Results for 'NIPT'

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  1. Termination of Pregnancy After NonInvasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT): Ethical Considerations.Tom Shakespeare & Richard Hull - 2018 - Journal of Practical Ethics 6 (2):32-54.
    This article explores the Nuffield Council on Bioethics’ recent report about non-invasive prenatal testing. Given that such testing is likely to become the norm, it is important to question whether there should be some ethical parameters regarding its use. The article engages with the viewpoints of Jeff McMahan, Julian Savulescu, Stephen Wilkinson and other commentators on prenatal ethics. The authors argue that there are a variety of moral considerations that legitimately play a significant role with regard to (prospective) parental decision-making (...)
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  2.  3
    Why NIPT Should Be Publicly Funded.Eline Maria Bunnik, Adriana Kater-Kuipers, Robert-Jan H. Galjaard & Inez de Beaufort - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106218.
    Asking pregnant women to pay for non-invasive prenatal testing out of pocket leads to unequal access across socioeconomic strata. To avoid these social justice issues, first-trimester prenatal screening should be publicly funded in countries such as the Netherlands, with universal coverage healthcare systems that offer all other antenatal care services and screening programmes free of charge. In this reply, we offer three additional reasons for public funding of NIPT. First, NIPT may not primarily have medical utility for women (...)
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  3.  31
    What Is “NIPT”? Divergent Characterizations of Noninvasive Prenatal Testing Strategies.Meredith Vanstone, Karima Yacoub, Shawn Winsor, Mita Giacomini & Jeff Nisker - 2015 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 6 (1):54-67.
  4.  2
    Die NIPT-Entscheidung des G-BA. Eine ethische Analyse.Christoph Rehmann-Sutter & Christina Schües - forthcoming - Ethik in der Medizin:1-19.
    Aus einer ethischen Perspektive analysieren wir die vom Gemeinsamen Bundesausschuss im September 2019 für Deutschland vorgelegte Änderung der Mutterschaftsrichtlinien, welche die Finanzierung der nicht-invasiven Pränataldiagnostik durch die gesetzlichen Krankenversicherungen unter bestimmten Bedingungen vorsieht. Die Regelung enthält vier wesentliche Elemente: eine Zielbestimmung, ein Zugangskriterium, Aussagen zum Entscheidungsprozess und eine in ihren Begründungen enthaltene normative Kontextualisierung.Es zeigen sich Spannungen, die um zwei Achsen oszillieren: Das befürchtete Leiden aufgrund der Geburt eines Kindes mit Trisomie oder dem Nichtwissen darüber kann letztlich nur subjektiv, aus (...)
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  5.  1
    Die NIPT-Entscheidung des G-BA. Eine Ethische AnalyseThe Decision of the German Federal Joint Committee to Cover NIPT in Mandatory Health Insurance. An Ethical Analysis.Christoph Rehmann-Sutter & Christina Schües - forthcoming - Ethik in der Medizin.
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  6.  25
    Prenatal Screening: Current Practice, New Developments, Ethical Challenges.Antina Jong, Idit Maya & Jan M. M. Lith - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (1):1-8.
    Prenatal screening pathways, as nowadays offered in most Western countries consist of similar tests. First, a risk-assessment test for major aneuploides is offered to pregnant women. In case of an increased risk, invasive diagnostic tests, entailing a miscarriage risk, are offered. For decades, only conventional karyotyping was used for final diagnosis. Moreover, several foetal ultrasound scans are offered to detect major congenital anomalies, but the same scans also provide relevant information for optimal support of the pregnancy and the delivery. Recent (...)
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  7.  22
    A New Ethical Landscape of Prenatal Testing: Individualizing Choice to Serve Autonomy and Promote Public Health: A Radical Proposal.Christian Munthe - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (1):36-45.
    A new landscape of prenatal testing is presently developing, including new techniques for risk-reducing, non-invasive sampling of foetal DNA and drastically enhanced possibilities of what may be rapidly and precisely analysed, surrounded by a growing commercial genetic testing industry and a general trend of individualization in healthcare policies. This article applies a set of established ethical notions from past debates on PNT for analysing PNT screening-programmes in this new situation. While some basic challenges of PNT stay untouched, the new development (...)
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  8.  27
    Prenatal Screening: An Ethical Agenda for the Near Future.Antina Jong & Guido M. W. R. Wert - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (1):46-55.
    Prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities such as Down's syndrome differs from other forms of population screening in that the usual aim of achieving health gains through treatment or prevention does not seem to apply. This type of screening leads to no other options but the choice between continuing or terminating the pregnancy and can only be morally justified if its aim is to provide meaningful options for reproductive choice to pregnant women and their partners. However, this aim should not be (...)
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  9.  18
    A Burden From Birth? Non‐Invasive Prenatal Testing and the Stigmatization of People with Disabilities.Giovanni Rubeis & Florian Steger - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (1):91-97.
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  10.  24
    Qualifying Choice: Ethical Reflection on the Scope of Prenatal Screening.Greg Stapleton - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 20 (2):195-205.
    In the near future developments in non-invasive prenatal testing may soon provide couples with the opportunity to test for and diagnose a much broader range of heritable and congenital conditions than has previously been possible. Inevitably, this has prompted much ethical debate on the possible implications of NIPT for providing couples with opportunities for reproductive choice by way of routine prenatal screening. In view of the possibility to test for a significantly broader range of genetic conditions with NIPT, (...)
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  11.  15
    Just Choice: A Danielsian Analysis of the Aims and Scope of Prenatal Screening for Fetal Abnormalities.Greg Stapleton, Wybo Dondorp, Peter Schröder-Bäck & Guido de Wert - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (4):545-555.
    Developments in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing and cell-free fetal DNA analysis raise the possibility that antenatal services may soon be able to support couples in non-invasively testing for, and diagnosing, an unprecedented range of genetic disorders and traits coded within their unborn child’s genome. Inevitably, this has prompted debate within the bioethics literature about what screening options should be offered to couples for the purpose of reproductive choice. In relation to this problem, the European Society of Human Genetics and American Society (...)
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  12.  9
    Ethics of Routine: A Critical Analysis of the Concept of ‘Routinisation’ in Prenatal Screening.Adriana Kater-Kuipers, Inez D. de Beaufort, Robert-Jan H. Galjaard & Eline M. Bunnik - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):626-631.
    In the debate surrounding the introduction of non-invasive prenatal testing in prenatal screening programmes, the concept of routinisation is often used to refer to concerns and potential negative consequences of the test. A literature analysis shows that routinisation has many different meanings, which can be distinguished in three major versions of the concept. Each of these versions comprises several inter-related fears and concerns regarding prenatal screening and particularly regarding NIPT in three areas: informed choice, freedom to choose and consequences (...)
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  13.  8
    Should Pregnant Women Be Charged for Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening? Implications for Reproductive Autonomy and Equal Access.Eline M. Bunnik, Adriana Kater-Kuipers, Robert-Jan H. Galjaard & Inez D. de Beaufort - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (3):194-198.
    The introduction of non-invasive prenatal testing in healthcare systems around the world offers an opportunity to reconsider funding policies for prenatal screening. In some countries with universal access healthcare systems, pregnant women and their partners are asked to pay for NIPT. In this paper, we discuss two important rationales for charging women for NIPT: to prevent increased uptake of NIPT and to promote informed choice. First, given the aim of prenatal screening, high or low uptake rates are (...)
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  14.  18
    ‘Is It Better Not to Know Certain Things?’: Views of Women Who Have Undergone Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing on its Possible Future Applications.Hilary Bowman-Smart, Julian Savulescu, Cara Mand, Christopher Gyngell, Mark D. Pertile, Sharon Lewis & Martin B. Delatycki - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (4):231-238.
    Non-invasive prenatal testing is at the forefront of prenatal screening. Current uses for NIPT include fetal sex determination and screening for chromosomal disorders such as trisomy 21. However, NIPT may be expanded to many different future applications. There are a potential host of ethical concerns around the expanding use of NIPT, as examined by the recent Nuffield Council report on the topic. It is important to examine what NIPT might be used for before these possibilities become (...)
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  15.  33
    For Your Interest? The Ethical Acceptability of Using Non‐Invasive Prenatal Testing to Test ‘Purely for Information’.Zuzana Deans, Angus J. Clarke & Ainsley J. Newson - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (1):19-25.
    Non-invasive prenatal testing is an emerging form of prenatal genetic testing that provides information about the genetic constitution of a foetus without the risk of pregnancy loss as a direct result of the test procedure. As with other prenatal tests, information from NIPT can help to make a decision about termination of pregnancy, plan contingencies for birth or prepare parents to raise a child with a genetic condition. NIPT can also be used by women and couples to test (...)
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  16.  12
    Chromosome Screening Using Noninvasive Prenatal Testing Beyond Trisomy-21: What to Screen for and Why It Matters.Kristien Hens - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (1):8-21.
    With the new and highly accurate noninvasive prenatal test, new options for screening become available. I contend that the current state of the art of NIPT is already in need of a thorough ethical investigation and that there are different points to consider before any chromosomal or subchromosomal condition is added to the screening panel of a publicly funded screening program. Moreover, the application of certain ethical principles makes the inclusion of some conditions unethical in a privately funded scheme, (...)
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  17.  8
    Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing as a Routine Procedure of Prenatal careNichtinvasive Pränataltests Als Teil der Vorgeburtlichen Regelversorgung.Giovanni Rubeis, Marcin Orzechowski & Florian Steger - 2020 - Ethik in der Medizin 32 (1):49-63.
    Definition of the problemIn March 2019, the German Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss presented the result of the method assessment process on non-invasive prenatal testing. The aim of this method assessment process was to decide whether NIPT should become a publicly funded procedure of routine prenatal care. The G‑BA decided in favor of NIPT, making the implementation of NIPT very likely, provided that other healthcare and political institutions also agree.ArgumentsThis development could be interpreted as empowering from the perspective of reproductive (...)
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  18.  4
    Implementation Challenges for an Ethical Introduction of Noninvasive Prenatal Testing: A Qualitative Study of Healthcare Professionals’ Views From Lebanon and Quebec.Vardit Ravitsky, Labib Ghulmiyyah, Gilles Bibeau, Anne-Marie Laberge, Meredith Vanstone & Hazar Haidar - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-11.
    BackgroundThe clinical introduction of non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal aneuploidies is currently transforming the landscape of prenatal screening in many countries. Since it is noninvasive, safe and allows the early detection of abnormalities, NIPT expanded rapidly and the test is currently commercially available in most of the world. As NIPT is being introduced globally, its clinical implementation should consider various challenges, including the role of the surrounding social and cultural contexts. We conducted a qualitative study with healthcare professionals (...)
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    Non-invasive prenatal testing as a routine procedure of prenatal care: Perspectives and challenges regarding reproductive autonomy.Giovanni Rubeis, Marcin Orzechowski & Florian Steger - 2020 - Ethik in der Medizin 32 (1):49-63.
    Definition of the problemIn March 2019, the German Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss presented the result of the method assessment process on non-invasive prenatal testing. The aim of this method assessment process was to decide whether NIPT should become a publicly funded procedure of routine prenatal care. The G‑BA decided in favor of NIPT, making the implementation of NIPT very likely, provided that other healthcare and political institutions also agree.ArgumentsThis development could be interpreted as empowering from the perspective of reproductive (...)
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  20.  4
    Non-invasive prenatal testing as a routine procedure of prenatal care: Perspectives and challenges regarding reproductive autonomy.Giovanni Rubeis, Marcin Orzechowski & Florian Steger - 2020 - Ethik in der Medizin 32 (1):49-63.
    Definition of the problemIn March 2019, the German Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss presented the result of the method assessment process on non-invasive prenatal testing. The aim of this method assessment process was to decide whether NIPT should become a publicly funded procedure of routine prenatal care. The G‑BA decided in favor of NIPT, making the implementation of NIPT very likely, provided that other healthcare and political institutions also agree.ArgumentsThis development could be interpreted as empowering from the perspective of reproductive (...)
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    Non-invasive prenatal testing as a routine procedure of prenatal care: Perspectives and challenges regarding reproductive autonomy.Giovanni Rubeis, Marcin Orzechowski & Florian Steger - 2020 - Ethik in der Medizin 32 (1):49-63.
    Definition of the problemIn March 2019, the German Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss presented the result of the method assessment process on non-invasive prenatal testing. The aim of this method assessment process was to decide whether NIPT should become a publicly funded procedure of routine prenatal care. The G‑BA decided in favor of NIPT, making the implementation of NIPT very likely, provided that other healthcare and political institutions also agree.ArgumentsThis development could be interpreted as empowering from the perspective of reproductive (...)
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  22.  25
    Against Boredom : 17 Essays on Ignorance, Values, Creativity, Metaphysics, Decision-Making, Truth, Preference, Art, Processes, Ramsey, Ethics, Rationality, Validity, Human Ills, Science, and Eternal Life to Nils-Eric Sahlin on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday. [REVIEW]Johannes Persson, Göran Hermerén & Eva Sjöstrand - unknown
    in Undetermined Table d’Hôte Ingar Brinck: Investigating the development of creativity: The Sahlin hypothesis 7 Linus Broström: Known unknowns and proto-second-personal address in photographic art 25 Johan Brännmark: Critical moral thinking without moral theory 33 Martin Edman: Vad är ett missförhållande? 43 Pascal Engel: Rambling on the value of truth 51 Peter Gärdenfors: Ambiguity in decision making and the fear of being fooled 75 Göran Hermerén: NIPT: Ethical aspects 89 Mats Johansson: Roboethics: What problems should be addressed and why? (...)
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  23.  16
    Women’s Perspectives on the Ethical Implications of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing: A Qualitative Analysis to Inform Health Policy Decisions.Meredith Vanstone, Alexandra Cernat, Jeff Nisker & Lisa Schwartz - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):27.
    Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing is a technology which provides information about fetal genetic characteristics very early in pregnancy by examining fetal DNA obtained from a sample of maternal blood. NIPT is a morally complex technology that has advanced quickly to market with a strong push from industry developers, leaving many areas of uncertainty still to be resolved, and creating a strong need for health policy that reflects women’s social and ethical values. We approach the need for ethical policy-making by studying (...)
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