Material and nonmaterial cultural values are the forms that the social division of labor takes in its results, which embody qualitatively different forms corresponding to various human needs. Therefore, the question of the emergence of the comprehensively developed human being in communist society is also a question of the social division of labor. The conditions of labor of a developed socialist society are the results of the world historical development of social praxis, in which the subject is not the individual (...) standing alone but "the creativity of the masses," social labor in combination. In this connection the social division of labor in the process of development toward communism must be seen not merely as the condition for production of things differing in the way they are consumed but also primarily as the production of individuals themselves: of their capacities and talents for creative, socially useful labor. (shrink)
A symposium by twelve English thinkers of various Christian backgrounds. The papers investigate the possibility of incorporating traditional metaphysics and the insights of contemporary continental philosophers into the empirical and analytic tradition. The concept of intuition or immediate apprehension is explored in several of the papers as a possible key to the problem. Though the writers often fail to face up to hard problems, the book offers an important, if cautious, effort at integration.--F. W. N.
This book contains eight essays, the first seven of which are revised, expanded, and edited from articles previously published by the author. The essays focus on Eliade's academic discipline like an adjustable lens-zooming in on a special area for particular detail, panning back to provide a breathtaking overview. A prime example of the former is "Paradise and Utopia: Mythical Geography and Eschatology;" of the latter--"The History of Religions in Retrospect: 1912 and After." In all eight gems, Eliade exhibits his thoroughly (...) disciplined research as well as his efforts towards scholastic objectivity. The selections and enlargements of the various articles press home the author's two-fold desire to stress the development of a systematic hermeneutics of the sacred and to point out the creative cultural function which the history of religions could realize. The most resolute expression of these two foci can be found in the fourth essay: "Crisis and Renewal." There is a short index.--F.J.N. (shrink)
This volume is a superb addition to the voluminous literature engendered by the enigmatic treatise--"Job." The first section is an introduction by the editor to the study of "Job." It briefly outlines the various traditions of interpretive material. Glatzer's major criticism of this literature is two-fold: there is a general avoidance of direct confrontation with the text; interpreters tend to abuse "Job" to validate a previously held intellectual stance. Glatzer also provides the reader with a sketch of his own viewpoint, (...) but unfortunately the sketch is skeletal. The second section provides thirty-two modern selections on various aspects of "Job." The editor has combined these selections under headings designed to define more precisely an area of interest or to demonstrate the spectrum of thought among one tradition's spokesmen. Glatzer's familiar thoroughness is manifest right down to the index and bibliography.--F. J. N. (shrink)
Hélal's study invites comparison with two other books on Whitehead's philosophy of science. There is nearly no overlap with Ann L. Plamondon's Whitehead's Organic Philosophy of Science, which stresses those themes developed in Whitehead's metaphysical period which have a bearing on topics under current discussion in the philosophy of science. Hélal restricts himself to the earlier period, hoping later to make a comparable study of the later periods. There is, however, considerable overlap with Robert M. Palter's Whitehead's Philosophy of Science, (...) though perhaps less than might be expected. Thus chapter 3 analyzing the nature of events and objects, and especially chapter 4 on the method of extensive abstraction can only repeat much that is already available in Palter. In addition Palter discusses the theory of relativity much more extensively, and goes into Whitehead's discussion of extensive connection in Process and Reality, part IV. On the other hand, the first two chapters of Hélal's study on Whitehead's idea of nature, and especially the final chapter on his refusal to allow any bifurcation in nature introduce many themes not to be found in Palter. If a rigorous, systematic, and elaborate presentation of Whitehead's philosophy of science is desired, Palter's work should be consulted. But if one is interested in the metaphysical undercurrents in Whitehead's earlier period, then perhaps Hélal's is preferable. Thus for example, Palter barely mentions the notions of "percipient events" and "percipient objects," while Hélal pays special attention to them as precursors of Whitehead's concern for subjectivity in his metaphysics. (shrink)
The results of the Oberlin Colloquium of 1962, featuring papers by Warnock on Austin's correspondence theory of truth, Prior on some epistemic puzzles, symposia papers by Searle on speech-act theories of meaning, Garver on Wittgenstein's use of criteria, and Castañeda on the private language argument. Commentators on the latter include Vendler, Benacerraf, Ginet, Siegler, Ziff, Chappell and J. F. Thomson.—N. S. C.
D. Compaeetti, Leggi antiche delta città di Gortyna, Firenze, 1885 F. Bücheler and E. Zitelmann, Rheinisches Museum N. F. Bd. 40 J. and T. Baunack, Die Inschrift von Gortyn, Stuttgart, 1886H. Lewy, Stadtrecht von Gortyn, Berlin, 1885Museo Italiano di Antickità classiche, edited by D. Comparetti, Florence, 1885 sqq. Vols. i, ii.
A remarkable phenomenon in our present-day culture has been the broad interest shown in the history of Russian thought, which is continually, and sometimes even from unexpected quarters, showing itself to be of topical interest. Recently, and particularly in connection with the publication of the works of N. F. Fedorov, there has been an exchange of opinions in the pages of various journals with regard to the essence of his philosophical views, revealing not merely conflicting, but in a number of (...) cases mutually exclusive assessments of those views. (shrink)
Nikolai Fedorovich Fedorov is one of the most original and as yet inadequately studied Russian thinkers. Neither a professional philosopher, nor a well-known scholar, nor a critical essayist, he led a kind of double existence while working as an ordinary civil servant, developing his original philosophy at his leisure in the hours free from his intensive daily work. Fedorov's life was one of selflessness and self-denial, not at all eventful outwardly. He graduated from the Gymnasium in Tambov and completed three (...) years of study in the Law Department of the Richelieu Lyceum in Odessa, after which he taught for a number of years in the Borovsk, Lipetsk, Podol'sk, and other regional schools. The quarter century he spent working in the Library of the Rumiantsev Museum in Moscow was the most stable period in Fedorov's life. Fedorov's ideas attracted the attention of outstanding cultural figures. F.M. Dostoevskii became acquainted with them in 1878 through Peterson, and on March 24 of that year he wrote: "I am essentially in full accord with these ideas. I read them as if they were my own." L.N. Tolstoy, who knew Fedorov personally, said, "I am proud to be living in the same times as such a man." V.S. Solov'ev, who also associated with Fedorov, wrote to him as follows in the mid-1880s: "Your ‘project’ is the human spirit's first advance along the path of Christ since the advent of Christianity. As for me, I can only acknowledge you as my teacher and spiritual father." A.M. Gorky was especially impressed by the activism in Fedorov's views. But none of this precludes the many and very essential divergences of these authors from Fedorov. One can find some links with his ideas in A.N. Belyi, V. Ia. Briusov, N.A. Zabolotskii, V.V. Maiakovskii, A.P. Platonov, M.M. Prishvin, I.L. Sel'vinskii, O.D. Forsh, and V.N. Khlebnikov. The artist B.N. Chekrygin drafted a large fresco entitled The Resurrection of the Dead [Voskreshenie mertvykh] and a philosophical work entitled The Synod of the Resurrecting Museum [Sobor voskreshaiushchego muzeia], both inspired by Fedorov's teachings. (shrink)
Spade 1988 sugges t s tha t t he r e are ac tua l l y two theo r i e s t o address t h i s ques t i o n t o , an ear l y one and a l a t e r one . 2 Most o f the presen t pape r i s a deve l o pmen t o f t h i s i dea . I sugges t (...) tha t ear l y work by Sherwood and o the r s was a s tudy o f quan t i f i e r s : the i r semant i c s and t he e f f e c t s o f con t e x t on i n f e r e n ce s t ha t can be made f r om quan t i f i e d te rms . La te r , i n the hands o f Bur l e y and o the r s , i t changed i n t o a s tudy o f someth i n g e l se , a s tudy o f what I ca l l g loba l quan t i f i c a t i o n a l e f f e c t . In sec t i o n 1 , I exp l a i n what these two op t i o n s are. (shrink)