BackgroundGene drive technologies promote the rapid spread of a particular genetic element within a population of non-human organisms. Potential applications of GDTs include the control of insect vectors, invasive species and agricultural pests. Whether, and if so, under what conditions, GDTs should be deployed is hotly debated. Although broad stances in this debate have been described, the convictions that inform the moral views of the experts shaping these technologies and related policies have not been examined in depth in the academic (...) literature.MethodsIn this qualitative study, we interviewed GDT experts from different disciplines to identify and better understand their moral views regarding these technologies. The pseudonymized transcripts were analyzed thematically.ResultsThe respondents’ moral views were principally influenced by their attitudes towards the uncertainty related to GDTs; the alternatives to which they should be compared; and the role humans should have in nature. Respondents agreed there is epistemic uncertainty related to GDTs, identified similar knowledge gaps, and stressed the importance of realistic expectations in discussions on GDTs. They disagreed about whether uncertainty provides a rationale to refrain from field trials or to proceed with phased testing to obtain more knowledge given the harms of the status quo. With regards to alternatives to tackle vector-borne diseases, invasive species and agricultural pests, respondents disagreed about which alternatives should be considered feasible and sufficiently explored: conventional strategies or systematic changes to health care, political and agricultural systems. Finally, respondents held different views on nature and whether the use of GDTs is compatible with humans’ role in nature or not.ConclusionsThis interview study helps to disentangle the debate on GDTs by providing a better understanding of the moral views of GDT experts. The obtained insights provide valuable stepping-stones for a constructive debate about underlying value conflicts and call attention to topics that deserve further reflection. Further evaluation of these issues can facilitate the debate on and responsible development of GDTs. (shrink)
The Dutch law states that a physician may perform euthanasia according to a written advance euthanasia directive when a patient is incompetent as long as all legal criteria of due care are met. This may also hold for patients with advanced dementia. We investigated the differing opinions of physicians and members of the general public on the acceptability of euthanasia in patients with advanced dementia.
Of all the distinctive features of the Buddhist religion, one of the most neglected is the sangha . Scholars give much attention to the study of texts and commentaries, the analysis of doctrines and the classification of schools. But the core of the Buddhist religion is the sangha , the community of bhikkhus around whose corporate life the religion is moulded. It is the existence and structure of the sangha which has shaped the history of Buddhism, enabled it to take (...) root in new countries, and given it the customs and rituals which have made it a religion rather than a small sect. (shrink)
Relacionado con el surgimiento de un nuevo modo de religiosidad y vida espiritual, cuyo modelo había sido establecido con gran éxito en la Santa Cueva de Cádiz, se fundaron en Sevilla una serie de congregaciones similares en el primer tercio del siglo XIX. Tomando como base los escritos de la Madre María de la Antigua, se establecieron en distintas collaciones de la ciudad, fundándose en 1817 la Congregación de Jesús Crucificado y María Santísima de los Dolores en Triana. En el (...) presente artículo se analiza su breve historia, así como las sedes por las que pasaron en sus escasos veinte años de existencia. (shrink)
Humanitarian health care practitioners working outside familiar settings, and without familiar supports, encounter ethical challenges both familiar and distinct. The ethical guidance they rely upon ought to reflect this. Using data from empirical studies, we explore the strengths and weaknesses of two ethical models that could serve as resources for understanding ethical challenges in humanitarian health care: clinical ethics and public health ethics. The qualitative interviews demonstrate the degree to which traditional teaching and values of clinical health ethics seem insufficient (...) for addressing all the realities of health care practice during humanitarian missions. They equally suggest that greater good orientations of public health ethics can thwart the best intentions of health care professionals wanting to attend to the interests of individual patients. Even though neither is complete on its own for helping guide health professionals on field missions, taken together these models have much to offer. At the same time, the narratives of the humanitarian health care workers illustrate how some of the crucial differences between public health ethics and clinical ethics generate tensions in humanitarian health practice. We offer an analysis of some of the complexities this creates for humanitarian health care ethics, and consider ways of adjudicating between the two models. (shrink)
Se evaluó la autorregulación en estudiantes de nuevo ingreso en una licenciatura en psicología en línea. Se adaptó y aplicó el Inventario de Estilos de Aprendizaje y Orientación Motivacional de Castañeda y Ortega a una muestra de 204 estudiantes encontrando que la edad se relaciona con la eficacia percibida, la aprobación externa y el manejo de materiales de estudio. Palabras clave: autorregulación, educación en línea, educación superior, estrategias de aprendizaje, motivación.
El presente artículo, permite evidenciar la configuración de subjetividades de algunos adolescentes a partir de la visibilización del dolor, en tanto son portadores de una historia que los ha afectado, ya que han sido protagonistas directos de situaciones de violencia en escenarios que reclaman justicia social, tanto para sus familias como para la comunidad donde se movilizan. Palabras clave: aislamiento, cohesión familiar, desarraigo, dolor y subjetividad.
Este trabalho é um estudo sobre a manifestação da violência pelo recorte da homofobia com sujeitos LGBTs. Adentrou-se a obra freudiana, objetivando apreender, pela luz da psicanálise, a condição subjetiva do sujeito em relação à sexualidade. O ponto central da pesquisa foi alcançado pelo desenho do que se denominou estatuto do ódio, que foi composto com elementos primordiais da constituição do sujeito. O estatuto denuncia o enlace destrutivo ao outro, aqui representado pelo sujeito LGBT, denuncia uma manifestação do conteúdo arraigado (...) no inconsciente, que alcança o fim último de um gozo do ódio caracterizado pela discriminação preconceituosa e cruel. Nessa perspectiva, destacou-se a necessidade de se construir urgentemente uma realidade social mais justa, mais bem alicerçada sobre o conhecimento científico, ético e político. Abordou-se, por fim, o enfrentamento desse ódio por uma educação emancipadora em direitos humanos comprometida com projetos de reconhecimento e de valorização da diversidade, com vistas à cidadania, minimização da opressão sociopolítica e manejo de conflitos para uma não violência. (shrink)
The λσ-calculus adds explicit substitutions to the λ-calculus so as to provide a theoretical framework within which the implementation of functional programming languages can be studied. This paper generalises the λσ-calculus to provide a linear calculus of explicit substitutions, called xDILL, which analogously describes the implementation of linear functional programming languages.Our main observation is that there are non-trivial interactions between linearity and explicit substitutions and that xDILL is therefore best understood as a synthesis of its underlying logical structure and the (...) technology of explicit substitutions. This is in contrast to the λσ-calculus where the explicit substitutions are independent of the underlying logical structure. (shrink)
El Hospital de la Santa Caridad de Sevilla puede ser contemplado desde múltiples perspectivas: artística, religiosa, histórica, etc. El propósito de este trabajo es abordar el estudio de este emblemático lugar sevillano desde el enfoque teológico que D. Miguel Mañara, su artífice, dejó inscrito en cada uno de sus rincones. Él quiso utilizar la via pulchritudinis como medio de evangelización, mostrando su propia concepción cristológica en un itinerario que muestra al visitante atemporal cómo alcanzar la gloria desde la humildad más (...) radical, a través de las obras de misericordia que nos llevarán al encuentro con Cristo encarnado en los más débiles y necesitados. (shrink)
A classic work of the European Enlightenment--and one of the most popular, if scandalous, in its day--the Persian Letters captures, in an engaging epistolary format, the transformational spirit of the era. Amid an ongoing tale rife with sex, violence, and wit, the work addresses a diverse range of topics from human nature and the origins of society, to the nature and role of religious belief, the role of women, statecraft, justice, morality, and human identity. With skill and artistry, Raymond MacKenzie’s (...) stunning new translation accurately reflects the mood and character of the work. In his richly conceived Introduction, MacKenzie seamlessly weaves together an overview of the period with details of Montesquieu’s life, including the influences that inspired the _Persian Letters_, the character and power of the book, and its reception. This edition also includes a Calendar of the _Persian Letters_, a Bibliography of Works in English, and a Bibliography of Works in French. Related texts provide insight into the legacy of the _Persian Letters_. They include selections from works by George Lyttelton, Voltaire, Oliver Goldsmith, and Maria Edgeworth. (shrink)
Currently there are persistent doubts about the meaning and contributions of the gene concept, mostly related to its interpretation as a stretch of DNA encoding a single functional product, i.e., the classical molecular gene concept. There is, however, much conceptual variation around genes, leading to important difficulties in genetics teaching. We investigated whether and how conceptual variation related to the gene concept and gene function models is present in school science and what potential problems it may bring to genetics teaching (...) and learning. Here, we report results on how ideas about genes and gene function are treated in textbooks and appear in students’ views and, also, about a teaching strategy for improving higher education students’ understanding of scientific models and conceptual variation around genes and their functions. (shrink)
Outside France the epistemology of G. Bachelard is unknown ; in France his influence is considerable, especially on philosophers like L. Althusser, M. Foucault, G. Canguilhem, J. Hyppolite, M. Serres, G. G. Granger, D. Lecourt and many others. Bachelard occupies a strategic point on the crossroads of all theoretical debates concerning science. The fact that he seems to give satisfactory answers on the problems which have risen after the breakdown of the logical-positivistic philosophy of science, justifies an exposition and evaluation (...) of his original contribution to philosophy. The author distinguishes the following items. 1. The determination of Bachelards philosophy as a scientific philosophy which is wedded to a history of the sciences, especially the natural sciences. 2. The 'systematicity' as the criterium of science against other, traditional, criteria like empiricalness, logical deducibility, correspondence with reality and so on. 3. The rectification-principle : the formation of a scientific system cannot be conceived otherwise than as the restructuring or reorganisation of the ruling system or system-sets. 4. The transformation of scientific knowledge shows many discontinuities in all its phases and branches. Bachelard calls them ruptures. 5. The translation of a theory into another, more coherent and comprehensive one, is baptised as a 'dialectisation' of the concept. By a dialectisation a system is both generalised and specified. Formal logic, which is based on identity and the principle of the excluded middle, is not able to interprete this dynamic aspect of scientific thinking. 6. Central in Bachelards philosophy is also the concept of recurrence. Each new organisation of the scientific system (global or partial) sheds new light on their history and their logical foundations. History has to be rewritten after each progress. Recurrence, however, also has systematic implications. Science always desimplifies its own evidences. 7. The scientist has to demolish the obstacles which he made himself by surcharging the content of the concepts not in use and by not assimilating them in the system. 8. Bachelards philosophy of science is both idealistic and realistic ; the phenomenology becomes phenomenotechnique under the hands and in the brains of the scientist. 9. He always denies (negativity) the earlier theories and objects by incorporating them in new relationships. 10. This constructive aspect of theory formation is the same in natural science and mathematics. Bachelard opposes the logical-positivistic idea that these are methodically dissimilar. In a critical commentary the author discusses the question of 'dialectical logic' in the sciences, in relation to some recent research in this field by I. Lakatos en Errol E. Harris. In his opinion the epistemology of Bachelard affords a creative renewal of the understanding of science, although further research is needed in many aspects. (shrink)
Öz Çalışmanın konusu irfanî geleneğin on beşinci yüzyıldaki önemli temsilcilerinden ve aynı zamanda İbnü’l-Arabî’nin takipçilerinden biri olan İbn Türke’nin varlık mertebelerine dair görüşleridir. Konu, İbn Türke’nin varlık ve varlığın mertebeleri ile ilgili düşüncelerinden hareketle hazırlanmıştır. Birincil kaynakların esas alındığı bu çalışmada, İbn Türke ve Ekberî geleneğin önemli temsilcilerinin eserlerine müracaat edilmiştir. Çalışmanın amacı, felsefe ve kelâmın yanı sıra tasavvuf felsefesinin en önemli konularından biri olan varlık düşüncesi ve varlık mertebelerini İbn Türke’nin görüşleri çerçevesinde ele alarak âlemdeki varoluşun hakikatinin ne olduğu, (...) insanoğlunun özünün nereden geldiği gibi temel sorulara cevap olabilecek özgün bir çalışma ortaya koymaktır. Bu çalışmayla; varlığın bir ve tek hakikat olduğu, Hak’tan feyz ederek görünür âlemde ortaya çıkan her şeyin O’nun isim ve sıfatlarının tecellisi olduğu, her ne kadar Hak’tan ayrıymış gibi görünse de aslında Hakk’a doğru sonsuz bir dönüş içerisinde olduğu, dolayısıyla tek varlıktan kaynaklı çok sayıda varlığın esasen yokluğa mahkûm olduğu ve asıl varlığın Allah olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. (shrink)
Page generated Thu Aug 5 17:51:53 2021 on philpapers-web-65948fd446-qrpbq
cache stats: hit=22854, miss=15463, save= autohandler : 2575 ms called component : 2551 ms search.pl : 1756 ms render loop : 1317 ms next : 731 ms autosense : 656 ms match_other : 625 ms addfields : 493 ms publicCats : 449 ms initIterator : 436 ms retrieve cache object : 175 ms menu : 121 ms save cache object : 99 ms prepCit : 46 ms match_cats : 28 ms quotes : 22 ms applytpl : 9 ms search_quotes : 9 ms match_authors : 1 ms intermediate : 1 ms init renderer : 0 ms setup : 0 ms auth : 0 ms writelog : 0 ms