We introduce a generalization of MV algebras motivated by the investigations into the structure of quantum logical gates. After laying down the foundations of the structure theory for such quasi-MV algebras, we show that every quasi-MV algebra is embeddable into the direct product of an MV algebra and a “flat” quasi-MV algebra, and prove a completeness result w.r.t. a standard quasi-MV algebra over the complex numbers.
This paper introduces a logical analysis of convex combinations within the framework of Łukasiewicz real-valued logic. This provides a natural link between the fields of many-valued logics and decision theory under uncertainty, where the notion of convexity plays a central role. We set out to explore such a link by defining convex operators on MV-algebras, which are the equivalent algebraic semantics of Łukasiewicz logic. This gives us a formal language to reason about the expected value of bounded random variables. As (...) an illustration of the applicability of our framework we present a logical version of the Anscombe–Aumann representation result. (shrink)
In this paper we define the hyper operations ⊗, ∨ and ∧ on a hyper MV -algebra and we obtain some related results. After that by considering the notions ofhyper MV -ideals and weak hyper MV -ideals, we prove some theorems. Then we determine relationships between hyper MV -ideals in a hyper MV -algebra and hyper K -ideals in a hyper K -algebra . Finally we give a characterization of hyper MV -algebras of order 3 or 4 based on the (...) hyper MV -ideals. (shrink)
In this paper we prove that the category of abelianl-groups is equivalent to the category of perfect MV-algebras. Furthermore, we give a finite equational axiomatization of the variety generated by perfect MV-algebras.
We introduce the notion of quantum MV algebra (QMV algebra) as a generalization of MV algebras and we show that the class of all effects of any Hilbert space gives rise to an example of such a structure. We investigate some properties of QMV algebras and we prove that QMV algebras represent non-idempotent extensions of orthomodular lattices.
In this paper we make an algebraic study of the variety of MV*-algebras introduced by C. C. Chang as an algebraic counterpart for a logic with positive and negative truth values.We build the algebraic theory of MV*-algebras within its own limits using a concept of ideal and of prime ideal that are very naturally related to the corresponding concepts in l-groups. The main results are a subdirect representation theorem, a completeness theorem, a study of simple and semisimple algebras, and a (...) characterization of the ideal of infinitesimals as an l-group. In the last section we develop a detailed proof a the one-dimensional theorem of McNaughton, that is, the free MV*-algebra in one generator is the algebra of McNaughton functions over [−1,1]. In contrast with the rest of the paper, this last result is based on work done for MV-algebras. (shrink)
We offer a proof of the duality theorem for finitely presented MV-algebras and rational polyhedra, a folklore and yet fundamental result. Our approach develops first a general dual adjunction between MV-algebras and subspaces of Tychonoff cubes, endowed with the transformations that are definable in the language of MV-algebras. We then show that this dual adjunction restricts to a duality between semisimple MV-algebras and closed subspaces of Tychonoff cubes. The duality theorem for finitely presented objects is obtained by a further specialisation. (...) Our treatment is aimed at showing exactly which parts of the basic theory of MV-algebras are needed in order to establish these results, with an eye towards future generalisations. (shrink)
We review the fact that an MV-algebra is the same thing as a lattice-ordered effect algebra in which disjoint elements are orthogonal. An HMV-algebra is an MV-effect algebra that is also a Heyting algebra and in which the Heyting center and the effect-algebra center coincide. We show that every effect algebra with the generalized comparability property is an HMV-algebra. We prove that, for an MV-effect algebra E, the following conditions are mutually equivalent: (i) E is HMV, (ii) E has a (...) center valued pseudocomplementation, (iii) E admits a central cover mapping γ such that, for all p, q∈E, p∧q=0⇒γ(p)∧q=0. (shrink)
The MV-algebra S m w is obtained from the (m+1)-valued ukasiewicz chain by adding infinitesimals, in the same way as Chang's algebra is obtained from the two-valued chain. These algebras were introduced by Komori in his study of varieties of MV-algebras. In this paper we describe the finitely generated totally ordered algebras in the variety MV m w generated by S m w . This yields an easy description of the free MV m w -algebras over one generator. We characterize (...) the automorphism groups of the free MV-algebras over finitely many generators. (shrink)
In this paper we extend Mundici’s functor Γ to the category of monadic MV-algebras. More precisely, we define monadic ℓ -groups and we establish a natural equivalence between the category of monadic MV-algebras and the category of monadic ℓ -groups with strong unit. Some applications are given thereof.
In “A new proof of the completeness of the Lukasiewicz axioms” Chang proved that any totally ordered MV-algebra A was isomorphic to the segment \}\) of a totally ordered l-group with strong unit A *. This was done by the simple intuitive idea of putting denumerable copies of A on top of each other. Moreover, he also show that any such group G can be recovered from its segment since \^*}\), establishing an equivalence of categories. In “Interpretation of AF C (...) *-algebras in Lukasiewicz sentential calculus” Mundici extended this result to arbitrary MV-algebras and l-groups with strong unit. He takes the representation of A as a sub-direct product of chains A i, and observes that \ where \. Then he let A * be the l-subgroup generated by A inside \. He proves that this idea works, and establish an equivalence of categories in a rather elaborate way by means of his concept of good sequences and its complicated arithmetics. In this note, essentially self-contained except for Chang’s result, we give a simple proof of this equivalence taking advantage directly of the arithmetics of the the product l-group \, avoiding entirely the notion of good sequence. (shrink)
In this article I elucidate a conception of small worlds, or ‘ontological’ contexts, within the curriculum that stand out and beyond the horizon of technological‐scientific reality, which might be linked with forgotten, marginal ways of being and thinking. As I attempt to demonstrate, it is possible that such ontological worlds apart from technology's ‘Enframing’ effect might inspire the type of meditative thinking in our classrooms that is consistent with Heidegger's notion of authentic worldly dwelling as it appears in the later (...) writings of the 1930s, or the ‘turn’. (shrink)
In this paper we characterize, classify and axiomatize all universal classes of MV-chains. Moreover, we accomplish analogous characterization, classification and axiomatization for congruence distributive quasivarieties of MV-algebras. Finally, we apply those results to study some finitary extensions of the Łukasiewicz infinite valued propositional calculus.
We investigate an expansion of quasi-MV algebras () by a genuine quantum unary operator. The variety of such quasi-MV algebras has a subquasivariety whose members—called cartesian—can be obtained in an appropriate way out of MV algebras. After showing that cartesian . quasi-MV algebras generate ,we prove a standard completeness theorem for w.r.t. an algebra over the complex numbers.
We define and study monadic MV-algebras as pairs of MV-algebras one of which is a special case of relatively complete subalgebra named m-relatively complete. An m-relatively complete subalgebra determines a unique monadic operator. A necessary and sufficient condition is given for a subalgebra to be m-relatively complete. A description of the free cyclic monadic MV-algebra is also given.
Pseudo MV-algebras are a non-commutative extension of MV-algebras introduced recently by Georgescu and Iorgulescu. We introduce states (finitely additive probability measures) on pseudo MV-algebras. We show that extremal states correspond to normal maximal ideals. We give an example in that, in contrast to classical MV-algebras introduced by Chang, states can fail on pseudo MV-algebras. We prove that representable and normal-valued pseudo MV-algebras admit at least one state.
In this paper we prove that the category of abelian l-groups is equivalent to the category of perfect MV-algebras. Furthermore, we give a finite equational axiomatization of the variety generated by perfect MV-algebras.
ABSTRACT We characterize, for every subvariety V of the variety of all MV- algebras, the free objects in V. We use our results to compute coproducts in V and to provide simple single-axiom axiomatizations of all many-valued logics extending the Lukasiewicz one.
MV-algebras stand for the many-valued Łukasiewicz logic the same as Boolean algebras for the classical logic. States on MV-algebras were first mentioned  in probability theory and later also introduced in effort to capture a notion of `an average truth-value of proposition'  in Łukasiewicz many-valued logic. In the presented paper, an integral representation theorem for finitely-additive states on semisimple MV-algebra will be proven. Further, we shall prove extension theorems concerning states defined on sub-MV-algebras and normal partitions of unity generalizing (...) in this way the well-known Horn-Tarski theorem for Boolean algebras. (shrink)
We present a stronger variation of state MV-algebras, recently presented by T. Flaminio and F. Montagna, which we call state-morphism MV-algebras. Such structures are MV-algebras with an internal notion, a state-morphism operator. We describe the categorical equivalences of such state MV-algebras with the category of unital Abelian ℓ-groups with a fixed state operator and present their basic properties. In addition, in contrast to state MV-algebras, we are able to describe all subdirectly irreducible state-morphism MV-algebras.
In this paper, inspired by methods of Bigard, Keimel, and Wolfenstein , we develop an approach to sheaf representations of MV-algebras which combines two techniques for the representation of MV-algebras devised by Filipoiu and Georgescu and by Dubuc and Poveda . Following Davey approach , we use a subdirect representation of MV-algebras that is based on local MV-algebras. This allowed us to obtain: a representation of any MV-algebras as MV-algebra of all global sections of a sheaf of local MV-algebras on (...) the spectruum of its prime ideals; a representation of MV-algebras, having the space of minimal prime ideals compact, as MV-algebra of all global sections of a Hausdorff sheaf of MV-chains on the space of minimal prime ideals, which is a Stone space; an adjunction between the category of all MV-algebras and the category of MV-algebraic spaces, where an MV-algebraic space is a pair , where X is a compact topological space and F is a sheaf of MV-algebras with stalks that are local. (shrink)
In this paper we develop a general representation theory for MV-algebras. We furnish the appropriate categorical background to study this problem. Our guide line is the theory of classifying topoi of coherent extensions of universal algebra theories. Our main result corresponds, in the case of MV-algebras and MV-chains, to the representation of commutative rings with unit as rings of global sections of sheaves of local rings. We prove that any MV-algebra is isomorphic to the MV-algebra of all global sections of (...) a sheaf of MV-chains on a compact topological space. This result is intimately related to McNaughton’s theorem, and we explain why our representation theorem can be viewed as a vast generalization of McNaughton’s theorem. In spite of the language used in this abstract, we have written this paper in the hope that it can be read by experts in MV-algebras but not in sheaf theory, and conversely. (shrink)
In this paper we extend Mundici's functor? to the category of monadic MV- algebras. More precisely, we define monadic?- groups and we establish a natural equivalence between the category of monadic MV- algebras and the category of monadic?- groups with strong unit. Some applications are given thereof.
Incorporating Gadamer and other thinkers from the continental tradition, this essay is a close and detailed hermeneutic, phenomenological, and ontological study of the dialectic practice of Plato’s Socrates—it radicalizes and refutes the Socrates-as-teacher model that educators from scholar academic ideology embrace.
We prove that the unification type of Łukasiewicz logic and of its equivalent algebraic semantics, the variety of MV-algebras, is nullary. The proof rests upon Ghilardiʼs algebraic characterisation of unification types in terms of projective objects, recent progress by Cabrer and Mundici in the investigation of projective MV-algebras, the categorical duality between finitely presented MV-algebras and rational polyhedra, and, finally, a homotopy-theoretic argument that exploits lifts of continuous maps to the universal covering space of the circle. We discuss the background (...) to such diverse tools. In particular, we offer a detailed proof of the duality theorem for finitely presented MV-algebras and rational polyhedra—a fundamental result that, albeit known to specialists, seems to appear in print here for the first time. (shrink)
An MV-algebra A=(A,0,¬,⊕) is an abelian monoid (A,0,⊕) equipped with a unary operation ¬ such that ¬¬x=x,x⊕¬0=¬0, and y⊕¬(y⊕¬x)=x⊕¬(x⊕¬y). Chang proved that the equational class of MV-algebras is generated by the real unit interval [0,1] equipped with the operations ¬x=1−x and x⊕y=min(1,x+y). Therefore, the free n-generated MV-algebra Free n is the algebra of [0,1]-valued functions over the n-cube [0,1] n generated by the coordinate functions ξ i ,i=1, . . . ,n, with pointwise operations. Any such function f is a (...) McNaughton function, i.e., f is continuous, piecewise linear, and each piece has integer coefficients. Conversely, McNaughton proved that all McNaughton functions f: [0,1] n →[0,1] are in Free n . The elements of Free n are logical equivalence classes of n-variable formulas in the infinite-valued calculus of Łukasiewicz. The aim of this paper is to provide an alternative, representation-free, characterization of Free n. (shrink)
This paper is a contribution to the algebraic logic of probabilistic models of Łukasiewicz predicate logic. We study the MV-states defined on polyadic MV-algebras and prove an algebraic many-valued version of Gaifman’s completeness theorem.
In this paper we first provide a new axiomatization of algebraically closed MV-algebras based on McNaughtonʼs Theorem. Then we turn to sheaves, and we represent algebraically closed MV-algebras as algebras of global sections of sheaves, where the stalks are divisible MV-chains and the base space is Stonean.
We investigate the class of strongly distributive pregroups, a common abstraction of MV-algebras and Abelian l-groups which was introduced by E.Casari. The main result of the paper is a representation theorem which yields both Chang's representation of MV-algebras and Clifford's representation of Abelian l-groups as immediate corollaries.
Mundici has recently established a characterization of free finitely generated MV-algebras similar in spirit to the representation of the free Boolean algebra with a countably infinite set of free generators as any Boolean algebra that is countable and atomless. No reference to universal properties is made in either theorem. Our main result is an extension of Mundici’s theorem to the whole class of MV-algebras that are free over some finite distributive lattice.
Representations of monadic MV -algebra, the characterization of locally finite monadic MV -algebras, with axiomatization of them, definability of non-trivial monadic operators on finitely generated free MV -algebras are given. Moreover, it is shown that finitely generated m-relatively complete subalgebra of finitely generated free MV -algebra is projective.
The notions of a hyper MV-deductive system, a -hyper MV-deductive system, a - hyper MV-deductive system, a -hyper MV-deductive system, a -hyper MV-deductive system and a -hyper MV-deductive system are introduced, and then their relations are investigated.
ABSTRACT In this paper we shall prove that l-rings are categorally equivalent to the MV*-algebras, a subcategory of perfect MV-algebras. We shall use this equivalence in order to characterize l-rings as quotients of certain semirings of matrices over MV*-algebras. We shall establish a relation between l-ideals in l-rings and some ideals in MV*-algebras. This edlows us to study the MV* f-algebras, a subclass of the MV*-algebras corresponding to the f-rings.
In this work we introduce a class of commutative rings whose defining condition is that its lattice of ideals, augmented with the ideal product, the semi-ring of ideals, is isomorphic to an MV-algebra. This class of rings coincides with the class of commutative rings which are direct sums of local Artinian chain rings with unit.
Page generated Fri Jul 23 19:31:17 2021 on philpapers-web-786f65f869-jmfbq
cache stats: hit=4103, miss=2210, save= autohandler : 1179 ms called component : 1167 ms search.pl : 1053 ms render loop : 958 ms next : 480 ms addfields : 426 ms publicCats : 410 ms initIterator : 93 ms menu : 77 ms save cache object : 77 ms retrieve cache object : 39 ms autosense : 24 ms match_cats : 21 ms prepCit : 21 ms applytpl : 5 ms match_other : 1 ms match_authors : 1 ms intermediate : 0 ms quotes : 0 ms init renderer : 0 ms setup : 0 ms auth : 0 ms writelog : 0 ms