Science historians mainly know A.-E. Baudrimont as belonging to a group of French chemists from Haüy to Pasteur including Ampere, Gaudin, Laurent, Delafosse, who established links between crystallographic data and chemical reactions.In his 1844 book Traité de chimie générale et expérimentale whose structure is outstanding for that period, a first part is devoted to the study of the statics of chemical compounds and a second one to the study of the kinematics chemical compounds. We point out that Baudrimont, at a (...) time where chemists were mainly busy with a rapidly developing organic chemistry, set important milestones in his research fields, thereby opening the way to physical chemistry.RésuméAlexandre-Edouard Baudrimont est surtout connu des historiens des sciences pour avoir fait partie de cette lignées de chimistes français qui, de Haüy à Pasteur en passant par Ampère, Gaudin, Laurent, Delafosse, ont étroitement associé dans leurs spéculations les données cristallographiques et le comportement chimique.Dans son ouvrage de 1844 : Traité de chimie générale et expérimentale dont la structure est tout à fait originale pour l’époque, il consacre une première partie à l’étude statique des corps et une seconde partie à l’étude cinématique des corps. Nous montrons que Baudrimont, à une époque où les chimistes sont presque uniquement occupés par la chimie organique qui connaît un développement explosif, pose des jalons dans des domaines qui annoncent la Chimie physique. (shrink)
En 1814, Ampère publie une théorie de la combinaison chimique des corps qu'il fonde sur la science des cristaux de Hauy, sur « les résultats de belles expériences » de Gay-Lussac et sur une hypothèse « sur la proportionnalité entre les volumes des gaz et leur nombre de particules ». A la même époque, il met en évidence, en philosophie, les rôles de l'abstraction et des « rapports » dans les connaissances humaines ; ces concepts éclairent la mathématisation mise en (...) œuvre dans cette théorie chimique. Bien que conçue tardivement, la classification des sciences d'Ampère nous aide à situer, rétrospectivement, la théorie des combinaisons chimiques dans les sciences mathématiques et physiques. (shrink)
Current approaches to cyber-security are not working. Rather than producing more security, we seem to be facing less and less. The reason for this is a multi-dimensional and multi-faceted security dilemma that extends beyond the state and its interaction with other states. It will be shown how the focus on the state and “its” security crowds out consideration for the security of the individual citizen, with detrimental effects on the security of the whole system. The threat arising from cyberspace to (...) (national) security is presented as possible disruption to a specific way of life, one building on information technologies and critical functions of infrastructures, with relatively little consideration for humans directly. This non-focus on people makes it easier for state actors to militarize cyber-security and (re-)assert their power in cyberspace, thereby overriding the different security needs of human beings in that space. Paradoxically, the use of cyberspace as a tool for national security, both in the dimension of war fighting and the dimension of mass-surveillance, has detrimental effects on the level of cyber-security globally. A solution out of this dilemma is a cyber-security policy that is decidedly anti-vulnerability and at the same time based on strong considerations for privacy and data protection. Such a security would have to be informed by an ethics of the infosphere that is based on the dignity of information related to human beings. (shrink)
Surtout percus aujourd'hui comme de grands penseurs juifs, Hermann Cohen (1842-1918) et Franz Rosenzweig (1886-1929) avaient aussi ete des specialistes de tout premier plan de la pensee idealiste allemande: Cohen fut l'un des fondateurs de ...
Statements’ rated truth increases when people encounter them repeatedly. Processing fluency is a central variable to explain this truth effect. However, people experience processing fluency positively, and these positive experiences might cause the truth effect. Three studies investigated positivity and fluency influences on the truth effect. Study 1 found correlations between elicited positive feelings and rated truth. Study 2 replicated the repetition-based truth effect, but positivity did not influence the effect. Study 3 conveyed positive and negative correlations between positivity and (...) truth in a learning phase. We again replicated the truth effect, but positivity only influenced judgments for easy statements in the learning phase. Thus, across three studies, we found positivity effects on rated truth, but not on the repetition-based truth effect: We conclude that positivity does not explain the standard truth effect, but the role of positive experiences for truth judgments deserves further investigation. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to extend the classical sequent calculusLC to the second order. This task is realized by a semantical approach mixing the correlation spaces semantics ofLC on the one hand, and the analogy with the interpretation of systemF in coherent spaces on the other hand. This relies on the introduction of a new semantical object:noetherian correlation spaces.From the semantics we deduce the syntax of the second order classical sequent calculusLC2.
The belief in immanent justice is the expectation that the universe is designed to ensure that evil is punished and virtue rewarded. What makes this belief so ‘natural’? Here, we suggest that this intuition of immanent justice derives from our evolved sense of fairness. In cases where a misdeed is followed by a misfortune, our sense of fairness construes the misfortune as a way to compensate for the misdeed. To test this hypothesis, we designed a set of studies in which (...) we show that people who do not believe in immanent justice are nonetheless implicitly influenced by intuitions of immanent justice. Strikingly, this effect disappears when the misfortune is disproportionate compared to the misdeed: In this case, justice is not restored and participants lose the intuition of immanent justice. Following recent theories of religion, we suggest that this intuition contributes to the cultural success of beliefs in immanent justice. (shrink)
In this paper, we study dialogue as a game, but not only in the sense in which there would exist winning strategies and a priori rules. Dialogue is not governed by game rules like for chess or other games, since even if we start from a priori rules, it is always possible to play with them, provided that some invariant properties are preserved. An important discovery of Ludics is that such properties may be expressed in geometrical terms. The main feature (...) of a dialogue is “convergence”. Intuitively, a dialogue “diverges” when it stops prematurely by some disruption, or a violation of the tacit agreed upon conditions of the discourse. It converges when the two speakers go together towards a situation where they agree at least on some points. As we shall see, convergence may be thought of through the geometrical concept of orthogonality . Utterances in a dialogue have as their content, not only the processes (similar to proofs) which lead to them from a monologic view, but also their interactions with other utterances. Finally, any utterance must be seen as co-constructed in an interaction between two processes. That is to say that it not only contains one speaker’s intentions but also his or her expectations from the other interlocutor. From our viewpoint, discursive strategies like narration , elaboration , topicalization may derive from such interactions, as well as speech acts like assertion, question and denegation. (shrink)
We designed a new protocol requiring French adult participants to group a large number of Munsell colour chips into three or four groups. On one, relativist, view, participants would be expected to rely on their colour lexicon in such a task. In this framework, the resulting groups should be more similar to French colour categories than to other languages categories. On another, universalist, view, participants would be expected to rely on universal features of perception. In this second framework, the resulting (...) groups should match colour categories of three and four basic terms languages. In this work, we first collected data to build an accurate map of French colour terms categories. We went on testing how native French speakers spontaneously sorted a set of randomly presented coloured chips and, in line with the relativist prediction, we found that the resulting colour groups were more similar to French colour categories than to three and four basic terms languages. However, the same results were obtained in a verbal interference condition, suggesting that participants rely on language specific and nevertheless perceptual, colour categories. Collectively, these results suggest that the universalist/relativist dichotomy is a too narrow one. (shrink)
More than ever, the way we live our lives has become subject to our own decisionmaking. Our whole way of living, in particular what we do to our body, has become the expression of personal lifestyle choices. Because we can make changes to our body according to our own individual preferences, every aspect of our life begins to be seen as the result of individual and voluntary decisions. The comparison with advertising is pertinent here: we should no longer accept the (...) way we are but can choose from a variety of options. Go to any supermarket and look around: innumerable products are promoted because of their healthy ingredients, whether to lower our cholesterol or heighten our natural resistance. And, of course, we buy what is on offer. (shrink)
The article reveals the existence of a greater sensitivity than in the past towards equality. Nevertheless, equality policies have failed to rise above the limits imposed by a culture that sees the male prevail in industrial relations. Both domestic law and European legislation have in uenced collective bargaining in Italy as regards equal opportunities. The presence of women in bargaining, in equal opportunities committees and in study groups has led to success regarding a core of issues such as sexual harassment, (...) positive action, working hours and parental leave and has favoured a positive praxis both for equality and bargaining between which there is positive synergy. The article discusses the problems which hinder a general acceptance of equality bargaining and a bargaining model that places the female worker among the subjects to be represented. (shrink)
As a consequence of the successful 1984 meeting of these two research groups at Bochum - the proceedings of which have been published as Hegels Rechtsphilosophie im Zusammenhang der europäischen Verfassungsgeschichte, edited by Hans-Christian Lucas and Otto Pöggeler - this conference constituted a further step toward continuous cooperation between French and German Hegel scholars. It was held in Poitiers on December 3–5, 1986, at the CRDHM, which, since its founding in 1970 by Jacques D’Hondt, its first director, has coordinated the (...) translation of Hegel into French and published its Bulletin to provide information about all aspects of Hegel and Marx research. The conference was excellently organized by its host, Guy Planty-Bonjour, and by Hans-Christian Lucas and Otto Pöggeler on the German side, with funding from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and from the University of Poitiers. During the three full days of the meeting, about ten scholars from each side had a splendid opportunity to discuss not only the twelve papers presented, but also numerous other aspects of their work. (shrink)
Pour une part, les récents échanges sur l’esclavage ont eu l’intérêt de faire émerger un phénomène historique raturé depuis le XIXe siècle. Alors que l’historiographie se saisit cycliquement de grandes questions à la faveur des commémorations nationales, comme ces derniers temps la Grande Guerre ou la Shoah, en ce qui concerne l’esclavage il n’en est rien. Passe le temps, demeure le silence.
The title of Thomas James's 2011 In Face of Reality: The Constructive Theology of Gordon D. Kaufman echoes the title of Gordon Kaufman's 1993 In Face of Mystery: A Constructive Theology. Kaufman's theology evolved over his long career, but mystery became his principal metaphor for God. In substituting reality for mystery, James signals his central project, which is to argue that Kaufman's theology offers an objective God who "really acts in the world" (1).For James, God's providential activity is a touchstone (...) of Christian theology. However, he asserts, contemporary science has left little space for God to act. Most theologians have responded by: 1) limiting interaction with scientific findings to preserve .. (shrink)
Why should Gordon Kaufman's mid-career theological method be of renewed interest to contemporary theists? Two distinguishing characteristics of the West today are its increasing religious pluralism and the growing numbers of theists who rely on hybrid approaches to construct concepts of God. Kaufman's method is well suited to this current state of affairs because it is open to diverse religious and theological perspectives and to perspectives from science and secular humanism. It also militates against the weaknesses inherent to hybrid approaches—ad (...) hoc constructs of God unable to motivate their holders to overcome human self-centeredness and so to contribute to the well-being and fulfillment of others. It achieves this by providing checks to reduce the risk of producing human-writ-large God-constructs. Lastly, Kaufman's method provides criteria to help theists identify humane and humanizing experiences, relationships, concepts, images, and texts (i.e., the basic material from which God-constructs are fashioned) from the plethora of options available, whether religious, cultural, or secular. (shrink)
Cancer survivors are at risk for poor subjective well-being, but the potential beneficial effect of daily spiritual experiences is unknown. Using data from the second and third wave of the Midlife in the United States study, we examined the extent to which daily spiritual experiences at baseline moderate the association between subjective well-being at baseline and approximately 10 years later in cancer survivors. Regression analyses, controlled for age, educational attainment, and religious/spiritual coping, showed that daily spiritual experiences moderated the association (...) between life satisfaction at baseline and follow-up. Specifically, high spiritual experiences enhanced life satisfaction over time in cancer survivors with low life satisfaction at baseline. Also, daily spiritual experiences moderated the association between positive affect at baseline and follow-up, though this moderating effect was different for women and men. No moderating effect emerged for negative affect. (shrink)
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To examine differences in nursing care received by patients with breast cancer enrolled in clinical trials and those not enrolled in clinical trials. DESIGN: Retrospective review of clinic charts. SETTING: Oncology outpatient department of a tertiary-care hospital. SAMPLE: 90 women with early stage breast cancer. The mean age of the women was 53 years. More than half of the women (51 of 90) were treated in a clinical trial. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all the nurse-patient clinic encounters for (...) a six-month period from date of cancer diagnosis. The content of each encounter was coded using a modified version of the Nursing Action Classification System. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Nursing interventions (i.e., assessment, medical scheduling, psychosocial scheduling, reassurance, and teaching) and phone calls. FINDINGS: Women enrolled in clinical trials had more phone interactions with nursing staff (p = 0.003) and received teaching (p < 0.001) and reassurance (p = 0.005) from nursing staff more often than women not enrolled in clinical trials. Controlling for age and stage of disease, teaching (p < 0.001), and reassurance (p = 0.10) were the primary differences in nursing care between the patients enrolled in clinical trials and those not enrolled. CONCLUSION: Differences in nursing care received exist between patients with breast cancer enrolled in clinical trials and those not enrolled. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Both teaching and reassurance are important components of caring for patients with cancer and are associated with treatment compliance. If the results of this study are confirmed, measures must be employed to ensure that all patients receive optimal care. (shrink)