Results for 'Mohamad Al-Hakim'

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Profile: Mohamad Al-Hakim (Florida Gulf Coast University)
  1.  14
    Al-Qadi al-Nu'man b. Muhammad al-Maghribi (m. 363/974). Risalat Dhat al-Bayan fi l-Radd'ala Ibn Qutayba ou L'épître de l'Éloquente clarification concernant la réfutation d'Ibn Qutayba (II). [REVIEW]Avraham Hakim - 2010 - Al-Qantara: Revista de Estudios Árabes 31 (2):351-369.
    Al-Qadi al-Nu´man b. Muhammad es el más destacado y prolífico de los estudiosos fatimíes y el fundador de la jurisprudencia isma´ilí. En su epístola " La clarificación elocuente para la refutación de Ibn Qutayba", todavía en manuscrito, al-Nu,man se lanza a una polémica en contra de Ibn Qutayba, que había vivido un siglo antes. Es probable que la epístola fuera escrita en la época de al- Mu´izz a petición de un tutor anónimo de los hijos del califa. En ella, al-Nu´man (...)
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  2.  3
    Conceptions of Authority in Iraqi Shi'ism: Baqir Al-Hakim, Ha'iri and Sistani on Ijtihad, Taqlid and Marja'iyya.R. Gleave - 2007 - Theory, Culture and Society 24 (2):59-78.
    One of the most obvious differences between recent Shi’ite and Sunni political activism is the dominance of clerical leadership in the former and lay leadership in the latter. This article examines the reasons for this difference, analysing the authority theories of three contemporary Iraqi Shi’ite clerics. Ayatallah Baqir al-Hakim, until his death in 2003, was the ideologue of the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq, the military wing of which is the Badr Corps. Ayatallah Kazim al-Ha’iri is considered (...)
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  3. Textos de Al-Farabi En Una Obra Andalusí Del Siglo XI: "Gayat Al-Hakim" de Abu Maslama Al-Mayriti.Rafael Ramón Guerrero - 1991 - Al-Qantara: Revista de Estudios Árabes 12 (1):3-18.
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  4. Kinship and Power-Use and Abuse-a Study of the Mothers of the Caliph Al-Hakim-Bi-Amr-Allah-Al-Fatimi.L. Bariani - 1995 - Al-Qantara: Revista de Estudios Árabes 16 (2):357-367.
     
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  5. Parentela e potere: uso ed abuso: indagine sulle "madri" del califfo al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah al-Fatimi.Laura Bariani - 1995 - Al-Qantara: Revista de Estudios Árabes 16 (2):357-368.
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  6. Textos de al-Fārābī en una obra andalusí del siglo XI:«Gāyat al-hakīm» de Abū Maslama al-Maŷrītī.R. Ramón Guerrero - 1991 - Al-Qantara: Revista de Estudios Árabes 12 (1):3-17.
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  7. Some of the Sources of the Ghāyat Al-Hakīm.David Pingree - 1980 - Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 43:1-15.
  8. David Pingree, Ed., Picatrix: The Latin Version of the “Ghāyat Al-Ḥakīm.”(Studies of the Warburg Institute, 39.) London: Warburg Institute, 1986. Pp. Lxxx, 344; 18 Black-and-White Plates, 7 Microfiches in Endpaper Flap.£ 40. [REVIEW]Wayne Shumaker - 1989 - Speculum 64 (3):757-758.
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  9.  3
    Some Recent Research on Al-Ḥakīm Al-Tirmidhī.Bernd Radtke - 2006 - Der Islam: Journal of the History and Culture of the Middle East 83 (1):39-89.
    In the years 1997 and 1998 respectively, there appeared book reviews by Paul Ballanfat and Michel Chodkiewicz that each deal with Geneviève Gobillot 's book: Le Livre de la profondeur des choses. Both reviews are very positive, one might say almost enthusiastic. I will return to these later.
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  10.  2
    Al-Hakîm Cornelius Van Alen Van Dyck.Lutfi Sa'di, George Sarton & W. Van Dyck - 1937 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 27:20-45.
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  11.  1
    Idealism and Ideology: The Case of Tawfīq Al-ḤakīmIdealism and Ideology: The Case of Tawfiq Al-Hakim.Pierre Cachia - 1980 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 100 (3):225.
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  12.  1
    Picatrix: The Latin Version of the Ghāyat Al-ḤakīmPicatrix: The Latin Version of the Ghayat Al-Hakim.William R. Newman & David Pingree - 1993 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 113 (1):158.
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  13.  1
    Der Mystiker al-Ḥakīm at-Tirmiḏī.Bernd Radtke - 1980 - Der Islam: Journal of the History and Culture of the Middle East 57 (2):237-245.
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  14.  1
    Œdipe-Roi En Trompe-L'Œil. Étude d'Al-Malik Œdipe de Tawfīq Al-Ḥakīm.Laurence Denooz - 2003 - Kernos 16:211-224.
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  15. Al-Hakîm Cornelius Van Alen Van Dyck.George Sarton & W. T. Van Dyck - 1937 - Isis 27 (1):20-45.
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  16. Picatrix: The Latin Version of the "Ghāyat Al-Ḥakīm". David Pingree.Wayne Shumaker - 1989 - Speculum 64 (3):757-758.
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  17. Ikki Bui͡uk Donishmand: (Abu Iso at-Termiziĭ, Al-Ḣakim at-Termiziĭ).Ubaĭdulla Uvatov - 2005 - Sharq.
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  18.  4
    The Epistle of the Eloquent Clarification Concerning the Refutation of Ibn Qutayba by Al-Qāḍī Al-Nuʿmān B. Muḥammad . Edited by Avraham Hakim. Islamic History and Civilization, Vol. 90. Leiden : Brill, 2012. Pp. Xi + 22 + 175 . $129, €94. [REVIEW]Samer Traboulsi - 2015 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 135 (2):393-395.
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  19. The Epistle of the Eloquent Clarification Concerning the Refutation of Ibn Qutayba by Al-Q D Al-Nu M N B. Muhammad Edited and Introduced by Avraham Hakim.A. El Shamsy - 2014 - Journal of Islamic Studies 25 (2):207-209.
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  20. Maslama Al=Majriti and the Rutbatu'l=Hakim.E. J. Holmyard - 1924 - Isis 6 (3):293-305.
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  21. Islamic Science Al-Biruni Commemorative Volume. Proceedings of the International Congress Held in Pakistan on the Occasion of Millenary of Abu Raihan Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Al-Biruni , November 26 1973 Thru' December 12 1973. Ed. By Hakim Mohammed Said, Karachi: Hamdard National Foundation, 1979. Pp. Vi + 844. PRs 200/$30.00. [REVIEW]Ziauddin Sardar - 1981 - British Journal for the History of Science 14 (3):285.
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  22.  61
    Making Room for Hate Crime Legislation in Liberal Societies.Mohamad Al-Hakim - 2010 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 4 (3):341-358.
    There is a divide within political and legal theory concerning the justification of hate-crime legislation in liberal states. Opponents of Hate-Crime Legislation have recently argued that enhanced punishment for hate-motivated crimes cannot be justified within political liberal states. More specifically, Heidi Hurd argues that criminal sanction which target character dispositions unfairly target individuals for characteristics not readily under their control. She further argues that a ‘character’ based approach in criminal law is necessarily illiberal and violates the state’s commitment to political (...)
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  23. The Role of the Practice of Excellence Strategies in Education to Achieve Sustainable Competitive Advantage to Institutions of Higher Education-Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology at Al-Azhar University in Gaza a Model.Mazen J. Al Shobaki & Samy S. Abu Naser - 2017 - International Journal of Digital Publication Technology 1 (2):135-157.
    This study aims to look at the role of the practice of excellence strategies in education in achieving sustainable competitive advantage for the Higher educational institutions of the faculty of Engineering and Information Technology at Al-Azhar University in Gaza, a model, and the study considered the competitive advantage of educational institutions stems from the impact on the level of each student, employee, and the institution. The study was based on the premise that the development of strategies for excellence in education, (...)
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  24.  53
    Sur Un Théorème de Géométrie Sphérique: Théodose, Ménélaüs, Ibn ʿirāq Et Ibn Hūd.Roshdi Rashed & Mohamad Al-Houjairi - 2010 - Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 20 (2):207-254.
    In his encyclopedic book, established by an intrinsic demonstration of spherical geometry, a remarkable theorem which generalizes the proposition III.11 from Theodosiuss Spherics. In this paper, we study this theorem and the demonstration of Ibn Hd, Ibn q, al-sī) addressing the same theme.
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  25. .ʻAbd al-Ḥakīm Ajhar - 2011
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  26. .ʻAbd al-Ḥakīm Fāz̤ilī - 2010
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  27. Al-Ghazali and Ibn Rush (Averroes) on Creation and the Divine Attributes.Ali Hasan - 2013 - In Jeanine Diller & Asa Kasher (eds.), Models of God and Alternative Ultimate Realities. Springer. pp. 141-156.
    Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) was concerned that early Islamic philosophers were leaning too heavily and uncritically on Aristotelian and Neoplatonic ideas in developing their models of God and His relation to the world. He argued that their views were not only irreligious, but philosophically problematic, and he defended an alternative view aimed at staying closer to the Qur’an and the beliefs of the ordinary Muslim. Ibn Rushd (1126-1198) responded to al-Ghazali’s critique and developed a sophisticated Aristotelian view. The present chapter explores their (...)
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  28.  17
    Maqasid Al-Shariah as a Complementary Framework to Conventional Bioethics.Shaikh Mohd Saifuddeen, Noor Naemah Abdul Rahman, Noor Munirah Isa & Azizan Baharuddin - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):317-327.
    With the rapid advancements made in biotechnology, bioethical discourse has become increasingly important. Bioethics is a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary field that goes beyond the realm of natural sciences, and has involved fields in the domain of the social sciences. One of the important areas in bioethical discourse is religion. In a country like Malaysia, where Muslims make up the majority of the population, Islam plays a crucial role in providing the essential guidelines on the permissibility and acceptability of biotechnological applications (...)
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  29. Anthropologie, Religion und Politik in der praktischen Philosophie al-Fārābīs und in den politischen Traktaten Machiavellis.Georgios Steiris - 2014 - In M. Stork V. Pantazis (ed.), Ommasin allois, Festschrift für Professor Ioannis E. Theodoropoulos zum 65. Geburtstag. Oldib Verlag. pp. 151-189.
    Die ethische und politische Philosophie al-Fārābīs beruht auf einer philosophischen Anthropologie, die die Menschen als von Natur aus als ungleich betrachtet und der Natur eine fundamentale Bedeutung zuschreibt. Die Natur stattet nur wenige Menschen mit besonderen Fähigkeiten aus, sodass die Verwirklichung der höheren theoretischen, geistigen, moralischen Tugend und der praktischen Kunst nur jene betrifft, die von der Natur dafür ausersehen wurden. Die Anthropologie ist darüber hinaus auch ein wichtiges Instrument politischen Handelns. Der Herrscher muss sich kontinuierlich dem Studium der menschlichen (...)
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  30.  80
    Al-Ghazālī on the Form and Matter of the Syllogisms.Henrik Lagerlund - 2010 - Vivarium 48 (1):193-214.
    Al-Ghazālī's Maqāsid al-falāsifa is an intelligent reworking of Avicenna's Dānesh-name . It was assumed by Latin scholastics that the Maqāsid contained the views of Al-Ghazālī himself. Very well read in Latin translation, it was the basic text from which the Latin authors gained their knowledge of Arabic logic. This article examines the views on the form and matter of the syllogism given in the Maqāsid and considers how they would have been viewed by a Latin reader in the thirteenth century.
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  31.  11
    Usage Degree of the Capabilities of DSS in Al-Aqsa University of Gaza.Mazen J. Al-Shobaki & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2017 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 1 (2):33-47.
    Abstract— This study aimed to identify the degree of use of the capabilities of decision-support systems in Palestinian institutions higher education, Aqsa University in Gaza - a case study. The study used a analytical descriptive approach, and the researchers used the of questionnaire tool to collect the data, the researchers using stratified random sample distributed (150) questioners to the study population and (126) was obtained back with rate of 84%. The study showed that the most important results are: that senior (...)
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  32.  20
    Strategies of Visual Argumentation in Slideshow Presentations: The Role of the Visuals in an Al Gore Presentation on Climate Change. [REVIEW]Jens E. Kjeldsen - 2013 - Argumentation 27 (4):425-443.
    The use of digital presentation tools such as PowerPoint is ubiquitous; however we still do not know much about the persuasiveness of these programs. Examining the use of visual analogy and visual chronology, in particular, this article explores the use of visual argumentation in a Keynote presentation by Al Gore. It illustrates how images function as an integrated part of Gores reasoning.
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  33.  24
    Simplicity’s Deficiency: Al-Ghazali’s Defense of the Divine Attributes and Contemporary Trinitarian Metaphysics.Nicholas Martin - 2017 - Topoi 36 (4):665-673.
    I reconstruct and analyze al-Ghazali’s arguments defending a plurality of real divine attributes in The Incoherence of the Philosophers. I show that one of these arguments can be made to engage with and defend Jeffrey E. Brower and Michael C. Rea’s “Numerical Sameness Without Identity” model of the Trinity. To that end, I provide some background on the metaphysical commitments at play in al-Ghazali’s arguments.
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  34.  15
    Al-Fārābī on the Method of Astronomy.Damien Janos - 2010 - Early Science and Medicine 15 (3):237-265.
    This article analyzes al-Fārābī's conception of the astronomical method by examining rarely studied texts such as the K. al-mūsīqā and K. al-burhān and by addressing key issues such as the subject matter of astronomy, the techniques used to derive the first principles of this science, the relation between astrology, astronomy, physics, and metaphysics, and the place of al-Fārābī in the Arabic astronomical tradition. The analysis indicates that al-Fārābī's theories combine material from the Greek astronomical tradition, especially Geminus, as well as (...)
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  35.  24
    The "Commentary" That Saved the Text. The Hazardous Journey of Ibn Al-Haytham's Arabic Optics.A. I. Sabra - 2007 - Early Science and Medicine 12 (2):117-133.
    The "Text" and the "Commentary" mentioned in the title of this essay are, respectively, the Kitāb al-Manāzir, or Optics, of al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham, composed in the first half of the fifth/eleventh century, and the Tanqīh al-Manāzir li-dhawī l-absār wa l-basā'ir, written by Abū l-Hasan Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī in the second half of the seventh/thirteenth century. It is known that, so far, only the first five of the seven maqālāt /Books that make up the Arabic text of IH's Optics have been (...)
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  36.  96
    Al-Ghazai on the Signification of Names.Taneli Kukkonen - 2010 - Vivarium 48 (1-2):55-74.
    Al-Ghazālī's most detailed explanation of how signification works occurs in his treatise on The Beautiful Names of God. Al-Ghazālī builds squarely on the commentary tradition on Aristotle's Peri hermeneias : words signify things by means of concepts and correspondingly, existence is laid out on three levels, linguistic, conceptual, and particular (i.e. extramental). This framework allows al-Ghazālī to put forward what is essentially an Aristotelian reading of what happens when a name successfully picks out a being: when a quiddity is named (...)
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  37.  60
    Los diversos tipos del lenguaje en "Miftāḥ al-sa'āda" de Ibn al-'Arīf (m. 536/1141).Ahmed Shafik - 2012 - 'Ilu. Revista de Ciencias de Las Religiones 17:185-209.
    Study that try to expose and to define the different types of the language as the juridical, theological, and ascetic-mystical in Miftāḥ al-sa‘āda [Key of Happiness] of Ibn al-‘Arīf. Types that are analyzed in details, to conclude with the influence of the Sufi language of Ibn al-‘Arīf in Ibn ‘Arabī’s work, supporting on considerations of semantic as well as mystical nature.
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  38.  26
    Filosofía y mística de Ibn al-'Arīf: Su Miftāḥ al-sa 'āda.Ahmed Shafik - 2012 - Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 29 (2):443-448.
    El presente artículo empieza con una breve exposición de los datos más significativos sobre la vida y obra del sufí almeriense Ibn al-‘Arīf (d. 536/1141). A continuación se habla de su formación filosófica y sufí. Finalmente, se reúnen y traducen diversos pasajes de Miftāḥ al-sa‘āda que hacen referencia a la filosofía y la mística. Se contrastan a la vez sus opiniones con anteriores sufíes andalusíes como Ibn Masarra e Ibn Jamīs de Évora.
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  39.  20
    Corrientes del pensamiento en al-Andalús.Josep Puig Montada - 2007 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 52 (3):55-78.
    Three main trends of Islamic thought – rational theology, philosophy and Sufism – developed on the Iberian Peninsula during its Arab domination. All three have their origins in the Islamic East and incorporated Jewish thinkers who lived in al-Andalus. The relations among these main trends were often conflictive, but also positive in the case of thinkers who wanted to harmonize philosophy and Sufism (Avempace, Ibn Tufayl) or philosophy and rational theology (Averroes, Maimonides). KEY WORDS – Ibn Masarra. Ibn Hazm. Maslama (...)
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  40.  20
    El pensamiento griego en la lógica de Ibn Hazm: Su "Kitab al-taqrib".Rafael Ramón Guerrero - 2002 - Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 19:27-38.
    El primer libro consagrado a la lógica escrito por un autor andalusí que se nos ha conservado es el Kitªb al-taqrÌb li-Êadd al-manðiq ("Aproximación a la definición de la lógica") del cordobés Ibn ¿azm (m.1063). En él, su autor pretende adecuar la lógica al lenguaje sencillo de los juristas. Aquí se señala cómo este importante escrito puede depender de la escuela lógica de Bagdad.
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  41.  12
    Al-Ghazali’s Position on the ‘Second Proof’ of the ‘Philosophers’ for the Eternity of the World, in the First Discussion of the Incoherence of the Philosophers.Edward Omar Moad - 2015 - Sophia 54 (4):429-441.
    In the Incoherence of the Philosophers, Abu Hamid al-Ghazali raised objections against the doctrine of the ‘philosophers’ on 20 specific points. In the first, and longest discussion, he examines and rebuts four of their proofs of the pre-eternity of the world—that is, that the universe as a whole had no beginning but extends perpetually into the past. Al-Ghazali rejects that doctrine. But his own position on the issue does not become clear until he discusses the philosophers’ ‘second proof.’ In this (...)
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  42.  17
    Univocismo y monadología en el pensamiento iraní postaviceniano: La prosecución filosófica del ÿirfªn de Ibn al-ÿArabÌ en la obra de Sadrâ ¿irâzi.Carlos A. Segovia - 2001 - Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 18:79-108.
    Las nociones de "uno" y de "múltiple" han sido, históricamente, objeto de tratamiento, a la vez, filosófico y teológico. En el contexto de la filosofía islámica oriental, y en el marco de su vertiente más específicamente neoplatónica, el "Príncipe de los Teósofos", Sadrâ ¿irâzi (ob.1050/1640), estudia ambas desde una perspectiva ontológica y distanciándose del enfoque consignado al respecto por los filósofos peripatéticos del Islam. Adaptando y continuando, de un lado, la gnosis de Ibn al-'ArabÌ, y, de otro, la sabiduría iluminativa (...)
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  43.  16
    La doctrina del amor en Ibn Al-Arabí. Comentario del nombre divino Al-Wadd.Pablo Beneito - 2001 - Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 18:61.
    Partiendo, de un lado, de la idea de que la especulación es, para el gnóstico,el espejo en el que se reflejan los misterios divinos, cuyo eco percibe asu vez la razón discursiva , y partiendo, de otro, de la exploración intra-lingilística o gramatosófica emprendida por elgnóstico andalusí Ibn al-’Arabi, ofrecemos al lector una traducción comentadade una breve sección del penúltimo capítulo de Las Revelaciones de LaMeca, su principal obra. Nos centraremos, a tal fin, en las diferentes modulacionesmorfológicas y semánticas de (...)
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  44.  36
    Al-Ghazali's Reflections on the Metaphysics of Metaphor in the Mishkāt Al- Anwar.Edward Omar Moad - 2007 - Sophia 46 (2):163-175.
    Mythological language is sometimes understood as a way of representing, by concrete imagery, more abstract notions. In this paper, we will pose some metaphysical questions about the possibility of such a representation. These questions will serve to motivate a brief tour of Mishkāt al-Anwār (Niche of Lights)—Abu Hamid al-Ghazali’s commentary on the famous ayat al-nur (“verse of light”) of the Qur’an—wherein is discussed, among other things, how symbolic imagery is possible, and “the respect in which the spirits of the meanings (...)
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  45.  14
    Los "artículos de necesario conocimiento para quien se inicie en el arte de la lógica", de Abu Nars Al-Fârâbî. [REVIEW]Rafael Ramón Guerrero - 1986 - Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 6:143-154.
    The first book consecrated to logic, written by an andalusian author is Ibn Hazm’s Kitªb al-taqrÌb li-Êadd al-manðiq (“Introduction to definition of logic”). Where, the author seeks to adapt the logic to the simple language of the jurists. Here it is pointed out how this important treatise can depend on the logical school of Bagdad.
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  46.  33
    La perspective aérienne de Léonard de Vinci et ses origines dans l'optique d'ibn al-haytham ( de aspectibus , III, 7).Dominique Raynaud - 2009 - Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 19 (2):225-246.
    Le concept de perspective aérienne a été introduit par Léonard de Vinci (1452-1519). L'article étudie sa dépendance vis-à-vis de l'Optique de Ptolémée et surtout de la tradition optique inaugurée par le Kitâb al-manâzir d'Ibn al-Haytham (m. après 1040). Ce traité, accessible par plusieurs manuscrits latins et italien, qui a fait l'objet de nombreux commentaires médiévaux, offre une théorie générale de la perception visuelle émancipée du seul cas de l'illusion lunaire, dans laquelle les facteurs physiques et psychologiques sont étroitement associés. L'extinction (...)
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  47.  8
    The Aerial Perspective of Leonardo da Vinci and His Origins in the Optics of Ibn Al-Haytham (de Aspectibus, III, 7).Dominique Raynaud - 2009 - Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 19 (2):225-246.
    The concept of aerial perspective has been used for the first time by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519). This article studies its dependence on Ptolemy’s Optica and overall on the optical tradition inaugurated by Ibn al-Haytham’s Kitâb al-Manâzir (d. after 1040). This treatise, that was accessible through several Latin and Italian manuscripts, and was the source of many Medieval commentaries, offers a general theory of visual perception emancipated from the case of the moon illusion, in which physical and psychological factors are (...)
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  48.  10
    Performance and Maqasid Al-Shari’Ah’s Pentagon-Shaped Ethical Measurement.Houssem Eddine Bedoui & Walid Mansour - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (3):555-576.
    Business performance is traditionally viewed from the one-dimensional financial angle. This paper develops a new approach that links performance to the ethical vision of Islam based on maqasid al-shari’ah . The approach involves a Pentagon-shaped performance scheme structure via five pillars, namely wealth, posterity, intellect, faith, and human self. Such a scheme ensures that any firm or organization can ethically contribute to the promotion of human welfare, prevent corruption, and enhance social and economic stability and not merely maximize its own (...)
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  49.  6
    A Boolean Transfer Principle From L*‐Algebras to AL*‐Algebras.Hirokazu Nishimura - 1993 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 39 (1):241-250.
    Just as Kaplansky [4] has introduced the notion of an AW*-module as a generalization of a complex Hilbert space, we introduce the notion of an AL*-algebra, which is a generalization of that of an L*-algebra invented by Schue [9, 10]. By using Boolean valued methods developed by Ozawa [6–8], Takeuti [11–13] and others, we establish its basic properties including a fundamental structure theorem. This paper should be regarded as a continuation or our previous paper [5], the familiarity with which is (...)
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  50.  2
    The Preferences of Al-Kisāʾī : Grammar and Meaning in a Canonical Reading of the Qur’An.Ramon Harvey - 2016 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 29 (2):313-332.
    The Qur’an has been transmitted as both a written text and an oral recital. This has led to the development of a reading tradition that permits numerous different vocalisations to be made upon the basic skeletal text of the established ʿUthmānī codex. Ibn al-Jazarī chose ten early readers whom he felt were most representative of this tradition and whose readings are treated as canonical up until this day. One of these, the Kufan linguist al-Kisāʾī has been characterised in the literature (...)
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