We study the global properties of [Formula: see text], the Turing degrees of the n-r.e. sets. In Theorem 1.5, we show that the first order of [Formula: see text] is not decidable. In Theorem 1.6, we show that for any two n and m with n < m, [Formula: see text] is not a Σ1-substructure of [Formula: see text].
At the end of Republic VI. Socrates compares the Good with the sun as a cause both of existence and intelligibility. Afterwards, when he continues and expands this comparison, the symbolism becomes so complex that the interpretation of almost every part of it is in dispute. We start with the contrast of light and darkness; to this is next added the contrast of image and original, and also of up and down along a vertical line; in the allegory of the (...) Cave these three sets of contrasted terms are worked in together so as to explain the effect on the soul of the intellectual education by which we are converted from what is dark and imitative and ascend finally to knowledge of the Good. (shrink)
An impressive array of succinct expositions of a large variety of British and American epistemological theories. Bergson and the Vienna Circle are also treated in detail. Idealism, Realism, and Pragmatism are discussed as well as constructionist, intuitional, and organismic theories.--R. C. N.
Hamlet: Has this fellow no feelings of his business, that he sings at grave-making?Horatio: Custom hath made it in him a property of easiness.(Hamlet Act V, scene i)1Hamlet is appalled by the gravedigger's insensitivity towards death and corpses. Horatio explains that the gravedigger is so accustomed to such things that he no longer shares Hamlet's seriousness. We contend that human dissection may make in medical students and doctors the “property of easiness” in dealing with death and the human body, and (...) that this may have negative consequences for medics and patients. It is perhaps worth emphasising at the outset what this essay is NOT about. We do not wish to call into question the value of dissection in medical education; to charge dissection with being an inefficient or ineffective means of teaching and learning human anatomy is not our intent. Instead, we explore, through the medium of literature, experiences of dissection, and what kind of student and doctor may be encouraged or produced by the dissection room; what price might be paid for a practical, first-hand experience of human anatomy. (shrink)
In Professor Ferguson's renewed study of these similes he has introduced a very detailed and careful analysis of Plato's analogies in order to explain and support his interpretation. He has also attacked the view which I put forward in 1932, and I should like to say something in defence of that view, not in any polemical spirit, but from a perhaps too obstinate belief that my reading of the passage does rest on solid foundations. I will not attempt any comprehensive (...) discussion of Professor Ferguson's theories, either in their earlier or their present form, but merely try to indicate what seems to me the real issue between us. (shrink)
The UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority was right to permit tissue typing preimplantation genetic diagnosisOn July 21 2004, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority , Britain’s regulatory agency for reproductive technologies, revised its policy on preimplantation genetic diagnosis for tissue typing.1,2 The authority of the HFEA to enact such a policy was affirmed by the UK’s highest court, the House of Lords, on April 28 2005.3 Preimplantation genetic diagnosis combines in vitro fertilisation with genetic testing. In PGD, embryos generally (...) undergo biopsy prior to the eight cell stage, followed by genetic testing for a particular trait. Tissue typing PGD is done to identify an embryo that is tissue matched for a child suffering from a severe disease requiring bone marrow or cord blood stem cell transplantation and for whom no living donor exists. This procedure was first performed in 2000.4 Precise matching of tissue types is critical to successful tissue transplant, and the donors of such tissues are often referred to as “saviour siblings”.Where a tissue matched individual already exists, extracting bone marrow from that individual or collecting cord blood already in storage, rather than creating a match, presents the most immediate treatment alternative. Bone marrow donation from adults or other medically competent individuals is not generally ethically contested, and bone marrow donation from medically incompetent individuals is also permissible under certain conditions.5 Where no living tissue donor exists, however, intentionally creating a donor through tissue typing PGD is among a short list of possible treatment options.The July HFEA policy change makes PGD licensable in cases where tissue typing is the only purpose of testing. Previously, PGD was licensable in the UK only for disease testing, and tissue typing PGD was permissible only when …. (shrink)
This paper makes an attempt to examine the various facets of human values in the background of the widely shared popular beliefs about erosion of values. A random sample of elite opinions on the nature of decline of values brings out the difficulties involved in identifying values for social analysis. Values are an integral part of the religious, spiritual and governmental spheres of social behaviour within a culture. It is argued that the problem of erosion of values is shared across (...) cultures and has existed throughout the history of human society. It is suggested that material and spiritual values follow a dialectical process of coexistence and conflict. The current wave of concern over degeneration of values is explained in relation to the unprecedented complexity of today's global society and the socio-economic challenges posed by this complexity for the individual and the society at various levels. This discussion is followed by a brief review of the recent contributions of social sciences to the concept of values and their decline in modern society. Finally, some thoughts are expressed, from a sociologist's vantage point, regarding the multi-dimensional problem of values in the emerging global culture. (shrink)
In this article, we draw upon the philosophy of critical realism to reflect upon issues concerning discovery processes and opportunity development. First, paradoxes in the relationship between opportunity discovery and creativity are identified and explained. Second, the question of how to investigate opportunities is discussed and a solution informed by critical realism presented whereby three new types of discovery are identified and defined for empirical investigation. Using critical realism to augment entrepreneurial opportunity theory, we propose that discovery processes have significance (...) beyond discovery theory and can be considered revealing for theories of opportunity development more generally. We conclude with conceptual and practical comment on the importance of ontological theorising for entrepreneurship. (shrink)
Despite having put the concept of HPS on the institutional map, N.R. Hanson’s distinctive account of the interdependence between history of science and philosophy of science has been mostly forgotten, and misinterpreted where it is remembered. It is argued that Hanson’s account is worthy of renewed attention and extension since, through its special emphasis on a variety of different normative criteria, it provides the framework for a fruitful and transformative interaction between the two disciplines. This essay also examines two separate (...) threads of Hanson’s account of philosophy of science: his analysis of the conceptual dynamics of science and of the interrelation of the history and philosophy of science. While the two strands appear incongruent, and were perhaps inconsistent, a new interpretation of them is offered which is both consistent with Hanson’s fundamental intuitions and defensible in its own right. It is demonstrated that Hanson’s account compares favorably with those of Kuhn and Lakatos, and that it may provide a constructive means of scaling the barriers erected by fears of the genetic fallacy and ‘whiggish’ history. (shrink)
A detailed and profound discussion of the metaphysics of nature and morality as interpreted by Spinoza's philosophy. Especially interesting are the treatments of nature's status as created and as emanated, which are intended to save Spinoza from traditional criticisms. Although Hallett sometimes allows his defense of Spinoza to take precedence over his direct treatment of nature and morality, he clearly thinks Spinoza is generally right. Distinguished by its sober and courageous attack on unpopular issues.--R. C. N.
A well-documented defense of the thesis that St. Augustine held the city of man, especially Rome, to contain many relative goods, however evil it was from the absolute standpoint of goodness consisting in the worship of the true God. O'Meara discusses in some detail many contemporary critics, e.g., Ernest Barker, who oppose this interpretation, and argues on the basis of historical circumstance and Augustine's own declarations in works other than the City of God.--R. C. N.
That mankind's evolution is through genetics and cultural acquisition together, but not through either alone, is the thesis of these interesting Silliman lectures. Dobzhansky examines evolutionary theories from Darwinism to Social Darwinism to show the extent to which genetic inheritance requires certain environmental conditions, and vice versa, for mankind to evolve as it has. He also traces the origin of culture relative to man's genetic make-up, and considers the future impact of civilization, e.g., population expansion, the control of disease instead (...) of the genetic death of those susceptible, etc. The book is well documented and offers an excellent assessment of scientific findings; on the philosophic side, Dobzhansky approves as "a ray of hope," though "patently undemonstrable by scientifically established facts," Teilhard de Chardin's thesis that evolution is going toward "a harmonized collectivity of consciousnesses, equivalent to a kind of superconsciousness."--R. C. N. (shrink)