.  83
    Truth Without Standard Models: Some Conceptual Problems Reloaded.Eduardo Barrio & Bruno Da Ré - 2018 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 28 (1):122-139.
    A theory of truth is usually demanded to be consistent, but -consistency is less frequently requested. Recently, Yatabe has argued in favour of -inconsistent first-order theories of truth, minimising their odd consequences. In view of this fact, in this paper, we present five arguments against -inconsistent theories of truth. In order to bring out this point, we will focus on two very well-known -inconsistent theories of truth: the classical theory of symmetric truth FS and the (...)
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  33. Science and Partial Truth: A Unitary Approach to Models and Scientific Reasoning.Newton C. A. da Costa & Steven French - 2003 - Oup Usa.
    Da Costa and French explore the consequences of adopting a 'pragmatic' notion of truth in the philosophy of science. Their framework sheds new light on issues to do with belief, theory acceptance, and the realism-antirealism debate, as well as the nature of scientific models and their heuristic development.
     
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  34.  5
    Refined Nomic Truth Approximation by Revising Models and Postulates.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 2020 - Synthese 197 (4):1601-1625.
    Assuming that the target of theory oriented empirical science in general and of nomic truth approximation in particular is to characterize the boundary or demarcation between nomic possibilities and nomic impossibilities, I have presented, in my article entitled “Models, postulates, and generalized nomic truth approximation” :3057–3077, 2016. 10.1007/s11229-015-0916-9), the ‘basic’ version of generalized nomic truth approximation, starting from ‘two-sided’ theories. Its main claim is that nomic truth approximation can perfectly be achieved by combining two prima (...)
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  35.  7
    Models of Positive Truth.Mateusz Łełyk & Bartosz Wcisło - 2019 - Review of Symbolic Logic 12 (1):144-172.
    This paper is a follow-up to [4], in which a mistake in [6] was corrected. We give a strenghtening of the main result on the semantical nonconservativity of the theory of PT−with internal induction for total formulae${$, denoted by PT−in [9]). We show that if to PT−the axiom of internal induction forallarithmetical formulae is added, then this theory is semantically stronger than${\rm{P}}{{\rm{T}}^ - } + {\rm{INT}}\left$. In particular the latter is not relatively truth definable in the former. Last but (...)
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  36. Models, Semantics and Logical Truth.John Etchemendy - 1988 - Linguistics and Philosophy 11 (1):91 - 106.
  37.  4
    Models, Truth, and Realism.Allan Hazlett - 2008 - Philosophical Review 117 (4):630-633.
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  38.  38
    Approximations and Truth Spaces.Jean-Pierre Marquis - 1991 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 20 (4):375 - 401.
    Approximations form an essential part of scientific activity and they come in different forms: conceptual approximations (simplifications in models), mathematical approximations of various types (e.g. linear equations instead of non-linear ones, computational approximations), experimental approximations due to limitations of the instruments and so on and so forth. In this paper, we will consider one type of approximation, namely numerical approximations involved in the comparison of two results, be they experimental or theoretical. Our goal is to lay down the conceptual (...)
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  39.  2
    Theories, Theoretical Models, Truth Part II: Tarski's Theory of Truth and its Relevance for the Theory of Science.Ryszard Wójcicki - 1995 - Foundations of Science 1 (4):471-516.
  40.  70
    Theories, Theoretical Models, Truth.Ryszard Wójcicki - 1995 - Foundations of Science 1 (4):337-406.
    This paper was written with two aims in mind. A large part of it is just an exposition of Tarski's theory of truth. Philosophers do not agree on how Tarski's theory is related to their investigations. Some of them doubt whether that theory has any relevance to philosophical issues and in particular whether it can be applied in dealing with the problems of philosophy (theory) of science.In this paper I argue that Tarski's chief concern was the following question. Suppose (...)
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  41.  30
    Modal Models for Bradwardine's Theory of Truth.Greg Restall - 2008 - Review of Symbolic Logic 1 (2):225-240.
    Stephen Read (2002, 2006) has recently discussed Bradwardine's theory of truth and defended it as an appropriate way to treat paradoxes such as the liar. In this paper, I discuss Read's formalisation of Bradwardine's theory of truth and provide a class of models for this theory. The models facilitate comparison of Bradwardine's theory with contemporary theories of truth.
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  42.  88
    Pragmatics, Mental Models and One Paradox of the Material Conditional.Jean-françois Bonnefon & Guy Politzer - 2011 - Mind and Language 26 (2):141-155.
    Most instantiations of the inference ‘y; so if x, y’ seem intuitively odd, a phenomenon known as one of the paradoxes of the material conditional. A common explanation of the oddity, endorsed by Mental Model theory, is based on the intuition that the conclusion of the inference throws away semantic information. We build on this explanation to identify two joint conditions under which the inference becomes acceptable: (a) the truth of x has bearings on the relevance of asserting y; (...)
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  43.  70
    Theories of Truth Which Have No Standard Models.Hannes Leitgeb - 2001 - Studia Logica 68 (1):69-87.
    This papers deals with the class of axiomatic theories of truth for semantically closed languages, where the theories do not allow for standard models; i.e., those theories cannot be interpreted as referring to the natural number codes of sentences only (for an overview of axiomatic theories of truth in general, see Halbach[6]). We are going to give new proofs for two well-known results in this area, and we also prove a new theorem on the nonstandardness of a (...)
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  44.  34
    On a Paradox of Truth, or How Not to Obscure the Issue of Whether Explanatory Models Can Be True.Uskali Mäki - 2013 - Journal of Economic Methodology 20 (3):268 - 279.
    It is argued that Reiss (2012) fails to refute attempts to resolve the paradox of false explanatory models. His article fails to provide an articulate conception of what exactly the presumed paradox is, it suffers from uncontrolled ambiguities and inconsistencies, and it fails to adequately address accounts of economic models that might contribute to reconciling their apparent falsehood and explanatoriness. Some details in my account of how apparently false models may explain are clarified.
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  45.  98
    Models, Truth and Semantics.Barbara Abbott - 1997 - Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (2):117-138.
  46.  4
    Local Collection and End-Extensions of Models of Compositional Truth.Mateusz Łełyk & Bartosz Wcisło - 2021 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 172 (6):102941.
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  47. How Models Are Used to Represent Reality.Ronald N. Giere - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (5):742-752.
    Most recent philosophical thought about the scientific representation of the world has focused on dyadic relationships between language-like entities and the world, particularly the semantic relationships of reference and truth. Drawing inspiration from diverse sources, I argue that we should focus on the pragmatic activity of representing, so that the basic representational relationship has the form: Scientists use models to represent aspects of the world for specific purposes. Leaving aside the terms "law" and "theory," I distinguish principles, specific (...)
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  48. Talking About Trees and Truth-Conditions.Reinhard Muskens - 2001 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (4):417-455.
    We present Logical Description Grammar (LDG), a model ofgrammar and the syntax-semantics interface based on descriptions inelementary logic. A description may simultaneously describe the syntacticstructure and the semantics of a natural language expression, i.e., thedescribing logic talks about the trees and about the truth-conditionsof the language described. Logical Description Grammars offer a naturalway of dealing with underspecification in natural language syntax andsemantics. If a logical description (up to isomorphism) has exactly onetree plus truth-conditions as a model, it completely (...)
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  49. Expression and Truth: On the Music of Knowledge.Lawrence Kramer - 2012 - University of California Press.
    Expression and truth are traditional opposites in Western thought: expression supposedly refers to states of mind, truth to states of affairs. _Expression and Truth_ rejects this opposition and proposes fluid new models of expression, truth, and knowledge with broad application to the humanities. These models derive from five theses that connect expression to description, cognition, the presence and absence of speech, and the conjunction of address and reply. The theses are linked by a concentration on (...)
     
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  50.  32
    Talking About Trees and Truth-Conditions.Reinhard Muskens - 1991 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (4):417-455.
    We present Logical Description Grammar (LDG), a model ofgrammar and the syntax-semantics interface based on descriptions inelementary logic. A description may simultaneously describe the syntacticstructure and the semantics of a natural language expression, i.e., thedescribing logic talks about the trees and about the truth-conditionsof the language described. Logical Description Grammars offer a naturalway of dealing with underspecification in natural language syntax andsemantics. If a logical description (up to isomorphism) has exactly onetree plus truth-conditions as a model, it completely (...)
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