Results for 'Modern Synthesis'

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  1.  64
    Evolutionary Chance Mutation: A Defense of the Modern Synthesis' Consensus View.Francesca Merlin - 2010 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 2 (20130604).
    One central tenet of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis , and the consensus view among biologists until now, is that all genetic mutations occur by “chance” or at “random” with respect to adaptation. However, the discovery of some molecular mechanisms enhancing mutation rate in response to environmental conditions has given rise to discussions among biologists, historians and philosophers of biology about the “chance” vs “directed” character of mutations . In fact, some argue that mutations due to a particular kind (...)
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  2. Chance in the Modern Synthesis.Anya Plutynski, Kenneth Blake Vernon, Lucas John Matthews & Dan Molter - 2016 - In Grant Ramsey & Charles H. Pence (eds.), Chance in Evolution. Chicago, IL, USA: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 76-102.
    The modern synthesis in evolutionary biology is taken to be that period in which a consensus developed among biologists about the major causes of evolution, a consensus that informed research in evolutionary biology for at least a half century. As such, it is a particularly fruitful period to consider when reflecting on the meaning and role of chance in evolutionary explanation. Biologists of this period make reference to “chance” and loose cognates of “chance,” such as: “random,” “contingent,” “accidental,” (...)
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  3.  15
    Marine Invertebrates, Model Organisms, and the Modern Synthesis: Epistemic Values, Evo-Devo, and Exclusion.Alan C. Love - 2009 - Theory in Biosciences 128:19–42.
    A central reason that undergirds the significance of evo-devo is the claim that development was left out of the Modern synthesis. This claim turns out to be quite complicated, both in terms of whether development was genuinely excluded and how to understand the different kinds of embryological research that might have contributed. The present paper reevaluates this central claim by focusing on the practice of model organism choice. Through a survey of examples utilized in the literature of the (...)
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  4.  28
    How Microbes "Jeopardize" the Modern Synthesis.Aaron Novick & W. Ford Doolittle - 2019 - PLOS Genetics 5 (15):e1008166.
    This editorial introduces a series of review articles concerning the ways in which recent work on microbial evolution has both deepened and challenged the modern synthesis. The authors develop a framework for thinking about theory change in biology.
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  5. Foreword to Julian Huxley's "Evolution: The Modern Synthesis".Massimo Pigliucci & Gerd Müller - 2010 - In Massimo Pigliucci & Gerd Müller (eds.), Evolution: The Modern Synthesis The Definitive Edition Edition. MIT Press. pp. 1-8.
    A new conceptual essay introducing one of the classics of the evolutionary biological literature.
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  6.  39
    The Economy of Nature: The Structure of Evolution in Linnaeus, Darwin, and the Modern Synthesis.Charles H. Pence & Daniel G. Swaim - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 8 (3):435-454.
    We argue that the economy of nature constitutes an invocation of structure in the biological sciences, one largely missed by philosophers of biology despite the turn in recent years toward structural explanations throughout the philosophy of science. We trace a portion of the history of this concept, beginning with the theologically and economically grounded work of Linnaeus, moving through Darwin’s adaptation of the economy of nature and its reconstitution in genetic terms during the first decades of the Modern (...). What this historical case study reveals, we argue, is a window into the shifting landscape of the explanatory and ontic uses of structural concepts. In Linnaeus, the economy of nature has both ontic and explanatory import; in Darwin the ontic and explanatory aspects start to come apart ; and finally, in the Modern Synthesis, the economy of nature is replaced by the conceptual toolkit of population genetics, the structural elements of which are nearly entirely explanatory. Having traced a historical trajectory of structural concepts that moves from an ontic formulation to an increasingly explanatory one, we conclude by outlining some insights for structural realism. (shrink)
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  7.  47
    The Fate of Darwinism: Evolution After the Modern Synthesis.David J. Depew & Bruce H. Weber - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (1):89-102.
    We trace the history of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, and of genetic Darwinism generally, with a view to showing why, even in its current versions, it can no longer serve as a general framework for evolutionary theory. The main reason is empirical. Genetical Darwinism cannot accommodate the role of development in many evolutionary processes. We go on to discuss two conceptual issues: whether natural selection can be the “creative factor” in a new, more general framework for evolutionary theorizing; (...)
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  8.  32
    Review Of: Julian Huxley, Evolution: The Modern Synthesis – The Definitive Edition. [REVIEW]Ehud Lamm - 2010 - Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science.
    The review focuses on Huxley’s debt to Richard Goldschmidt and Cyril Darlington. I discuss the conceptions of the genome developed by Goldschmidt and Darlington and their continuing relevance.
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  9.  19
    Developmental Biology, Natural Selection, and the Conceptual Boundaries of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis.David J. Depew & Bruce H. Weber - 2017 - Zygon 52 (2):468-490.
    Using the evolution of the stickleback family of subarctic fish as a touchstone, we explore the effect of new discoveries about regulatory genetics, developmental plasticity, and epigenetic inheritance on the conceptual foundations of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis. Identifying the creativity of natural selection as the hallmark of the Modern Synthesis, we show that since its inception its adherents have pursued a variety of research projects that at first seemed to conflict with its principles, but were accommodated. (...)
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  10. The Hardening of the Modern Synthesis.Stepi Ien Jay Gould - unknown
    In 1937, just as Dobzhansky published the book that later generations would laud as the foundation of the modern synthesis, the American Naturnlist published a symposium on "supraspecific variation in nature and in classification." Alfred C. Kinsey, who later became one of America's most controversial intellectuals for his study of basic behaviors in another sort of WASP,1 led off the symposium with a summary of his extensive work on a family of gall wasps, the Cynipidae. In his article, (...)
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  11.  25
    The Experimental Study of Bacterial Evolution and Its Implications for the Modern Synthesis of Evolutionary Biology.Maureen O’Malley - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2):319-354.
    Since the 1940s, microbiologists, biochemists and population geneticists have experimented with the genetic mechanisms of microorganisms in order to investigate evolutionary processes. These evolutionary studies of bacteria and other microorganisms gained some recognition from the standard-bearers of the modern synthesis of evolutionary biology, especially Theodosius Dobzhansky and Ledyard Stebbins. A further period of post-synthesis bacterial evolutionary research occurred between the 1950s and 1980s. These experimental analyses focused on the evolution of population and genetic structure, the adaptive gain (...)
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  12.  27
    Disciplining and Popularizing: Evolution and its Publics From the Modern Synthesis to the Present.Vassiliki Betty Smocovitis - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45 (1):111-113.
    This paper serves as an introduction to a special collection of papers exploring the centrifugal and centripetal forces in the process of disciplining and popularizing the science of evolution in the period preceding and after the modern synthesis of evolution.
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  13.  16
    A Pluralist Framework to Address Challenges to the Modern Synthesis in Evolutionary Theory.Philippe Huneman - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (2):163-177.
    This paper uses formal Darwinism as elaborated by Alan Grafen to articulate an explanatory pluralism that casts light upon two strands of controversies running across evolutionary biology, viz., the place of organisms versus genes, and the role of adaptation. Formal Darwinism shows that natural selection can be viewed either physics-style, as a dynamics of alleles, or in the style of economics as an optimizing process. After presenting such pluralism, I argue first that whereas population genetics does not support optimization, optimality (...)
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  14.  48
    The Softening of the Modern Synthesis: Julian Huxley: Evolution: The Modern Synthesis; The Definitive Edition. Massimo Pigliucci and Gerd B. Müller : Evolution—The Extended Synthesis.Joeri Witteveen - 2011 - Acta Biotheoretica 59 (3):333-345.
    The Modern Synthesis has been receiving bad press for some time now. Back in 1983, in an article entitled “The Hardening of the Modern Synthesis” Stephen Jay Gould criticized the way the Modern Synthesis had developed since its inception in the 1930s and early 1940s (Gould 1983). Back then, those who would later become known as ‘architects’ of the synthesis were united in their call for explaining evolution at all levels in terms of (...)
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  15.  8
    The Modern Synthesis: Theoretical or Institutional Event?Jean Gayon & Philippe Huneman - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (4):519-535.
    This paper surveys questions about the nature of the Modern Synthesis as a historical event : was it rather theoretical than institutional? When and where did it actually happen? Who was involved? It argues that all answers to these questions are interrelated, and that systematic sets of answers define specific perspectives on the Modern Synthesis that are all complementary.
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  16.  18
    The Modern Synthesis.Anya Plutynski - 2014 - Nature 514.
    Huxley coined the phrase, the “evolutionary synthesis” to refer to the acceptance by a vast majority of biologists in the mid-20th Century of a “synthetic” view of evolution. According to this view, natural selection acting on minor hereditary variation was the primary cause of both adaptive change within populations and major changes, such as speciation and the evolution of higher taxa, such as families and genera. This was, roughly, a synthesis of Mendelian genetics and Darwinian evolutionary theory; it (...)
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  17.  7
    How the Modern Synthesis Came to Ecology.Philippe Huneman - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (4):635-686.
    Ecology in principle is tied to evolution, since communities and ecosystems result from evolution and ecological conditions determine fitness values. Yet the two disciplines of evolution and ecology were not unified in the twentieth-century. The architects of the Modern Synthesis, and especially Julian Huxley, constantly pushed for such integration, but the major ideas of the Synthesis—namely, the privileged role of selection and the key role of gene frequencies in evolution—did not directly or immediately translate into ecological science. (...)
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  18.  27
    The Modern Synthesis: Its Scope and Limits.Elliott R. Sober - 1982 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:314 - 321.
    This paper locates the contributions of Kauffman and Ayala to this symposium in the context of recent discussions of the adequacy of the Modern Synthesis. The neglect of morphology and development described by Kauffman is understandable in view of the belief that selection is the most powerful evolutionary force. His idea that properties of order may be explained by nonselective mechanisms is also examined. The paper subsequently takes up Ayala's criticism of S.J. Gould's view that macroevolution is a (...)
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  19.  6
    Animal Behavior, Population Biology and the Modern Synthesis.Jean-Baptiste Grodwohl - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (4):597-633.
    This paper examines the history of animal behavior studies after the synthesis period. Three episodes are considered: the adoption of the theory of natural selection, the mathematization of ideas, and the spread of molecular methods in behavior studies. In these three episodes, students of behavior adopted practices and standards developed in population ecology and population genetics. While they borrowed tools and methods from these fields, they made distinct uses that set them relatively apart and led them to contribute, in (...)
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  20.  16
    Are Punctuationists Wrong About the Modern Synthesis?Benton M. Stidd - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (1):98-109.
    A common criticism of punctuated equilibria as an evolutionary theory is that it erects a straw man by characterizing the modern synthesis as being devoid of mechanisms that bring about rapid speciation and abrupt changes in morphology. Thompson supports this view and argues that the modern synthesis does not entail gradualism, all-pervasive adaptationism, or extrapolationism and that punctuationists have mischaracterized the theory on all these points; properly understood the synthetic theory is hierarchical and able to explain (...)
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  21.  11
    The Modern Synthesis and Lewontin's Critique of Sociobiology.I. I. I. Holcomb - 1988 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 10 (2):315 - 341.
    Ernst Mayr (1980) provided an influential picture of the nature of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis and of the debate and changes occurring prior to its completion. Mayr intended his account to be applicable to comparable cases. Sociobiology should be evaluated both as a comparable case, an attempt to produce a synthesis which undergoes development of the sort Mayr described, and as an extension of the Modern Synthesis itself. Examination of what the explanatory goals and development (...)
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  22.  12
    The Modern Synthesis: Einstein and Kant.Friedel Weinert - 2009 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 14 (2):193-216.
    The paper discusses the Kantian legacy in modern views about scientific theories. The aim of this paper is to show how Einstein's philosophy of science, which was inspired by his physics, offers a specialized version of the Kantian synthesis of Empiricism and Rationalism. In modern physical theories Kant's a priori conditions become 'constraints', as shown in Einstein's use of principle theories. Einstein's use of principle theories shows how constraints are used to steer the mapping of the rational (...)
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  23.  22
    The Unmaking of a Modern Synthesis: Noam Chomsky, Charles Hockett, and the Politics of Behaviorism, 1955–1965.Gregory Radick - 2016 - Isis 107 (1):49-73.
    A familiar story about mid-twentieth-century American psychology tells of the replacement of behaviorism by cognitive science. Between these two, however, lay a borderland, muddy and much trespassed-upon. This paper relocates the origins of the Chomskyan program in linguistics there. Following his introduction of transformational generative grammar, Chomsky mounted a highly publicized attack on behaviorist psychology. Yet when he first developed that approach to grammar, he was a defender of behaviorism. His anti-behaviorism emerged only in the course of what became a (...)
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  24. What Genes Can't Do: Prolegomena to a Post Modern-Synthesis Philosophy.Lenny Moss - 1998 - Dissertation, Northwestern University
    The concept of the gene has been the central organizing theme of 20th century biology. Biology has become increasingly influential both for philosophers seeking a naturalized basis for epistemology, ethics, and the understanding of the mind, as well as for the human sciences generally. The central task of this work is to get the story right about genes and in so doing provide a critical and enabling resourse for use in the further pursuit of human self-understanding. ;The work begins with (...)
     
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  25. Evolution: The Modern Synthesis.Julian Huxley - 1944 - Philosophy 19 (73):166-170.
     
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  26.  62
    What’s Wrong with the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis? A Critical Reply to Welch.Koen B. Tanghe, Alexis De Tiège, Lieven Pauwels, Stefaan Blancke & Johan Braeckman - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (3-4):23.
    Welch :263–279, 2017) has recently proposed two possible explanations for why the field of evolutionary biology is plagued by a steady stream of claims that it needs urgent reform. It is either seriously deficient and incapable of incorporating ideas that are new, relevant and plausible or it is not seriously deficient at all but is prone to attracting discontent and to the championing of ideas that are not very relevant, plausible and/or not really new. He argues for the second explanation. (...)
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  27. Evolution: The Modern Synthesis.Julian Huxley - 1944 - Science and Society 8 (1):90-93.
     
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  28. Modern Synthesis is the Light of Microbial Genomics.Austin Booth, Carlos Mariscal & W. Ford Doolittle - 2016 - Annual Reviews of Microbiology 70 (1):279-297.
  29.  14
    Editorial: How Best to “Go On”? Prospects for a “Modern Synthesis” in the Sciences of Mind.Kevin Moore & John Cromby - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  30.  7
    Sewall Wright, Shifting Balance Theory, and the Hardening of the Modern Synthesis.Yoichi Ishida - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 61:1-10.
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  31. Evolution. — The Modern Synthesis.J. Huxley & T. H. Huxley - 1950 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 6 (2):207-207.
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  32. Evolution: The Modern Synthesis The Definitive Edition Edition.Massimo Pigliucci & Gerd Müller (eds.) - 2010 - MIT Press.
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  33.  13
    Traversing the Conceptual Divide Between Biological and Statistical Epistasis: Systems Biology and a More Modern Synthesis.Jason H. Moore & Scott M. Williams - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (6):637-646.
  34. Critics and Criticisms of the Modern Synthesis: The Viewpoint of a Philosopher.Jean Gayon - unknown
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  35.  9
    Special Issue Editor’s Introduction: “Revisiting the Modern Synthesis”.Philippe Huneman - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (4):509-518.
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  36.  13
    Evolutionary Theory: Conceptual Controversies and Pluralism: Philippe Huneman and Denis M. Walsh : Challenging the Modern Synthesis: Adaptation, Development, and Inheritance. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017, Ix+353pp, $74 HB. [REVIEW]Karen Kovaka - 2019 - Metascience 28 (2):289-291.
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  37.  31
    Extending the Modern Synthesis with Ants: Ant Encounters: D. M. Gordon: Ant Encounters: Interaction Networks and Colony Behavior. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2010.Heikki Helanterä - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (6):935-944.
  38.  47
    Julian Huxley on Darwinian Evolution: A Snapshot of a Theory: Julian Huxley: Evolution the Modern Synthesis: The Definitive Edition. Edited by Massimo Pigliucci and Gerd B. Müller. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2010, Ix+770pp, US$35.00 PB. [REVIEW]Michael Ruse - 2011 - Metascience 20 (2):329-333.
    Julian Huxley on Darwinian evolution: A snapshot of a theory Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9499-8 Authors Michael Ruse, Department of Philosophy, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32303, USA Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  39.  20
    Language Joshua Whatmough: Language: A Modern Synthesis. Pp. X + 270. London: Secker and Warburg, 1956. Cloth, 25s. Net.D. M. Jones - 1958 - The Classical Review 8 (01):56-57.
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  40.  23
    Evolution: The Modern Synthesis. By Julian Huxley, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. (London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. 1942. Pp. 645. Price 25s.). [REVIEW]John S. L. Gilmour - 1944 - Philosophy 19 (73):166-.
  41.  16
    Some Punctuationists Are Wrong About the Modern Synthesis.Paul Thompson - 1988 - Philosophy of Science 55 (1):74-86.
    Benton Stidd has defended the position that punctuationists are not wrong about the inadequacy of the synthetic theory of evolution for explaining evolution. The thrust of his defense is that arguments to the contrary by Thompson involve a rational reconstruction along logical empiricist lines, which is insensitive to historical and social forces in a way that the Kuhnian Weltanschauung view that he espouses is not. I argue in this paper that Stidd has entirely misunderstood my arguments, that the soundness of (...)
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  42.  17
    Some Punctuationists Are Wrong About the Modern Synthesis.Not By Me - 1988 - Philosophy of Science 55 (1):74-86.
    Benton Stidd has defended the position that punctuationists are not wrong about the inadequacy of the synthetic theory of evolution for explaining evolution. The thrust of his defense is that arguments to the contrary by Thompson involve a rational reconstruction along logical empiricist lines, which is insensitive to historical and social forces in a way that the Kuhnian Weltanschauung view that he espouses is not. I argue in this paper that Stidd has entirely misunderstood my arguments, that the soundness of (...)
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  43.  34
    C.H. Waddington’s differences with the creators of the modern evolutionary synthesis: a tale of two genes.Jonathan B. L. Bard - 2017 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 39 (3):18.
    In 2011, Peterson suggested that the main reason why C.H. Waddington was essentially ignored by the framers of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1950s was because they were Cartesian reductionists and mathematical population geneticists while he was a Whiteheadian organicist and experimental geneticist who worked with Drosophila. This paper suggests a further reason that can only be seen now. The former defined genes and their alleles by their selectable phenotypes, essentially the Mendelian view, while Waddington defined a (...)
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  44.  8
    A Synthesis of Many Levels of Constraints as a Modern View of Development.Derek Harter & Shulan Lu - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):498-499.
    The debate of nativisim versus empiricism is over the relative importance of evolutionary versus ontogenetic mechanisms. This is mostly seen today as a false dichotomy. The synthesis of these positions provides a modern viewpoint of grounded category formation. This combined view places equal importance on feedback between these levels in guiding development, and is more appropriately compared to culturalist positions.
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  45.  20
    Modern Confucian Synthesis of Qualitative and Quantitative Knowledge: Xiong Shili.Jana S. Rošker - 2009 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 36 (3):376-390.
    Xiong was the originator and founder of Modern Confucianism (xin ruxue ) as well as one of the first Chinese philosophers, who developed his own system of thought, which was based upon classical Confucian concepts and, at the same time, adjusted to the conditions of the New Era. His contribution to the development of modern Chinese philosophy can also be demonstrated in a much broader, general sense. Xiong Shili, namely, also represents one of the first theoretically qualified intellectuals (...)
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  46.  15
    Defining Art Culturally : Modern Theories of Art - a Synthesis.Simon Fokt - unknown
    Numerous theories have attempted to overcome the anti-essentialist scepticism about the possibility of defining art. While significant advances have been made in this field, it seems that most modern definitions fail to successfully address the issue of the ever-changing nature of art raised by Morris Weitz, and rarely even attempt to provide an account which would be valid in more than just the modern Western context. This thesis looks at the most successful definitions currently defended, determines their strengths (...)
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  47.  64
    Is Non-Genetic Inheritance Just a Proximate Mechanism? A Corroboration of the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis.Alex Mesoudi, Simon Blanchet, Anne Charmantier, Étienne Danchin, Laurel Fogarty, Eva Jablonka, Kevin N. Laland, Thomas J. H. Morgan, Gerd B. Müller, F. John Odling-Smee & Benoît Pujol - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (3):189-195.
    What role does non-genetic inheritance play in evolution? In recent work we have independently and collectively argued that the existence and scope of non-genetic inheritance systems, including epigenetic inheritance, niche construction/ecological inheritance, and cultural inheritance—alongside certain other theory revisions—necessitates an extension to the neo-Darwinian Modern Synthesis (MS) in the form of an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES). However, this argument has been challenged on the grounds that non-genetic inheritance systems are exclusively proximate mechanisms that serve the ultimate function (...)
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  48.  27
    DNA Dispose, but Subjects Decide. Learning and the Extended Synthesis.Markus Lindholm - 2015 - Biosemiotics 8 (3):443-461.
    Adaptation by means of natural selection depends on the ability of populations to maintain variation in heritable traits. According to the Modern Synthesis this variation is sustained by mutations and genetic drift. Epigenetics, evodevo, niche construction and cultural factors have more recently been shown to contribute to heritable variation, however, leading an increasing number of biologists to call for an extended view of speciation and evolution. An additional common feature across the animal kingdom is learning, defined as the (...)
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  49. Evo-Devo and the Structure(s) of Evolutionary Theory: A Different Kind of Challenge.Alan Love - 2017 - In Philippe Huneman & Denis M. Walsh (eds.), Challenging the Modern Synthesis. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 159-187.
    Represents the most comprehensive and current survey of the various challenges to the Modern Synthesis theory of evolution. Incorporates a variety of theoretical and disciplinary perspectives, from evolutionary biologists, historians and philosophers of science. These essays constitute the state of the art in the current debate on the status of the Modern Synthesis.
     
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  50.  20
    ‘Great is Darwin and Bergson His Poet’: Julian Huxley's Other Evolutionary Synthesis.Emily Herring - 2018 - Annals of Science 75 (1):40-54.
    In 1912, Julian Huxley published his first book The Individual in the Animal Kingdom which he dedicated to the then world-famous French philosopher Henri Bergson. Historians have generally adopted one of two attitudes towards Huxley’s early encounter with Bergson. They either dismiss it entirely as unimportant or minimise it, deeming it a youthful indiscretion preceding Huxley’s full conversion to Fisherian Darwinism. Close biographical study and new archive materials demonstrate, however, that neither position is tenable. The Bergsonian elements in play in (...)
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