Results for 'Models of data'

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  1.  89
    What is a Philosophical Effect? Models of Data in Experimental Philosophy.Bryce Huebner - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (12):3273-3292.
    Papers in experimental philosophy rarely offer an account of what it would take to reveal a philosophically significant effect. In part, this is because experimental philosophers tend to pay insufficient attention to the hierarchy of models that would be required to justify interpretations of their data; as a result, some of their most exciting claims fail as explanations. But this does not impugn experimental philosophy. My aim is to show that experimental philosophy could be made more successful by (...)
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  2.  64
    The Role of 'Complex' Empiricism in the Debates About Satellite Data and Climate Models.Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (2):390-401.
    climate scientists have been engaged in a decades-long debate over the standing of satellite measurements of the temperature trends of the atmosphere above the surface of the earth. This is especially significant because skeptics of global warming and the greenhouse effect have utilized this debate to spread doubt about global climate models used to predict future states of climate. I use this case from an under-studied science to illustrate two distinct philosophical approaches to the relation among data, scientists, (...)
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  3.  27
    Biomedical Big Data: New Models of Control Over Access, Use and Governance.Alessandro Blasimme & Effy Vayena - 2017 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 14 (4):501-513.
    Empirical evidence suggests that while people hold the capacity to control their data in high regard, they increasingly experience a loss of control over their data in the online world. The capacity to exert control over the generation and flow of personal information is a fundamental premise to important values such as autonomy, privacy, and trust. In healthcare and clinical research this capacity is generally achieved indirectly, by agreeing to specific conditions of informational exposure. Such conditions can be (...)
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  4.  84
    Data Models and the Acquisition and Manipulation of Data.Todd Harris - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1508-1517.
    This paper offers an account of data manipulation in scientific experiments. It will be shown that in many cases raw, unprocessed data is not produced, but rather a form of processed data that will be referred to as a data model. The language of data models will be used to provide a framework within which to understand a recent debate about the status of data and data manipulation. It will be seen that (...)
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  5.  18
    Lessons From the Large Hadron Collider for Model-Based Experimentation: The Concept of a Model of Data Acquisition and the Scope of the Hierarchy of Models.Koray Karaca - 2017 - Synthese 195 (12):1-22.
    According to the hierarchy of models account of scientific experimentation developed by Patrick Suppes and elaborated by Deborah Mayo, theoretical considerations about the phenomena of interest are involved in an experiment through theoretical models that in turn relate to experimental data through data models, via the linkage of experimental models. In this paper, I dispute the HoM account in the context of present-day high-energy physics experiments. I argue that even though the HoM account aims (...)
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  6.  21
    The Evaluation of Discovery: Models, Simulation and Search Through “Big Data”.Kun Zhang, Joseph D. Ramsey & Clark Glymour - 2019 - Open Philosophy 2 (1):39-48.
    A central theme in western philosophy was to find formal methods that can reliably discover empirical relationships and their explanations from data assembled from experience. As a philosophical project, that ambition was abandoned in the 20th century and generally dismissed as impossible. It was replaced in philosophy by neo-Kantian efforts at reconstruction and justification, and in professional statistics by the more limited ambition to estimate a small number of parameters in pre-specified hypotheses. The influx of “big data” from (...)
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  7.  92
    Models of Data and Theoretical Hypotheses: A Case-Study in Classical Genetics.Marion Vorms - 2013 - Synthese 190 (2):293-319.
    Linkage (or genetic) maps are graphs, which are intended to represent the linear ordering of genes on the chromosomes. They are constructed on the basis of statistical data concerning the transmission of genes. The invention of this technique in 1913 was driven by Morgan's group's adoption of a set of hypotheses concerning the physical mechanism of heredity. These hypotheses were themselves grounded in Morgan's defense of the chromosome theory of heredity, according to which chromosomes are the physical basis of (...)
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  8.  14
    Methodologies for Comparing Complex Computational Models of Eye-Movement Control in Reading: Just Fitting the Data is Not Enough.Ronan Reilly & Ralph Radach - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):499-500.
    As the number of computational models of eye-movement control in reading increases, so too will their coverage and complexity. This will make their comparison and testing increasingly challenging. We argue here that there is a need to develop a methodology for constructing and evaluating such models, and outline aspects of a possible methodology.
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  9.  17
    Health Research Access to Personal Confidential Data in England and Wales: Assessing Any Gap in Public Attitude Between Preferable and Acceptable Models of Consent.Natasha Taylor & Mark Taylor - 2014 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 10 (1):1-24.
    England and Wales are moving toward a model of ‘opt out’ for use of personal confidential data in health research. Existing research does not make clear how acceptable this move is to the public. While people are typically supportive of health research, when asked to describe the ideal level of control there is a marked lack of consensus over the preferred model of consent. This study sought to investigate a relatively unexplored difference between the consent model that people prefer (...)
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  10.  9
    Constructing Bayesian Network Models of Gene Expression Networks From Microarray Data.Pater Spirtes, Clark Glymour, Richard Scheines, Stuart Kauffman, Valerio Aimale & Frank Wimberly - unknown
    Through their transcript products genes regulate the rates at which an immense variety of transcripts and subsequent proteins occur. Understanding the mechanisms that determine which genes are expressed, and when they are expressed, is one of the keys to genetic manipulation for many purposes, including the development of new treatments for disease. Viewing each gene in a genome as a distinct variable that is either on or off, or more realistically as a continuous variable, the values of some of these (...)
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  11.  32
    A Vast Machine: Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming. [REVIEW]Greg Lusk - 2014 - Annals of Science 71 (2):295-298.
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  12. The Relationship Between Connectionist Models and a Dynamic Data-Oriented Theory of Concept Formation.Renate Bartsch - 1996 - Synthese 108 (3):421 - 454.
    In this paper I shall compare two models of concept formation, both inspired by basic convictions of philosophical empiricism. The first, the connectionist model, will be exemplified by Kohonen maps, and the second will be my own dynamic theory of concept formation. Both can be understood in probabilistic terms, both use a notion of convergence or stabilization in modelling how concepts are built up. Both admit destabilization of concepts and conceptual change. Both do not use a notion of representation (...)
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  13.  49
    Discriminating Emotions From Appraisal-Relevant Situational Information: Baseline Data for Structural Models of Cognitive Appraisals.Rainer Reisenzein & Thomas Hofmann - 1993 - Cognition and Emotion 7 (3-4):271-293.
  14.  46
    Paul N. Edwards, A Vast Machine: Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming. [REVIEW]Gabriele Gramelsberger - 2012 - Minerva 50 (4):533-537.
  15.  4
    Data-Driven Finite Element Models of Passive Filamentary Networks.Brian Adam & Sorin Mitran - 2018 - Complexity 2018:1-7.
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  16.  13
    Paul N. Edwards. A Vast Machine: Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming. Xxviii + 518 Pp., Illus., Tables, Index. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2010. $32.95. [REVIEW]Paul Erickson - 2011 - Isis 102 (3):586-587.
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  17.  12
    Learning Preference Models From Data: On the Problem of Label Ranking and its Variants.Eyke Hüllermeier & Johannes Fürnkranz - 2008 - In Giacomo Della Riccia, Didier Dubois & Hans-Joachim Lenz (eds.), Preferences and Similarities. Springer. pp. 283--304.
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  18.  17
    A Comparison of Multivariable Regression Models to Analyse Cost Data.Susanna Dodd, Asish Bassi, Keith Bodger & Paula Williamson - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (1):76-86.
  19.  30
    Theoretical Models and the Theory of Sense-Data.Thomas C. Vinci - 1984 - Metaphilosophy 15 (April):112-128.
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  20. The Usual Suspects: Data-Oriented Models for Identification and Representation of Lexical Collocations.Brigitte Krenn - 2000 - Dfki.
     
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  21.  74
    Towards a Taxonomy of the Model-Ladenness of Data.Alisa Bokulich - forthcoming - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association.
    Model-data symbiosis is the view that there is an interdependent and mutually beneficial relationship between data and models, whereby models are not only data-laden, but data are also model-laden or model filtered. In this paper I elaborate and defend the second, more controversial, component of the symbiosis view. In particular, I construct a preliminary taxonomy of the different ways in which theoretical and simulation models are used in the production of data sets. (...)
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  22.  11
    Bayesian Sensitivity Models for Missing Covariates in the Analysis of Survival Data.Karla Hemming & Jane Luise Hutton - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (2):238-246.
  23. A Theory of Ecological Gradients: A Framework for Aligning Data and Models.A. Fox Gordon, M. Scheiner Samuel & R. Willig Michael - 2011 - In Samuel M. Scheiner & Michael R. Willig (eds.), The Theory of Ecology. University of Chicago Press.
  24. Using Roc Data to Test Variance Assumptions of Memory Models.R. Ratcliff, Cf Sheu & Sd Gronlund - 1990 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (6):512-512.
  25.  6
    Concerning the Applicability of Geometric Models to Similarity Data: The Interrelationship Between Similarity and Spatial Density.Carol L. Krumhansl - 1978 - Psychological Review 85 (5):445-463.
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  26.  5
    The Standardization of Linear and Nonlinear Effects in Direct and Indirect Applications of Structural Equation Mixture Models for Normal and Nonnormal Data.Holger Brandt, Nora Umbach & Augustin Kelava - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  27.  10
    Measurement Bias Detection with Kronecker Product Restricted Models for Multivariate Longitudinal Data: An Illustration with Health-Related Quality of Life Data From Thirteen Measurement Occasions.Mathilde G. E. Verdam & Frans J. Oort - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  28.  10
    Neural Models for Imputation of Missing Ozone Data in Air-Quality Datasets.Ángel Arroyo, Álvaro Herrero, Verónica Tricio, Emilio Corchado & Michał Woźniak - 2018 - Complexity 2018:1-14.
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  29.  17
    A Comparison of Social and Organizational Change Models: Information Flow and Data Use Processes.Marshall Sashkin, William C. Morris & Leslie Horst - 1973 - Psychological Review 80 (6):510-526.
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  30.  12
    Recent Developments in Maximum Likelihood Estimation of MTMM Models for Categorical Data.Minjeong Jeon & Frank Rijmen - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  31.  6
    Integrated Interpretation of 2D Ground-Penetrating Radar, P-, and S-Wave Velocity Models in Terms of Petrophysical Properties: Assessing Uncertainties Related to Data Inversion and Petrophysical Relations.Jens Tronicke & Hendrik Paasche - 2017 - Interpretation: SEG 5 (1):T121-T130.
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  32.  5
    Hierarchical Clustering Analysis of Reading Aloud Data: A New Technique for Evaluating the Performance of Computational Models.Serje Robidoux & Stephen C. Pritchard - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  33. Multilevel Models for Intensive Longitudinal Data with Heterogeneous Autoregressive Errors: The Effect of Misspecification and Correction with Cholesky Transformation.Seungmin Jahng & Phillip K. Wood - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  34. Confirmation and Robustness of Climate Models.Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (5):971–984.
    Recent philosophical attention to climate models has highlighted their weaknesses and uncertainties. Here I address the ways that models gain support through observational data. I review examples of model fit, variety of evidence, and independent support for aspects of the models, contrasting my analysis with that of other philosophers. I also investigate model robustness, which often emerges when comparing climate models simulating the same time period or set of conditions. Starting from Michael Weisberg’s analysis of (...)
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  35.  77
    Bayesian Fundamentalism or Enlightenment? On the Explanatory Status and Theoretical Contributions of Bayesian Models of Cognition.Matt Jones & Bradley C. Love - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (4):169-188.
    The prominence of Bayesian modeling of cognition has increased recently largely because of mathematical advances in specifying and deriving predictions from complex probabilistic models. Much of this research aims to demonstrate that cognitive behavior can be explained from rational principles alone, without recourse to psychological or neurological processes and representations. We note commonalities between this rational approach and other movements in psychology that set aside mechanistic explanations or make use of optimality assumptions. Through these comparisons, we identify a number (...)
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  36.  33
    Mediating Objects. Scientific and Public Functions of Models in Nineteenth-Century Biology.David Ludwig - 2013 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 35 (2).
    The aim of this article is to examine the scientific and public functions of two- andthree-dimensional models in the context of three episodes from nineteenth-century biology. Iargue that these models incorporate both data and theory by presenting theoretical assumptions inthe light of concrete data or organizing data through theoretical assumptions. Despite their diverseroles in scientific practice, they all can be characterized as mediators between data and theory.Furthermore, I argue that these different mediating functions often (...)
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  37. Simulationist Models of Face-Based Emotion Recognition.Alvin I. Goldman & Chandra Sekhar Sripada - 2005 - Cognition 94 (3):193-213.
    Recent studies of emotion mindreading reveal that for three emotions, fear, disgust, and anger, deficits in face-based recognition are paired with deficits in the production of the same emotion. What type of mindreading process would explain this pattern of paired deficits? The simulation approach and the theorizing approach are examined to determine their compatibility with the existing evidence. We conclude that the simulation approach offers the best explanation of the data. What computational steps might be used, however, in simulation-style (...)
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  38.  81
    Science Without (Parametric) Models: The Case of Bootstrap Resampling.Jan Sprenger - 2011 - Synthese 180 (1):65-76.
    Scientific and statistical inferences build heavily on explicit, parametric models, and often with good reasons. However, the limited scope of parametric models and the increasing complexity of the studied systems in modern science raise the risk of model misspecification. Therefore, I examine alternative, data-based inference techniques, such as bootstrap resampling. I argue that their neglect in the philosophical literature is unjustified: they suit some contexts of inquiry much better and use a more direct approach to scientific inference. (...)
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  39. Psychological and Computational Models of Language Comprehension.David Pereplyotchik - 2011 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 11 (1):31-72.
    In this paper, I argue for a modified version of what Devitt calls the Representational Thesis. According to RT, syntactic rules or principles are psychologically real, in the sense that they are represented in the mind/brain of every linguistically competent speaker/hearer. I present a range of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence for the claim that the human sentence processing mechanism constructs mental representations of the syntactic properties of linguistic stimuli. I then survey a range of psychologically plausible computational models of (...)
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  40. Models of Success Versus the Success of Models: Reliability Without Truth.Eric Winsberg - 2006 - Synthese 152 (1):1-19.
    In computer simulations of physical systems, the construction of models is guided, but not determined, by theory. At the same time simulations models are often constructed precisely because data are sparse. They are meant to replace experiments and observations as sources of data about the world; hence they cannot be evaluated simply by being compared to the world. So what can be the source of credibility for simulation models? I argue that the credibility of a (...)
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  41. Redundancy in Perceptual and Linguistic Experience: Comparing Feature-Based and Distributional Models of Semantic Representation.Brian Riordan & Michael N. Jones - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):303-345.
    Abstract Since their inception, distributional models of semantics have been criticized as inadequate cognitive theories of human semantic learning and representation. A principal challenge is that the representations derived by distributional models are purely symbolic and are not grounded in perception and action; this challenge has led many to favor feature-based models of semantic representation. We argue that the amount of perceptual and other semantic information that can be learned from purely distributional statistics has been underappreciated. We (...)
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  42.  62
    At the Intersection of Social and Cognitive Development: Internal Working Models of Attachment in Infancy.Susan C. Johnson, Carol S. Dweck, Frances S. Chen, Hilarie L. Stern, Su-Jeong Ok & Maria Barth - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (5):807-825.
    Three visual habituation studies using abstract animations tested the claim that infants’ attachment behavior in the Strange Situation procedure corresponds to their expectations about caregiver–infant interactions. Three unique patterns of expectations were revealed. Securely attached infants expected infants to seek comfort from caregivers and expected caregivers to provide comfort. Insecure-resistant infants not only expected infants to seek comfort from caregivers but also expected caregivers to withhold comfort. Insecure-avoidant infants expected infants to avoid seeking comfort from caregivers and expected caregivers to (...)
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  43. Computer Simulation and the Features of Novel Empirical Data.Greg Lusk - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 56:145-152.
    In an attempt to determine the epistemic status of computer simulation results, philosophers of science have recently explored the similarities and differences between computer simulations and experiments. One question that arises is whether and, if so, when, simulation results constitute novel empirical data. It is often supposed that computer simulation results could never be empirical or novel because simulations never interact with their targets, and cannot go beyond their programming. This paper argues against this position by examining whether, and (...)
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  44.  40
    A Cross-Cultural Application of a Theoretical Model of Business Ethics: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Data[REVIEW]John Cherry, Monle Lee & Charles S. Chien - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 44 (4):359 - 376.
    Hunt and Vitell''s General Theory (1992) is used in a cross-cultural comparison of U.S. and Taiwanese business practitioners. Results indicate that Taiwanese practitioners exhibit lower perceptions of an ethical issue in a scenario based on bribery, as well as milder deontological evaluations and ethical judgments relative to their U.S. counterparts. In addition, Taiwan respondents showed higher likelihood of making the payment. Several of the paths between variables in the theory are confirmed in both U.S. and Taiwan samples, with summary (...) suggesting the Hunt and Vitell theory performs well in both U.S. and Taiwan. Some unanticipated linkages within the model were uncovered in the samples. Results and implications are discussed. (shrink)
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  45.  44
    Calibrating and Constructing Models of Protein Folding.Jeffry Ramsey - 2007 - Synthese 155 (3):307-320.
    Prediction is more than testing established theory by examining whether the prediction matches the data. To show this, I examine the practices of a community of scientists, known as threaders, who are attempting to predict the final, folded structure of a protein from its primary structure, i.e., its amino acid sequence. These scientists employ a careful and deliberate methodology of prediction. A key feature of the methodology is calibration. They calibrate in order to construct better models. The construction (...)
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  46.  54
    Developing Assessment Procedures and Assessing Two Models of Escalation Behavior Among Community College Administrators.David W. Hollar, John Hattie, Bert Goldman & James Lancaster - 2000 - Theory and Decision 49 (1):1-24.
    Escalation behavior occurs when individual decision-makers repeatedly invest time, money, and other resources into a failing project. A conceptual model of escalation behavior based on project, organizational, social and psychological forces was developed, and a 75-item measurement instrument was constructed to assess the various dimensions. The model was tested using data collected from a random sample of North Carolina Community College administrators. A LISREL measurement model analysis provided support for the four escalation forces. Two structural models were tested, (...)
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  47.  58
    Models of Voting Behavior in Survey Research.Marthe Chandler - 1988 - Synthese 76 (1):25 - 48.
    This paper examines two models used in survey research to explain voting behavior. Although the models rely on the same data they make radically different predictions about the political future. Nevertheless, both models may be more or less correct. The models represent interacting systems and it may be impossible to get a super model of the interactions between their elements. In the natural sciences causal relationships between the elements of interacting models can often be (...)
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  48.  23
    Toward Defining the Causal Role of Consciousness: Using Models of Memory and Moral Judgment From Cognitive Neuroscience to Expand the Sociological Dual‐Process Model.Luis Antonio Vila‐Henninger - 2015 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 45 (2):238-260.
    What role does “discursive consciousness” play in decision-making? How does it interact with “practical consciousness?” These two questions constitute two important gaps in strong practice theory that extend from Pierre Bourdieu's habitus to Stephen Vaisey's sociological dual-process model and beyond. The goal of this paper is to provide an empirical framework that expands the sociological dual-process model in order to fill these gaps using models from cognitive neuroscience. In particular, I use models of memory and moral judgment that (...)
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  49.  12
    Neurocomputational Models of Face Processing.Garrison W. Cottrell & Janet H. Hsiao - 2011 - In Andy Calder, Gillian Rhodes, Mark Johnson & Jim Haxby (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. Oxford University Press. pp. 401.
    This article delineates two dimensions along which computational models of face processing may vary, and briefly review three such models, the Dailey and Cottrell model; the O'Reilly and Munakata model; and the Riesenhuber and Poggio. It focuses primarily on one of the models and shows how this model is used to reveal potential mechanisms underlying the neural processing of faces and objects—the development of a specialized face processor, how it could be recruited for other domains, hemispheric lateralization (...)
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  50.  5
    From Sunspots to the Southern Oscillation: Confirming Models of Large-Scale Phenomena in Meteorology.Christopher Pincock - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (1):45-56.
    The epistemic problem of assessing the support that some evidence confers on a hypothesis is considered using an extended example from the history of meteorology. In this case, and presumably in others, the problem is to develop techniques of data analysis that will link the sort of evidence that can be collected to hypotheses of interest. This problem is solved by applying mathematical tools to structure the data and connect them to the competing hypotheses. I conclude that mathematical (...)
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