This paper is concerned with an aspect of Deleuze and Guattari's thought which has not been duly analyzed: systematicity. More specifically, it deals with their conception of the system in three co-authored major works: What is Philosophy?, Anti-Oedipus and A Thousand Plateaus. These works are of renewed interest because they tease out, each in its own way, a particular type of system. Regardless of whether it has a philosophical import, a botanical reference, a social dimension, or a libidinal investment, the (...) system that Deleuze and Guattari advocate is allegedly a hyper-dynamic system that resists closure. Thus, in an interview with Didier Eribon, Deleuze points out that philosophy is 'an open system' and then, referring to A Thousand Plateaus, he further observes that what he and Guattari 'call a rhizome is also one example of an open system'. The purpose of this essay is not merely to explore how the system in the works of these two prominent poststructuralists is conceived, how it is structured, and how it works, but also to show how it is only superficially open. Paying a special attention to Deleuze and Guattari's exegesis on capitalism, I argue that the proposed system is cynical and ultimately untenable. Key Words: capitalism Gilles Deleuze Félix Guattari open system philosophy total system. (shrink)
أَخَذَ النصُّ القرآنيُّ حيّزاً وافراً من الاهتمامِ والتّأليف، على امتدادِ القَرنِ التّاسع عَشَر وبداية القرنِ العشرين. تَقَعُ مُحَاوَلةُ الإصلاحيّةِ الإسْلاميّةِ في إعَادَةِ تَفْسِيرِ القُرْآنِ وفق شُرُوطٍ عَصْريَّةٍ، في مدارِ ما يمكنُ الاصطلاحُ عليه بـــ "التّفسير العقلاني"، وتعني العَقْلَنَةُ، في هذا المقام، إخْراجَ تَفْسِيرِ القرآنِ، وأشكالِ فهمه وتلقّيهِ، من دوائر الأسْطَرةِ التي غلّفتهُ لردحٍ طويل من الزّمنِ، حَيْثُ بلغتْ العَقْلَنَةُ ذروةَ نشاطها معَ بعضٍ من أَعْلَام الفكر الإصلاحيِّ، خاصَّةً معَ محمّد عبده. لكنّ، هذه المحاولة الإصلاحيّة، سرعان ما انكفتْ على أعقابها، وَوَلَجَتْ (...) طَريقاً ضَيِّقاً بفعلِ أزماتٍ متتاليّةٍ واجهها العربُ والمسلمون. تَسْعَى هَذِهِ الدِّرَاسَةُ إلى بَيَانِ مَدْلُولِ الإصلاحِ المتَعَلِّقِ بإعَادَةِ قراءة النّص القرآنيِّ، في مستوييه الاجتماعيّ واللّغويّ. والحديثُ عنْ هَذا الشكلِ من الإصلاح هو حديثٌ عن لحظةٍ قاومَتْ فيها قيمُ التَّنوير ضروب التّقليدِ. غير أنَّ استئناف هذا المشروعِ الإصلاحيِّ، قد أمسى من الضّروراتِ، التي لا حِوَلَ عنها من أجلِ الانتقال إلى طور الحداثة. The Qur’anic text received abundant attention and authorship throughout the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. Islamic Reform attempt to re-interpret the Qur'an in accordance with modern conditions, in the orbit of what may be termed a "rational interpretation", we mean by "rationalization" , in this place, the results of the Qur'anic interpretations, forms understood and receives, from circles of mythologizing that wrap it up a long of time, where Reasoning reached the height of its activity with some of the reformist thinkers, especially with Mohamed Abduh. However, this attempt of reform ended in its wake, entering a narrow road due to successive crises faced by Arabs and Muslims This study seeks to clarify the meaning of reform related to re-reading the Qur’anic text, on two levels social and linguistic. The discussion about this form of reform is about a moment when the values of the Enlightenment resisted the sorts of tradition. However, the resumption of this reform project has become an indispensable necessity for the transition to modernity. (shrink)
What we know of Mohamed Atta has become paradigmatic for the new breed of Islamic neo-fundamentalist terrorists. Before coming to the United States to organize and prepare the attack on civilians in New York and Washington, Atta was a student of urban planning at the Technical University of Hamburg–Harburg, situated in a suburb of the notably liberal and tolerant German port city of Hamburg. It was there that the young Egyptian completed a Masters in Urban Planning with a thesis (...) in which he assails the corrupting influence of modern, Western architecture, particularly skyscrapers. It was also there, in a tiny.. (shrink)
Modern biomedical technologies managed to revolutionise the End-of-Life Care in many aspects. The dying process can now be "engineered" by managing the accompanying physical symptoms or by "prolonging/hastening" death itself. Such interventions questioned and problematised long-established understandings of key moral concepts, such as good life, quality of life, pain, suffering, good death, appropriate death, dying well, etc. This volume examines how multifaceted EoLC moral questions can be addressed from interdisciplinary perspectives within the Islamic tradition. Contributors Amir Abbas Alizamani, Beate Anam, (...) Hamed Arezaei, Asma Asadi, Pieter Coppens, Hans Daiber, Khalid Elzamzamy, Mohammed Ghaly, Hadil Lababidi, Shahaboddin Mahdavi, Aasim Padela, Rafaqat Rashid and Ayman Shabana. (shrink)
يصْدُرُ موسى ابن ميمون (Moïse Maïmonide) (1204 – 1138م) في مؤلّفه ''دَلَالةُ الحَائِرين'' عن رؤيةٍ نقديّةٍ؛ إذ همَّ إلى الأنظار المُكْتَسبة والتقليديّة حول التوراة، وقام بمراجعتها، محاولاً بناء معرفة منطقية عقلية لا تنفي النصّ المقدس وإنما تقرأه في ضوء نظرةٍ فلسفيةٍ ذات راهنية. وما دعاهُ إلى مثل ذلك، هو تتبع واقع النصّ المقدّس على عصره، وما آل إليه واقع التّفسير. إنّ قراءة، أبواب الكتاب وحروفه التي قسّمها إلى ثلاثة أقسام حسب ما ثقفت؛ العنصر الأول، وهو يناقش مفهوم الله الذي أشْكَلَ (...) على الفلاسفة وعلى رجال الدين، فما اتّفِقَ حوله قط، خصوصا في ما يتعلق بخصائص الذات وعلاقتها بالصّفات، مفهوم العالم وفيه مؤاخذات ومواقف كثيرة، لا يكاد يحدُّها حصرٌ، حيثُ أدْرَجَ ابن ميمون هذه المسألة بذكاء حادّ وفطنة يقظة، ليدافع عن فكرة حدوث العالم، و في الأخير مفهوم الإنسان. Maimonides, in his book “Guide for The Perplexed”, produces a critical vision. He has attributed to traditional views of the Torah and reviewed them, attempting to build a rational logical knowledge that does not deny the Torah but reads it in the light of a current philosophical view. What he called for, is to follow the reality of the Sacred texts on his time, and the reality of interpretation. Reading, the doors and letters of the book which he divided into three sections according to what I have learned; the first element, is the concept of God, which cause a problem for philosophers and theologians, what has never been agreed upon, especially with regard to the characteristics of the Godself and its relationship to qualities. the second concept is the World; many attitudes listed this question with sharp intelligence and vigilance, discussing the idea of the “Eternity World”, and at last the concept of Man. (shrink)
لا تجدُ الكتبُ المقدّسة واقعيتها إلا حينما تخرج من دائرة الكتابة والمدوّن والطقوسية المغلقة، والمغلّفة بهالة من القدسيّة التي لا يكاد المرء معها أن ينفذ إلى المعاني والمقاصد الحقيقية للنصّ، نحو أفق القراءة المتجددة، وبالتالي سنجدُ أنفسنا أمام نصّ متجدّد لا ينضب معينه. تحقّق الوعي بمسألة العلاقة بين جمود النصّ وفاعلية القراءة في ظل الجدل الذي قام بين الدينيّ والسياسيّ، لحظة حمي الصّراع حول المعنى واقتيدت المعارك تحت ألوية تأويل القرآن، ''فالدين -أيُّ دين- نصوصٌ صامتة بين دفَّتين (= كالقرآن في (...) وصفٍ شهيرٍ للإمام عليّ بن أبي طالب)، والرّجال هُمْ مَن يُنطِقون تلك النصوص على نحوٍ من الأنحاء وتبعاً للمصالح التي تحملهم على إنطاقها على هذا المقتضى أو ذاك (...) يسعُنا أن نحسب المعركة هذه -وهي ممتدة منذ فجر الإسلام- معركة تأويل. وهي كذلك، لأن النصوص ليست ناطقة بذاتها، مثلما قلنا، وإنما محمولة على معانٍ ومضامين يقرّرها المؤوِّلون. (shrink)
Mohammed Arkoun is one of the Muslim world's foremost thinkers. His efforts to liberate Islamic history from dogmatic constructs have led him to a radical review of traditional history. Drawing on a combination of pertinent disciplines ? history, sociology, psychology and anthropology ? his approach subjects every system of belief and non-belief, every tradition of exegesis, theology and jurisprudence to a critique aimed at liberating reason from the grip of dogmatic postulates. By treating Islam as a religion as well as (...) a time-honoured tradition of thought, Arkoun's work aims at overcoming the limitations of descriptive, narrative and chronological modes in history by recommending that the entire development of Islamic thought ? from Quranic to present-day fundamentalist discourses ? be subjected to a critical analysis guided by these categories. The expected outcome of such a strategy is an emancipated political reason working hand in hand with a truly creative imagination for a radical re-construction of mind and society in the contemporary Muslim world. (shrink)
Elle s'efforce d'abord de reconstruire et de restituer, en la systématisant, la sociologie wébérienne du paradoxe des conséquences à partir des éléments dispersés dans l'œuvre du maître de la sociologie allemande.
This volume examines whether the Arab Uprisings introduce a replica of the European Enlightenment or rather stimulate an Arab/Islamic Awakening with its own cultural specificity and political philosophy. By placing Immanuel Kant in Tahrir Square, Cairo, this book adopts a comparative analysis of two enlightenment projects: one Arab, still under construction, with possible progression toward modernity or regression toward neo-authoritarianism, and one European, shaped by the past two centuries.
Much empirical analysis and econometric work recognizes that there are nonlinearities, regime shifts or structural breaks, asymmetric adjustment costs, irreversibilities and lagged dependencies. Hence, empirical work has already transcended neoclassical economics. Some progress has also been made in modeling endogenously generated cyclical growth and fluctuations. All this is inconsistent with neoclassical general equilibrium. Hence there is growing evidence of Kuhnian anomalies. It therefore follows that there is a Kuhnian crisis in economics and further research in nonlinear dynamics and complexity can (...) only increase the Kuhnian anomalies. This crisis can only deepen. However, there is an ideological commitment to general equilibrium that justifies “free enterprise” with only minimal state intervention that may still sustain neoclassical economics despite the growing evidence of Kuhnian anomalies. Thus, orthodox textbook theory continues to ignore this fact and static neoclassical theory remains a dogma with no apparent reformulation to replace it. (shrink)
Muhammad Abed Al-Jabri is a famous philosophical and scientific figure in contemporary Arab thought. He is the author of the philosophy of "the Arab mind" and "the criticism of the Arab mind." He tried to establish his theory of looking at the ancient Arab heritage and modern Arab thought. He also tried to view them according to the critical vision criteria, which he laid the methodological foundations for in his essential philosophical writings, especially in the critique of the Arab mind (...) trilogy. In this study, I seek to analyze and study various aspects of his analytical and critical approach towards Al-Ghazali and his theoretical creativity. As well as revealing the specificity of his position on the intellectual path of Al-Ghazali himself, based on the sequence of his books, Al-Jabri considered Al-Ghazali's personality as a large and complex problem, so that It is challenging to define entirely and accurately. However, this does not exclude him from the possibility of defining the criteria of science in general and philosophy in particular. In this research, I tried to reveal that the position of Al-Jabri himself represents in some sense the continuation of the problematic and complexity of Al-Ghazali himself. Al-Jabri raised more problems than the answer to them. And the controversy remains and is getting stronger. The research into the personality and works of Al-Ghazali seems to have been and will remain for a long time due to the problematic character of Al-Ghazali himself, the diversity and differences of his intellectual, creative writing, and his tortuous nature. Hence, this study constitutes a contribution in this field. (shrink)
Die Reihe Islamkundliche Untersuchungen wurde 1969 im Klaus Schwarz Verlag begründet und hat sich zu einem der wichtigsten Publikationsorgane der Islamwissenschaft in Deutschland entwickelt. Die über 330 Bände widmen sich der Geschichte, Kultur und den Gesellschaften Nordafrikas, des Nahen und Mittleren Ostens sowie Zentral-, Süd- und Südost-Asiens.
Cet article apporte des arguments supplémentaires en faveur de l’hypothèse tête-complément dans les racines verbales en tachelhit. Initialement proposée pour rendre compte de la distribution des consonnes dans les racines trilitères ainsi que de la gémination au thème de l’inaccompli, cette hypothèse stipule que les racines contenant une suite obstruante-sonante possèdent une structure hiérarchique binaire où l’obstruante est la tête de la racine et la sonante son complément. Pour justifier le rôle de tête des consonnes obstruantes, cet article évoque le (...) principe de complexité. Dans le cadre de la théorie des éléments, les consonnes obstruantes sont considérées comme plus complexes que les sonantes ; la complexité étant mesurée en termes du nombre d’éléments qui constituent le segment : plus le segment contient d’éléments, plus il est complexe. Dans les cas où la complexité s’avère insuffisante, il est proposé que les consonnes dont la tête est occupée par l’élément |ʔ| ou |h| sont plus fortes que les autres. (shrink)
Death is the opposite not of life, but of power. And as such, Mohammed Bamyeh argues in this original work, death has had a great and largely unexplored impact on the thinking of governance throughout history, right down to our day. In Of Death and Dominion Bamyeh pursues the idea that a deep concern with death is, in fact, the basis of the ideological foundations of all political systems. Concentrating on four types of political systems—polis, empire, theocracy, and modern mass (...) society systems—Bamyeh shows how each follows a specific strategy designed to pit power against the equalizing specter of death. Each of these strategies—consolation, expansion, preparation, and repression—produces a certain style of political behavior, as well as particular psychic traumas. In making his argument, Bamyeh revisits a wide range of empirical and theoretical discussions in existentialist philosophy, psychoanalysis, comparative historical sociology, literary studies, and anthropology. By demonstrating how schemes of power are by definition also schemes for defying death—despite their claims to the contrary—his book encourages us to think of a new style of politics, one oriented toward life. (shrink)
Lifeworlds of Islam shows that Islam has typically operated not in the form of standard dogmas, but more often as a compass for practical individual orientations or lifeworlds. Mohammed Bamyeh develops a sociology of Islam that maps out how Muslims have employed the faith to foster global networks, public philosophies, and engaged civic lives both historically and in the present.
The enlarging domain of psychiatric intervention is frequently associated with the undue medicalization of unusual experiences. In such a climate, it becomes of utmost importance to carefully choose appropriate candidates for the psychiatric gaze. This suggests a need to draw a distinction between religious experiences (with psychotic form) and pathological psychotic experiences. As Jackson and Fulford (1997) maintain, “spiritual experiences, whether welcome or unwelcome, and whether or not they are psychotic in form, have nothing (directly) to do with medicine. It (...) would be quite wrong, then, to “treat” spiritual psychotic experiences with neuroleptic drugs, just as it is quite wrong to “treat” political .. (shrink)
Madness is a complex and contested term. Through time and across cultures it has acquired many formulations: for some, madness is synonymous with unreason and violence, for others with creativity and subversion, elsewhere it is associated with spirits and spirituality. Among the different formulations, there is one in particular that has taken hold so deeply and systematically that it has become the default view in many communities around the world: the idea that madness is a disorder of the mind. -/- (...) Contemporary developments in mental health activism pose a radical challenge to psychiatric and societal understandings of madness. Mad Pride and mad-positive activism reject the language of mental 'illness' and 'disorder', reclaim the term 'mad', and reverse its negative connotations. Activists seek cultural change in the way madness is viewed, and demand recognition of madness as grounds for identity. But can madness constitute such grounds? Is it possible to reconcile delusions, passivity phenomena, and the discontinuity of self often seen in mental health conditions with the requirements for identity formation presupposed by the theory of recognition? How should society respond? -/- Guided by these questions, this book is the first comprehensive philosophical examination of the claims and demands of Mad activism. Locating itself in the philosophy of psychiatry, Mad studies, and activist literatures, the book develops a rich theoretical framework for understanding, justifying, and responding to Mad activism's demand for recognition. (shrink)
The term takyīf fiqhī stands for one crucial concept in Islamic jurisprudence and refers to one of the important steps in the process of formulating fatwā. It basically revolves around the categorization of particular issues under the appropriate rules and precedents established in Islamic juristic thought. The present article attempts to examine the concept of takyīf fiqhī in a comprehensive manner in terms of its meaning, authority, types, importance, and governing criteria as can be gleaned from the works of Sharī‘ah (...) scholars. This is then followed by an exploration of its application to modern contracts, taking as a case study the Central Provident Fund Nomination in Singapore. The article concludes with the view that the Central Provident Fund Nomination, in terms of its essential characteristics and objective, resembles the Islamic will contract as discussed in books of Islamic Jurisprudence. (shrink)
Averroes, según el autor, argumenta en defensa de la unidad de la verdad y de la razón, tanto en la filosofía como en la religión. Para probarla, primero traslada una de las dos verdades y razones a la otra por medio de la interpretación demostrativa. En segundo lugar, aleja la filosofía de las desviaciones teológica, el llamado Kalam, y sufí. Finalmente, liberada la filosofía del sufismo y del Kalam, Averroes persigue el objetivo del la filosofía como ser en sus tres (...) niveles (sustancia, movimiento, relación), y como causalidad. (shrink)
_The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam_ is Muhammad Iqbal's major philosophic work: a series of profound reflections on the perennial conflict among science, religion, and philosophy, culminating in new visions of the unity of human knowledge, of the human spirit, and of God. Iqbal's thought contributed significantly to the establishment of Pakistan, to the religious and political ideals of the Iranian Revolution, and to the survival of Muslim identity in parts of the former USSR. It now serves as new (...) bridge between East and West and between Islam and the other Religions of the Book. With a new Introduction by Javed Majeed, this edition of _The Reconstruction_ opens the teachings of Iqbal to the modern, Western reader. It will be essential reading for all those interested in Islamic intellectual history, the renewal of Islam in the modern world, and political theory of Islam's relationship to the West. (shrink)