Results for 'Mtc Shafer'

302 found
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  1.  16
    Between Mediation and Critique: Quaker Nonviolence in Apartheid Cape Town, 1976–1990.Mtc Shafer - 2017 - European Journal of Political Theory 19 (4):593-613.
    In the final years of legal apartheid, the small community of Quakers in Cape Town, South Africa sought to apply their tradition of political and theological nonviolence to the systematic injustice...
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  2. Moral Realism: A Defence.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    Moral Realism is a systematic defence of the idea that there are objective moral standards. Russ Shafer-Landau argues that there are moral principles that are true independently of what anyone, anywhere, happens to think of them. His central thesis, as well as the many novel supporting arguments used to defend it, will spark much controversy among those concerned with the foundations of ethics.
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  3. Does Shafer-Landau Have a Problem with Supervenience? [REVIEW]Robert Mabrito - 2005 - Philosophical Studies 126 (2):297 - 311.
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  4.  19
    Machiavellianism, Stakeholder Orientation, and Support for Sustainability Reporting.William E. Shafer & Lorenzo Lucianetti - 2018 - Business Ethics: A European Review 27 (3):272-285.
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  5. The Moral Fixed Points: New Directions for Moral Nonnaturalism.Terence Cuneo & Russ Shafer-Landau - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 171 (3):399-443.
    Our project in this essay is to showcase nonnaturalistic moral realism’s resources for responding to metaphysical and epistemological objections by taking the view in some new directions. The central thesis we will argue for is that there is a battery of substantive moral propositions that are also nonnaturalistic conceptual truths. We call these propositions the moral fixed points. We will argue that they must find a place in any system of moral norms that applies to beings like us, in worlds (...)
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  6. A Betting Interpretation for Probabilities and Dempster-Shafer Degrees of Belief.Glenn Shafer - 2010 - International Journal of Approximate Reasoning.
  7.  6
    A Mathematical Theory of Evidence.Glenn Shafer - 1976 - Princeton University Press.
    Degrees of belief; Dempster's rule of combination; Simple and separable support functions; The weights of evidence; Compatible frames of discernment; Support functions; The discernment of evidence; Quasi support functions; Consonance; Statistical evidence; The dual nature of probable reasoning.
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  8. Trusting Moral Intuitions.John Bengson, Terence Cuneo & Russ Shafer‐Landau - 2020 - Noûs (4):956-984.
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  9. Supervenience and Moral Realism.Russ Shafer-Landau - 1994 - Ratio 7 (2):145-152.
  10. Evolutionary Debunking, Moral Realism and Moral Knowledge.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2012 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 7 (1):1-38.
    This paper reconstructs what I take to be the central evolutionary debunking argument that underlies recent critiques of moral realism. The argument claims that given the extent of evolutionary influence on our moral faculties, and assuming the truth of moral realism, it would be a massive coincidence were our moral faculties reliable ones. Given this coincidence, any presumptive warrant enjoyed by our moral beliefs is defeated. So if moral realism is true, then we can have no warranted moral beliefs, and (...)
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  11.  77
    A Multidimensional Analysis of Tax Practitioners' Ethical Judgments.Cheryl A. Cruz, William E. Shafer & Jerry R. Strawser - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 24 (3):223 - 244.
    This study investigates professional tax practitioners' ethical judgments and behavioral intentions in cases involving client pressure to adopt aggressive reporting positions, an issue that has been identified as the most difficult ethical/moral problem facing public accounting practitioners. The multidimensional ethics scale (MES) was used to measure the extent to which a hypothetical behavior was consistent with five ethical philosophies (moral equity, contractualism, utilitarianism, relativism, and egoism). Responses from a sample of 67 tax professionals supported the existence of all dimensions of (...)
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  12.  82
    The Fundamentals of Ethics.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    Introduction -- Part I: The good life -- Hedonism : its powerful appeal -- Is happiness all that matters? -- Getting what you want -- Problems for the desire theory -- Part II: Doing the right thing -- Morality and religion -- Natural law theory -- Psychological egoism -- Ethical egoism -- Consequentialism : its nature and attractions -- Consequentialism : its difficulties -- The kantian perspective : fairness and justice -- The kantian perspective : autonomy and respect -- The (...)
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  13. Method in the Service of Progress.John Bengson, Terence Cuneo & Russ Shafer-Landau - 2019 - Analytic Philosophy 60 (3):179-205.
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  14.  39
    Oxford Studies in Metaethics: Volume 1.Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.) - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    The contents of the inaugural volume of Oxford Studies in Metaethics nicely mirror the variety of issues that make this area of philosophy so interesting. The volume opens with Peter Railton's exploration of some central features of normative guidance, the mental states that underwrite it, and its relationship to our reasons for feeling and acting. In the next offering, Terence Cuneo takes up the case against expressivism, arguing that its central account of the nature of moral judgments is badly mistaken. (...)
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  15. Ethics as Philosophy : A Defense of Ethical Nonnaturalism.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2006 - In Terry Horgan & Mark Timmons (eds.), Metaethics After Moore. Oxford University Press.
     
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  16.  24
    Whatever Happened to Good and Evil?Russ Shafer-Landau - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    Since September 11, 2001, many people in the United States have been more inclined to use the language of good and evil, and to be more comfortable with the idea that certain moral standards are objective (true independently of what anyone happens to think of them). Some people, especially those who are not religious, are not sure how to substantiate this view. Whatever Happened to Good and Evil? provides a basis for exploring these doubts and ultimately defends the objectivity of (...)
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  17.  2
    The Art of Causal Conjecture.Glenn Shafer - 1996 - MIT Press.
    THE ART OF CAUSAL CONJECTURE Glenn Shafer Table of Contents Chapter 1. Introduction........................................................................................ ...........1 1.1. Probability Trees..........................................................................................3 1.2. Many Observers, Many Stances, Many Natures..........................................8 1.3. Causal Relations as Relations in Nature’s Tree...........................................9 1.4. Evidence............................................................................................ ...........13 1.5. Measuring the Average Effect of a Cause....................................................17 1.6. Causal Diagrams..........................................................................................20 1.7. Humean Events............................................................................................23 1.8. Three Levels of Causal Language................................................................27 1.9. An Outline of the Book................................................................................27 Chapter 2. Event Trees............................................................................................... .....31 2.1. Situations and Events...................................................................................32 2.2. The Ordering of Situations and Moivrean Events.......................................35 2.3. Cuts................................................................................................ ..............39 2.4. Humean Events............................................................................................43 (...)
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  18.  79
    Values and the Perceived Importance of Ethics and Social Responsibility: The U.S. Versus China.William E. Shafer, Kyoko Fukukawa & Grace Meina Lee - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 70 (3):265-284.
    This study examines the effects of nationality (U.S. vs. China) and personal values on managers’ responses to the Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility (PRESOR) scale. Evidence that China’s transition to a socialist market economy has led to widespread business corruption, led us to hypothesize that People’s Republic of China (PRC) managers would believe less strongly in the importance of ethical and socially responsible business conduct. We also hypothesized that after controlling for national differences, managers’ personal values (more specifically, (...)
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  19.  2
    Shafer on Conditional Probability.Bas C. Van Fraassen - 1983 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 12 (4):467-470.
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  20. A Defence of Categorical Reasons.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2009 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 109 (1pt2):189-206.
    In this paper I offer two arguments designed to defend the existence of categorical reasons, which I define as those justifying considerations that obtain independently of their relation to an agent's commitments. The first argument is based on certain paradigm cases meant to reveal difficulties for practical instrumentalism—the view, as I define it here, that categorical reasons do not exist, because all reasons must serve the commitments of the agents to whom they apply. The second argument relies on considerations of (...)
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  21.  11
    Effects of a Business Ethics Elective on Hong Kong Undergraduates’ Attitudes Toward Corporate Ethics and Social Responsibility.Richard Simmons, William Shafer & Robin Snell - 2013 - Business and Society 52 (4):558-591.
    This study examines the effect of a business ethics course on undergraduates’ attitudes toward the importance of corporate ethics and social responsibility, as measured by the PRESOR scale. It employs a survey approach, adopting a pretest/posttest methodology in the data collection. A total of 132 undergraduate students were surveyed over a period of four semesters during 2006 and 2007. To test the effects of individual personality characteristics and examine their potential interaction with ethical education, participants’ personal values and degree of (...)
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  22. Modeling Partially Reliable Information Sources: A General Approach Based on Dempster-Shafer Theory.Stephan Hartmann & Rolf Haenni - 2006 - Information Fusion 7:361-379.
    Combining testimonial reports from independent and partially reliable information sources is an important epistemological problem of uncertain reasoning. Within the framework of Dempster–Shafer theory, we propose a general model of partially reliable sources, which includes several previously known results as special cases. The paper reproduces these results on the basis of a comprehensive model taxonomy. This gives a number of new insights and thereby contributes to a better understanding of this important application of reasoning with uncertain and incomplete information.
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  23.  27
    Ethical Climate, Social Responsibility, and Earnings Management.William E. Shafer - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (1):43-60.
    This study proposes and tests a model of the relations among corporate accountants’ perceptions of the ethical climate in their organization, the perceived importance of corporate ethics and social responsibility, and earnings management decisions. Based on a field survey of professional accountants employed by private industry in Hong Kong, we found that perceptions of the organizational ethical climate were significantly associated with belief in the importance of corporate ethics and responsibility. Belief in the importance of ethics and social responsibility was (...)
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  24. Ethical Theory: An Anthology.Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.) - 2007 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Ethical Theory: An Anthology_ is an authoritative collection of key essays by top scholars in the field, addressing core issues including consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics, as well as traditionally underrepresented topics such as moral knowledge and moral responsibility. Brings together seventy-six classic and contemporary pieces by renowned philosophers, from classic writing by Hume and Kant to contemporary writing by Derek Parfit, Susan Wolf, and Judith Jarvis Thomson Guides students through key areas in the field, among them consequentialism, deontology, contractarianism, (...)
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  25. Ethical Disagreement, Ethical Objectivism and Moral Indeterminacy.Russ Shafer-Landau - 1994 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 54 (2):331-344.
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  26. A Defense of Motivational Externalism.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2000 - Philosophical Studies 97 (3):267-291.
  27. Moral Rules.Russ Shafer-Landau - 1997 - Ethics 107 (4):584-611.
    The traditional conception of ethical theory sees it as the project of developing a coherent set of rules from which one can infer all determinate moral verdicts. I am not optimistic about the prospects for constructing such a theory. To explain this pessimism, we need to understand what moral rules are and what roles they might play in ethical theory.
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  28.  46
    Dempster-Shafer Functions as Metalinguistic Probability Functions.Branden Fitelson - manuscript
    Let Ln be a sentential language with n atomic sentences {A1, . . . , An}. Let Sn = {s1, . . . , s2n} be the set of 2n state descriptions of Ln, in the following, canonical lexicographical truth-table order: State Description A1 A2 · · · An−1 An T T T T T s1 = A1 & A2 & · · · &An−1 & An T T T T F s1 = A1 & A2 & · · · (...)
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  29. Russ Shafer-Landau, Moral Realism. [REVIEW]Jason Kawall - 2005 - Review of Metaphysics 59 (1):204-205.
    A short review of Russ Shafer-Landau's Moral Realism: A Defence.
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  30. Vagueness, Borderline Cases and Moral Realism.Russ Shafer-Landau - 1995 - American Philosophical Quarterly 32 (1):83 - 96.
  31.  45
    Constructive Probability.Glenn Shafer - 1981 - Synthese 48 (1):1-60.
  32.  60
    Rape and Respect.Marilyn Frye & Carolyn M. Shafer - 1977 - In Mary Vetterling-Braggin, Fredrick Elliston & Jane English (eds.), Feminism and Philosophy. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 333-346.
  33. Three Problems for Schroeder’s Hypotheticalism. [REVIEW]Russ Shafer-Landau - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 157 (3):435-443.
    Three problems for Schroeder’s Humean theory of reasons.
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  34. Moral and Theological Realism: The Explanatory Argument.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2007 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 4 (3):311-329.
    There are striking parallels, largely unexplored in the literature, between skeptical arguments against theism and against moral realism. After sketching four arguments meant to do this double duty, I restrict my attention to an explanatory argument that claims that we have most reason to deny the existence of moral facts (and so, by extrapolation, theistic ones), because such putative facts have no causal-explanatory power. I reject the proposed parity, and offer reasons to think that the potential vulnerabilities of moral realism (...)
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  35. Vegetarianism, Causation and Ethical Theory.Russ Shafer-Landau - 1994 - Public Affairs Quarterly 8 (1):85-100.
  36.  49
    Values and Attitudes Toward Social and Environmental Accountability: A Study of MBA Students.Kyoko Fukukawa, William E. Shafer & Grace Meina Lee - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 71 (4):381-394.
    Efforts to promote corporate social and environmental accountability (SEA) should be informed by an understanding of stakeholders’ attitudes toward enhanced accountability standards. However, little is known about current attitudes on this subject, or the determinants of these attitudes. To address this issue, this study examines the relationship between personal values and support for social and environmental accountability for a sample of experienced MBA students. Exploratory factor analysis of the items comprising our measure of support for SEA revealed two distinct factors: (...)
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  37.  82
    Ethical Pressure, Organizational-Professional Conflict, and Related Work Outcomes Among Management Accountants.William E. Shafer - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 38 (3):263 - 275.
    This study examines the effects of ethical pressure on management accountants' perceptions of organizational-professional conflict, and related work outcomes. It was hypothesized that organizational pressure to engage in unethical behavior would increase perceived organizational-professional conflict, and that this perceived conflict would reduce organizational commitment and job satisfaction, and increase the likelihood of employee turnover. A survey was mailed to a random sample of Certified Management Accountants to assess perceptions of the relevant variables. The results of a structural equations model indicated (...)
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  38.  49
    Oxford Studies in Metaethics.Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.) - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    The essays included in the series provide an excellent basis for understanding recent developments in the field; those who would like to acquaint themselves ...
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  39. SHAFER-LANDAU, Russ (Ed). Ethical Theory: An Anthology. Second Edition. London, Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.Gabriel Garmendia da Trindade - 2017 - Pensando - Revista de Filosofia 8 (15):366.
    Shafer-Landau, Russ. Ethical Theory: An Anthology. Second Edition. London, Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.
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  40.  21
    Selected Poems.Mtc Cronin - 2001 - Cardozo Studies in Law and Literature 13 (1):137-155.
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  41. Ordinal Analysis of Partial Combinatory Algebras.Paul Shafer & Sebastiaan A. Terwijn - 2021 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 86 (3):1154-1188.
    For every partial combinatory algebra, we define a hierarchy of extensionality relations using ordinals. We investigate the closure ordinals of pca’s, i.e., the smallest ordinals where these relations become equal. We show that the closure ordinal of Kleene’s first model is ${\omega _1^{\textit {CK}}}$ and that the closure ordinal of Kleene’s second model is $\omega _1$. We calculate the exact complexities of the extensionality relations in Kleene’s first model, showing that they exhaust the hyperarithmetical hierarchy. We also discuss embeddings of (...)
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  42.  32
    Effects of Materiality, Risk, and Ethical Perceptions on Fraudulent Reporting by Financial Executives.William E. Shafer - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 38 (3):243 - 262.
    This paper examines fraudulent financial reporting within the context of Jones' (1991) ethical decision making model. It was hypothesized that quantitative materiality would influence judgments of the ethical acceptability of fraud, and that both materiality and financial risk would affect the likelihood of committing fraud. The results, based on a study of CPAs employed as senior executives, provide partial support for the hypotheses. Contrary to expectations, quantitative materiality did not influence ethical judgments. ANCOVA results based on participants' estimates of the (...)
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  43. Moral Judgement and Moral Motivation.Russ Shafer-Landau - 1998 - Philosophical Quarterly 48 (192):353-358.
    I criticize an important argument of Michael Smith, from his recent book The Moral Problem (Oxford: Blackwell, 1994). Smith's argument, if sound, would undermine one form of moral externalism 2013 that which insists that moral judgements only contingently motivate their authors. Smith claims that externalists must view good agents as always prompted by the motive of duty, and that possession of such a motive impugns the goodness of the agent. I argue (i) that externalists do not (ordinarily) need to assign (...)
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  44. Can Punishment Morally Educate?Russ Shafer-Landau - 1991 - Law and Philosophy 10 (2):189 - 219.
    Over the past ten years or so, there has been a renewed interest in the moral education theory of punishment. The attractions of the theory are numerous, not least of which is that it offers hopes for a breakthrough in the apparently intractable debate between deterrence theorists and retributivists. Nevertheless, I believe there are severe problems with recent formulations of the theory. First, contemporary educationists all place great emphasis on autonomy, yet fail to show how continued respect for autonomy is (...)
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  45.  19
    Machiavellianism, Social Norms, and Taxpayer Compliance.William E. Shafer & Zhihong Wang - 2018 - Business Ethics: A European Review 27 (1):42-55.
    This study is the first to examine the relationships among Machiavellianism, social norms and taxpayer intentions to fraudulently overstate their deductions. We theorize and empirically document that high Machiavellian taxpayers report significantly less ethical social norms, suggesting that reported social norms are influenced by cognitive biases such as social projection and Machiavellian cynicism; reported social norms are, in general, significantly associated with tax evasion intentions; social norms partially mediate the relationship between Machiavellianism and evasion intentions. Our findings imply that experimental (...)
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  46. The Failure of Retributivism.Russ Shafer-Landau - 1996 - Philosophical Studies 82 (3):289 - 316.
  47. Error Theory and the Possibility of Normative Ethics.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2005 - Philosophical Issues 15 (1):107-120.
  48. Reply to Shafer-Landau, Mcpherson, and Dancy. [REVIEW]Mark Schroeder - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 157 (3):463-474.
    Reply to Shafer-Landau, Mcpherson, and Dancy Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11098-010-9659-0 Authors Mark Schroeder, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA USA Journal Philosophical Studies Online ISSN 1573-0883 Print ISSN 0031-8116.
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  49. Shafer-Landau and Moral Realism.Christian Miller - 2006 - Social Theory and Practice 32 (2):311-331.
    In 1903 G.E. Moore celebrated a robust nonnaturalistic form of moral realism with the publication of his Principia Ethica. Subsequent years have witnessed the development and refinement of a number of views motivated at least in part by a deep resistance to the metaphysical and epistemological commitments of nonnaturalism. Over time, Moore’s view arguably has become the position of last resort for philosophers working in metaethics. Exactly one hundred years later, analytic metaethics has come full circle with the publication of (...)
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  50.  4
    The Duration of Auditory Sensory Memory for Vowel Processing: Neurophysiological and Behavioral Measures.Yan H. Yu, Valerie L. Shafer & Elyse S. Sussman - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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