Results for 'Moral Agent'

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  1. Prolegomena to Any Future Arti® Cial Moral Agent.Colin Allen & Gary Varner - unknown
    As arti® cial intelligence moves ever closer to the goal of producing fully autonomous agents, the question of how to design and implement an arti® cial moral agent (AMA) becomes increasingly pressing. Robots possessing autonomous capacities to do things that are useful to humans will also have the capacity to do things that are harmful to humans and other sentient beings. Theoretical challenges to developing arti® cial moral agents result both from controversies among ethicists about moral (...)
     
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  2. Artificial Agency, Consciousness, and the Criteria for Moral Agency: What Properties Must an Artificial Agent Have to Be a Moral Agent[REVIEW]Kenneth Einar Himma - 2009 - Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1):19-29.
    In this essay, I describe and explain the standard accounts of agency, natural agency, artificial agency, and moral agency, as well as articulate what are widely taken to be the criteria for moral agency, supporting the contention that this is the standard account with citations from such widely used and respected professional resources as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. I then flesh out the implications of some of these (...)
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  3.  19
    A Minimalist Model of the Artificial Autonomous Moral Agent (AAMA).Ioan Muntean & Don Howard - 2016 - In SSS-16 Symposium Technical Reports. Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. AAAI.
    This paper proposes a model for an artificial autonomous moral agent (AAMA), which is parsimonious in its ontology and minimal in its ethical assumptions. Starting from a set of moral data, this AAMA is able to learn and develop a form of moral competency. It resembles an “optimizing predictive mind,” which uses moral data (describing typical behavior of humans) and a set of dispositional traits to learn how to classify different actions (given a given background (...)
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  4.  32
    Introduction to the Special Issue on Machine Morality: The Machine as Moral Agent and Patient.David J. Gunkel & Joanna Bryson - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (1):5-8.
    One of the enduring concerns of moral philosophy is deciding who or what is deserving of ethical consideration. This special issue of Philosophy and Technology investigates whether and to what extent machines, of various designs and configurations, can or should be considered moral subjects, defined here as either a moral agent, a moral patient, or both. The articles that comprise the issue were competitively selected from papers initially prepared for and presented at a symposium on (...)
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  5.  53
    When is a Robot a Moral Agent.John P. Sullins - 2006 - International Review of Information Ethics 6 (12):23-30.
    In this paper Sullins argues that in certain circumstances robots can be seen as real moral agents. A distinction is made between persons and moral agents such that, it is not necessary for a robot to have personhood in order to be a moral agent. I detail three requirements for a robot to be seen as a moral agent. The first is achieved when the robot is significantly autonomous from any programmers or operators of (...)
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  6.  9
    The Student as Moral Agent.Robert Boostrom - 1998 - Journal of Moral Education 27 (2):179-190.
    Abstract This paper suggests that dissatisfaction with traditional teaching practices is fundamentally a moral complaint. Treating students as receptacles offends our sense of human dignity. We feel the need for students to be treated as moral agents. The paper explores the concept of moral agency by, first, looking at an episode of instruction from Plato's Meno, and then drawing from it three necessary elements of moral agency??choice, vision and an end?in?view. Choice is necessary because, to be (...)
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  7.  1
    Questioning the Idea of the Individual as an Autonomous Moral Agent.C. A. Bowers - 2012 - Journal of Moral Education 41 (3):301-310.
    This paper examines ways in which current moral values are influenced by earlier patterns of thinking carried forward in root metaphors whose meanings were often framed by the analogues settled upon in the past by thinkers who were influenced by the silences and prejudices of their culture. It is argued that such tacitly inherited metaphors reproduce the myth of the individual as a moral agent and that this both is ecologically unsustainable and undermines other important ways of (...)
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  8.  27
    Climate Change and the Moral Agent: Individual Duties in an Interdependent World.Elizabeth Cripps - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Climate Change and the Moral Agent examines the moral foundations of climate change and makes a case for collective action on climate change by appealing to moralized collective self-interest, collective ability to aid, and an expanded understanding of collective responsibility for harm.
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  9.  21
    What Makes Any Agent a Moral Agent? Reflections on Machine Consciousness and Moral Agency.Joel Parthemore & Blay Whitby - 2013 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 5 (2):105-129.
    In this paper, we take moral agency to be that context in which a particular agent can, appropriately, be held responsible for her actions and their consequences. In order to understand moral agency, we will discuss what it would take for an artifact to be a moral agent. For reasons that will become clear over the course of the paper, we take the artifactual question to be a useful way into discussion but ultimately misleading. We (...)
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  10.  83
    Two Portraits of the Humean Moral Agent.Kate Abramson - 2002 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 83 (4):301–334.
    Among contemporary ethicists, Hume is perhaps best known for his views about morality’s practical import and his spectator-centered account of moral evaluation. Yet according to the so-called “spectator complaint”, these two aspects of Hume’s moral theory cannot be reconciled with one another. I argue that the answer to the spectator complaint lies in Hume’s account of “goodness” and “greatness of mind”. Through a discussion of these two virtues, Hume makes clear the connection between his views about moral (...)
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  11.  12
    Kant, Nietzsche, and the Moral Agent.Thomas W. Bailey - unknown
    This thesis examines Kant's and Nietzsche's treatments of the moral agent. It argues for three broad conclusions. Firstly, it argues that, although Nietzsche's explicit criticisms of Kant's conception of the moral agent can be understood only in the context of Nietzsche's broader moral philosophy, neither these criticisms nor their context are well understood by the prevailing literature. The thesis thus engages with existing scholarship on the nature of Nietzsche's moral philosophy and with the scanty (...)
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  12. Mark Schroeder's Hypotheticalism: Agent-Neutrality, Moral Epistemology, and Methodology. [REVIEW]Tristram McPherson - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 157 (3):445-453.
    Symposium contribution on Mark Schroeder's Slaves of the Passions. Argues that Schroeder's account of agent-neutral reasons cannot be made to work, that the limited scope of his distinctive proposal in the epistemology of reasons undermines its plausibility, and that Schroeder faces an uncomfortable tension between the initial motivation for his view and the details of the view he develops.
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  13. Philosophical Foundations for Moral Education and Character Development Act and Agent.Frederick Edward Ellrod & George F. Mclean - 1992
     
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  14.  12
    Sentient Being, Moral Agent.Tom Kitwood - 1988 - Journal of Moral Education 17 (2):83-91.
    Abstract Thus far psychology has not been very successful in integrating the feelings and emotions into its account of the moral life. In part this may be because it has lacked a clear image of the person as a sentient being. Such an image is presented here, derived primarily from depth psychology and cognitive?developmentalism. The preconscious and unconscious ?levels? of psychic activity postulated by the former can be interpreted as the continuation of preoperational and more archaic forms of thinking, (...)
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  15.  6
    De Dicto Moral Desires and the Moral Sentiments: Adam Smith on the Role of De Dicto Moral Desires in the Virtuous Agent.Archer Alfred - 2016 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 33 (4):327-346.
    What role should a motivation to do the right thing, read de dicto, play in the life of a virtuous agent? According to a prominent argument from Michael Smith, those who are only motivated by such a desire are moral fetishists. Since Smith’s argument, a number of philosophers have examined what role this desire would play in the life of the morally virtuous agent. My primary aim in this paper is an historical one. I will show that (...)
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  16.  81
    Should We Consult Kant When Assessing Agent's Moral Responsibility for Harm?Friderik Klampfer - 2009 - Balkan Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):131-156.
    The paper focuses on the conditions under which an agent can be justifiably held responsible or liable for the harmful consequences of his or her actions. Kant has famously argued that as long as the agent fulfills his or her moral duty, he or she cannot be blamed for any potential harm that might result from his or her action, no matter how foreseeable these may (have) be(en). I call this the Duty-Absolves-Thesis or DA. I begin by (...)
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  17.  27
    The Reflexive Project: Reconstructing the Moral Agent.Alfred I. Tauber - 2005 - History of the Human Sciences 18 (4):49-75.
    In the 17th century, ‘reflexivity’ was coined as a new term for introspection and self-awareness. It thus was poised to serve the instrumental function of combating skepticism by asserting a knowing self. In this Cartesian paradigm, introspection ends in an entity of self-identity. An alternate interpretation recognized how an infinite regress of reflexivity would render ‘the self’ elusive, if not unknowable. Reflexivity in this latter mode was rediscovered by post-Kantian philosophers, most notably Hegel, who defined the self in its self-reflective (...)
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  18.  6
    The Teacher As Moral Agent.Trygve Bergem - 1990 - Journal of Moral Education 19 (2):88-100.
    Abstract The article addresses the question of the teacher's role. Should teachers perceive themselves as being role?models for their students? In this study reported responses from 65 prospective teachers in six colleges of education in Norway were analyzed. The respondents were randomly drawn from a sample of 286 college students who took part in a longitudinal study investigating the development of professional perspectives and behaviour in prospective teachers. The data discussed here were collected by the use of semi?structured interviews which (...)
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  19.  6
    The International Community as Moral Agent.Karen Kovach - 2003 - Journal of Military Ethics 2 (2):99-106.
    In this paper, I propose a deliberative model of the concept of the international community. The international community is a community of the world's people, peoples, and states insofar as they take themselves to be part of a potentially universal agency. I suggest that we distinguish the possibility that a more 'concrete' agent represents the international community from the practice that states, organizations, and individuals engage in of offering claims about the beliefs and attitudes of the international community in (...)
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  20.  36
    Ethical Autonomism. The Work of Art as a Moral Agent.Rob van Gerwen - 2004 - Contemporary Aesthetics 2.
    Much contemporary art seems morally out of control. Yet, philosophers seem to have trouble finding the right way to morally evaluate works of art. The debate between autonomists and moralists, I argue, has turned into a stalemate due to two mistaken assumptions. Against these assumptions, I argue that the moral nature of a work's contents does not transfer to the work and that, if we are to morally evaluate works we should try to conceive of them as moral (...)
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  21.  16
    The Ethical Principles for the Development of Artificial Moral Agent - Focusing on the Top-Down Approach -. 최현철, 신현주 & 변순용 - 2016 - Journal of Ethics 1 (111):31-53.
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  22. Being a Moral Agent in Shakespeare's Vienna.Robert B. Pierce - 2009 - Philosophy and Literature 33 (2):pp. 267-279.
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  23. Reproductive Cloning, Genetic Engineering and the Autonomy of the Child: The Moral Agent and the Open Future.Matteo Mameli - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (2):87-93.
    Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to the second (...)
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  24.  23
    The Modern Corporation as Moral Agent.Kendy M. Hess - 2010 - Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):61-69.
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  25.  38
    The Psychopath as Moral Agent.Robert J. Smith - 1984 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 45 (2):177-193.
  26.  25
    Learning to Be a Moral Agent.William A. Rottschaeffer - 1986 - The Personalist Forum 2 (2):122-142.
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  27.  96
    Reproductive Cloning, Genetic Engineering and the Autonomy of the Child: The Moral Agent and the Open Future.Michael Blome-Tillman - manuscript
  28.  25
    When is Any Agent a Moral Agent?: Reflections on Machine Consciousness and Moral Agency.Whitby Blay - 2013 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 5 (1).
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  29.  56
    A New Moral Agent: The Patient Advocate.Ana Smith Iltis - 2002 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (6):699 – 701.
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  30.  3
    Climate Change and the Moral Agent: Individual Duties in an Interdependent World. [REVIEW]Corey Katz - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (3):366-369.
  31.  42
    Gewirth's Rationalism: Who is a Moral Agent?Stephen Cohen - 1979 - Ethics 89 (2):179-190.
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  32.  1
    The Modern Corporation as Moral Agent: The Capacity for “Thought” and a “First-Person Perspective”.Kendy M. Hess - 2010 - Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):61-69.
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  33.  10
    The Heart of the Kantian Moral Agent.A. T. Nuyen - 1995 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 69 (1):51-62.
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  34.  17
    The Perioperative Nurse's Role as Moral Agent.Patricia C. Seifert - 1997 - HEC Forum 9 (1):36-49.
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  35.  23
    The Authority of the Moral Agent.Conrad D. Johnson - 1985 - Journal of Philosophy 82 (8):391-413.
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  36.  1
    Acting from the Motive of Duty and the Incorruptible Ideal Moral Agent.Margit Ruffing, Guido A. De Almeida, Ricardo R. Terra & Valerio Rohden - 2008 - In Margit Ruffing, Guido A. De Almeida, Ricardo R. Terra & Valerio Rohden (eds.), Recht Und Frieden in der Philosophie Kantslaw and Peace in Kant’s Philosophy: Akten des X. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Walter de Gruyter.
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  37.  2
    The Authority of the Moral Agent.Conrad D. Johnson - 1985 - Journal of Philosophy 82 (8):391.
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  38.  6
    The Attorney as Moral Agent: A Critique of Cohen.John M. Memory & Charles H. Rose - 2002 - Criminal Justice Ethics 21 (1):28-39.
  39.  9
    The Random Collective as a Moral Agent.Rita Manning - 1985 - Social Theory and Practice 11 (1):97-105.
  40.  3
    Elizabeth Cripps: Climate Change and the Moral Agent: Individual Duties in an Interdependent World.Christopher Groves - 2015 - Environmental Ethics 37 (2):247-248.
  41.  11
    The Neurotic as Moral Agent.Berel Lang - 1968 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 29 (2):216-231.
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  42.  11
    On the Alleged Freedom of the Moral Agent.Andrea Nye - 1983 - Journal of Value Inquiry 17 (1):17-32.
  43.  3
    The Attorney as Moral Agent: A Critique of Cohen.John M. Memory & I. I. I. Charles H. Rose - 2002 - Criminal Justice Ethics 21 (1):28-39.
  44.  1
    The Moral Agent.Bernard Mayo - 1968 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 1:47-63.
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  45. Information, Ethics, and Computers. The Problem of Autonomous Moral Agent.C. B. Cartesin-Stahl - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14:67-83.
     
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  46. Democracy and the Autonomous Moral Agent.Keith Graham - 1982 - In Contemporary Political Philosophy: Radical Studies. Cambridge University Press.
  47. Aquinas and the Moral Agent.Matthew J. Kelly - 1982 - The Thomist 46 (2):307.
     
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  48. The Random Collective as a Moral Agent.Rita Manning - 1985 - Social Theory and Practice 11 (1):97-105.
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  49. Observations in Defence of the Liberty of Man, as a Moral Agent: In Answer to Dr. Priestley's Illustrations of Philosophical Necessity.John Palmer - 1779
     
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  50. Man as a Moral Agent in Aristotle.Mårten Ringbom - 2002 - Societas Philosophica Fennica.
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