We present two studies that examine the effects of guanxi on multiple social groups from the perspective of Chinese business people. Study 1 (N = 203) tests the difference in perceived effects of six guanxi contextualizations. Study 2 (N = 195) examines the duality of guanxi as either helpful or harmful to social groups, depending on the contextualization. Findings suggest guanxi may result in positive as well as negative outcomes for focal actors and the aggregate.
The rapid development of artificial intelligence has brought many opportunities and challenges to organization. Some studies have shown that AI can improve organizational creativity. However, the existing research lacks an effective transformation path. This paper makes an innovative approach from the perspective of knowledge sharing, establishes an integration model of artificial intelligence capability, knowledge sharing and organizational creativity. Based on 189 questionnaire data, we use multi-level regression analysis and bootstrap method to analyze the influence mechanism. The results show that artificial (...) intelligence has a positive effect on knowledge sharing, knowledge sharing has a positive effect on organizational creativity, knowledge sharing mediates the relationship between artificial intelligence and organizational creativity, and organizational cohesion has a positive moderating effect on the relationship between artificial intelligence and knowledge sharing. The results supplement the existing research on the relationship between artificial intelligence capability and organizational creativity, expand the theoretical boundary and application space from the perspective of knowledge sharing at the organizational level, and provide reference for organizations to improve creativity. (shrink)
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 is an instrument in the assessment of mental health status. The current study recruited 1,532 Chinese hospital workers [74.4% female; mean age = 31.97 years] to examine the reliability, latent structure, and measurement invariance of the DASS-21 between genders. The Cronbach’s α values were greater than 0.90 for total score. This study examined four possible models of the DASS-21 using the confirmatory factor analysis in Chinese hospital workers. The results from CFA revealed that the latent (...) structure of the DASS-21 in medical staffs is best represented by a one-factor model. Then we used the one-factor model to examine measurement invariance across genders by using a multiple-group categorical CFA. All values of root mean square error approximation were less than 0.08, all Comparative Fix Index and Tucker–Lewis Index values were greater than 0.90, all ΔCFI values were less than 0.010, and ΔRMSEA were less than 0.015. These findings supported the gender invariance of the DASS-21 among Chinese hospital workers. (shrink)
In recent years, more and more people are applying Convolutional Neural Networks to the study of sound signals. The main reason is the translational invariance of convolution in time and space. Thereby the diversity of the sound signal can be overcome. However, in terms of sound direction recognition, there are also problems such as a microphone matrix being too large, and feature selection. This paper proposes a sound direction recognition using a simulated human head with microphones at both ears. Theoretically, (...) the two microphones cannot distinguish the front and rear directions. However, we use the original data of the two channels as the input of the convolutional neural network, and the resolution effect can reach more than 0.9. For comparison, we also chose the delay feature for sound direction recognition. Finally, we also conducted experiments that used probability distributions to identify more directions. (shrink)
In today’s business world, the phenomenon of overqualification is widespread. Organizations need to consider – how to motivate the overqualified employees to utilize their qualifications, for example, promoting creative performance. Based on person-organization fit theory, this study explored when and how employees, who feel overqualified can engage in creative performance. Data were collected from 170 supervisor-subordinate dyads of 41 groups in 10 manufacturing companies across two timepoints in China. Results revealed that perceived overqualification is positively related to organizational identification when (...) employee development-oriented organizational culture is strong but negatively related to organizational identification when employee development-oriented organizational culture is weak, organizational identification is positively related to creative performance, the indirect relationship between perceived overqualification and creative performance via organizational identification is moderated by employee development-oriented organizational culture. We provide several theoretical contributions to the overqualification literature and make some suggestions to motivate the overqualified employees to use their surplus qualifications within the organizations. (shrink)
ObjectiveTo test the relationship between social security satisfaction, social fairness, social trust, and people’s subjective wellbeing in China and the serial mediation effect in this study.MethodsWe utilized the data from Chinese Social Survey in 2017 and 2019, involving 31 provinces across the country. There were 5,398 samples in 2017CSS and 2,580 samples in 2019CSS selected by the research objectives. There were 4,269 women and 3,709 men with the average age of participants being 43.ResultsThe results showed that the actual status of (...) social security satisfaction, social fairness and trust, and SWB were greater than the theoretical status overall. Social security satisfaction [β = 0.454, p < 0.001, 95% CI = ], social fairness [β = 0.065, p < 0.001, 95% CI = ], and social trust [β = 0.108, p < 0.001, 95% CI = ] positively influenced people’s SWB, respectively. Social fairness had a positive effect on social trust. Social fairness and social trust partly mediated the relationship between social security satisfaction and SWB, respectively. Social security satisfaction indirectly influenced SWB through the serial effect of social fairness and social trust. The total effect of SWB explained is 47% in the serial mediation model.ConclusionSatisfactory social security is likely to cause a high level of people’s SWB, social fairness, and social trust. It is beneficial to form a virtuous circle in society. Allowing people to obtain satisfactory social security is conducive to social equity, promoting social trust, and improving people’s SWB. (shrink)
Background: Social, emotional, and behavioral problems in childhood are key predictors of persistent problem behaviors throughout the life courses of individuals. Early parental intervention training, as an important preventive measure, plays a critical role in improving the social, emotional, and behavioral development of children.Method: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze the intervention effects of the latest literature on Triple P, which is a multilevel system that provides treatment and prevention for children at risk of social, emotional, and (...) behavioral problems via parenting approaches to enhance the parenting knowledge, skills, and confidence of parents. Since the literature on Triple P from 1970 to 2012 has already been systematically reviewed, this study searched the literature from 2013 to 2020 from the Web of Science, EBSCO, ERIC, MEDLINE, CNKI, and Triple P Evidence-Base website using multiple search strategies. This study differs from the existing research by its inclusion criteria of studies that use experimental designs or quasi-experimental designs. A total of 37 studies were included in the final analysis, and STATA 16.0 was used for evaluation while RevMan 5.3 for risk of bias assessment.Results: The results show that Triple P can promote the social competence of children and prevent their emotional and behavioral problems to a certain extent. Simultaneously, the proximal effects on parents mainly included changing negative parenting styles, reducing parenting conflicts, and improving parenting efficacy and self-confidence. The distal effects on parents included reducing the psychological adjustment problems of parents, improving parent–child relationships, and reducing parent–child conflict. However, the meta-analysis results did not show a significant effect of Triple P on improving the marital relationship quality and satisfaction of parents. Components of the program intervention, including intervention level, service delivery format, service method, and program implementation setting, and the age of the children were crucial moderating factors on the outcomes of Triple P.Conclusion: This study systematically reviewed the latest Triple P intervention literature and found the significant effectiveness of Triple P on the SEB problems of children and parenting outcomes and the moderators of the effect size. (shrink)
Under the dual background of underemployment and health inequality, this study empirically analyzes the impact of education level on underemployed workers’ health based on data from the 2016 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey. The results show that underemployment is significantly related to the decline of self-rated health, increased depressive tendencies, and the prevalence of illness over a certain period. The results indicate that underemployment can significantly reduce the health level of workers in both low and high education level groups. However, underemployment (...) appears to have no significant impact on workers’ health in the middle education level group. This result holds even if the measurement method of the indicators is adjusted and endogeneity is considered; this indicates that the research conclusions are robust. Moreover, this kind of health inequality mainly comes from the economic and leisure effects of underemployment for workers with different educational levels. Although underemployment significantly reduces the economic level of workers in each education level group, it brings a positive leisure effect to workers with a middle education level and a negative leisure effect to workers with a low education level. This study provides empirical support for increasing labor protection mechanisms for underemployed people and reducing the health inequality caused by differences in education level. (shrink)
An experiment examined goal understanding and how perceivers’ suspiciousness was associated with the accuracy, valence, and certainty of their inferences about a pursuer’s goal. In initial interactions, one dyad member was randomly assigned as the pursuer, and the other was the perceiver. The congruency of the perceiver’s and the pursuer’s conversation goals and the perceiver’s cognitive busyness were manipulated. Results confirmed that accuracy decreased as perceivers’ suspiciousness increased only for not-busy perceivers in the goal-discord condition because perceivers’ inferences were negatively (...) valenced. Results also supported the hypotheses that certainty decreased as perceivers’ suspiciousness increased only for not-busy perceivers in the goal-discord condition and that certainty increased as perceivers’ suspiciousness increased both for not-busy perceivers in the identical-goal condition and for busy perceivers in the goal-discord condition. (shrink)
The processing of words in sentence reading is influenced by both information from sentential context and information from previewing upcoming words, but how both effects interact during online reading is not clear. In this study, we tested the interaction of predictability effect and the preview effect in predicting reading processing. In the experiment, sentence constraint was controlled using all high-constraint sentences as materials. We manipulated both the predictability of the target word in the sentence and the semantic relationship between the (...) preview word and the target word as predictors of the semantic preview effect. The results showed that the semantic preview effect was present only when the target word had low-predictability in the sentence but was not observed when the target word had high-predictability in the sentence. The results suggest that contextual information in reading can modulate the pre-activation of words and thus influence whether the preview word has a priming effect. The results of this study provide further evidence that reading comprehension involves an interactive system of processing multiple sources of information at multiple levels. (shrink)
This study investigated a conceptual model by testing how parental romantic relationships influenced the depressive symptoms of grown-up children and whether the constructive communication patterns of grown-up children and romantic relationships played mediation effects within it. A total of 421 Chinese participants were enrolled in the study. The level of depressive symptoms, romantic relationship satisfaction and closeness, couple communication patterns, and parental romantic relationships were measured via self-report questionnaires. According to the results, the structural equation modeling analysis verified that the (...) severity of participants’ depressive symptoms was negatively associated with the parental romantic relationship and that the association was mediated by participants’ constructive communication patterns and their own romantic relationships. Furthermore, compared with nondepressed participants, depressed participants were less satisfied with their parental romantic relationships, exhibited fewer constructive communication patterns, and were more distant and unsatisfied with current romantic relationships. (shrink)
Experience marketing plays an important role in improving the quality and upgrading tourism services in cultural tourism cities and helps guide the planning and development, commodity design, and business management of cultural tourism products. However, the urgent problems that need to be solved are as follows: How does experiential marketing in cultural tourism cities affect tourists' consumption behavior? How to adjust consumption emotion in tourist experience and revisit intention? Starting from the experience needs of tourists, this study selected Jinan city, (...) represented by “Qilu culture,” as the research object; discussed the relationship between experiential marketing, consumption emotion, and revisit intention; and used a structural equation model to verify the relationship between the three. This study divided the perception of experiential marketing into four dimensions—sensory experience, action experience, emotional experience, and thinking experience, and divided tourists' revisit intention into two dimensions— “revisit” and “recommendation”. Totally, 305 tourists were randomly selected to participate in the questionnaire survey, and they came from 34 provinces in China. The results showed that cultural tourism cities can enhance tourists' positive consumption emotion through experiential marketing over time, and high-quality tourist consumption experience directly motivates tourists to revisit intention and then promotes tourists to go to cultural tourism cities for secondary consumption. These results suggest that cultural tourism cities should start from Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, pay attention to the needs of tourists at different levels, and adopt effective experiential marketing strategies from tourism experience to improve the quality of tourists' travel experience and promote tourists' revisit intention. (shrink)
Our research in China does not show gender differences in insecure attachment patterns. We believe that cultural differences between Chinese and Western societies may help to explain this phenomenon. Mating and parenting circumstances in China do not allow males to adopt a zero-investment strategy. In addition, attachment styles are transmitted across generations and last for the whole lifespan. Here, we argue that the influence of mating and parenting on the well-developed attachment patterns in childhood is relatively small.
The propositional nature of human associative learning is strongly supported by studies of trace eyeblink and fear conditioning, in which awareness of the contingency of a conditioned stimulus upon an unconditioned stimulus is a prerequisite for successful learning. Studies of animal lesion and human imaging suggest that the hippocampus is critical for establishing functional connections between awareness and trace conditioning.
Today, cities account for the majority of global energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The interaction between cities is critical for regional low-carbon development. At this time, China has turned to the full opening of the carbon trading market as an important policy tool for achieving its ambitious emission reduction goals. This paper attempts to explore the spatial relationships among cities from the perspective of carbon trading. A “multiscenarios across different spatial scales” analysis framework applied to the allocation and trading of (...) CO2 emission quotas among cities in China is proposed. Based on this framework, the carbon trading networks of 182 cities in China are specifically simulated under four different scenarios, with a comparative analysis of the networks’ complexity made from different perspectives. The results of the study are as follows: firstly, significant spatial network correlations exist between the cities’ carbon trading under each scenario. Secondly, on a national scale, there are more inner connections in carbon trading networks, with stronger correlations and robustness, while the degree of connection of intercity carbon trading is higher overall on a regional scale. Thirdly, on a national scale, no obvious core nodes exist in the network, while core nodes do exist in the overall network and in each region under the regional scale. Fourthly, cities in the central region have the highest core position overall. Finally, based on the research results, practical guidance in using the framework for achieving carbon reduction, promoting economic growth, and balancing regional development, as well as the important inspiration for policy formulation, is further discussed. (shrink)
As a NP-hard problem that needs to be solved in real time, the dynamic task allocation problem of unmanned aerial vehicle swarm has gradually become a difficulty and hotspot in the current planning field. Aiming at the problems of poor real-time performance and low quality of the solution in the dynamic task allocation of heterogeneous UAV swarm in uncertain environment, this paper establishes a dynamic task allocation model that can meet the actual needs and uses the binary wolf pack algorithm (...) to solve it, so as to propose a dynamic task allocation method of heterogeneous UAV swarm in uncertain environment. In this method, a dynamic mechanism of attacking while searching and priority attacking of important targets is designed. A dynamic task allocation model of multitarget, multitask, heterogeneous multiaircraft platform and multiconstraint is established based on the target cost-effectiveness ratio and task execution time window. In addition, one-dimensional 0–1 coding method is adopted to encode the task allocation scheme. Furthermore, the wolf pack algorithm is introduced in brief. This paper focuses on the BWPA with the good computational robustness and strong global search ability to solve the dynamic allocation model. According to the simulation results, the designed task allocation method not only has good adaptability to the change of target and UAV number, as well as good stability and scalability, but also can effectively solve the dynamic task allocation problem of heterogeneous UAV swarm in unknown environment. Therefore, the established model and solution method can provide a useful reference for task allocation and other related problems. (shrink)
This paper seeks to understand the transmission and reception of legal rules as a component of the regulatory compliance process. It adopts a frontline approach to regulatory compliance that traces the grassroot functioning of compliance processes from regulator, to compliance managers to individual employees. Through a multilevel and multi-sited ethnography of worker safety protection in Chinese construction industry, this paper shows that in the cases studied there is a fundamental disconnect in the transmission and reception of law from regulator to (...) organization and within the regulated organization. Yet at the same time, the paper finds that employees did comply with the law, and that thus compliance can exist without a full transmission and reception of legal rules into and within the regulated organization. By expanding the frontline approach to study regulation and compliance to look at the grassroots operation across three different frontlines, this study has been able to assess the legal assumptions inherent in existing regulatory compliance research. Not only does it find that compliance in these cases was not a top-down process and that we need to look at the grassroots operation inside organizations, it also shows that law does not always play a central role in regulatory compliance and that we need to reassess the implicit focus on law in regulatory compliance scholarship. (shrink)
The current study aimed to explore how family atmosphere influenced pro-social behavior among Chinese college students and to explore the mediation roles of gratitude and self-efficacy. We recruited 800 Chinese college students, and the participation rate was 89%. Participants completed the family atmosphere scale, the pro-social tendencies measure, the gratitude questionnaire, and the general self-efficacy scale. Results indicated that Family atmosphere, gratitude, self-efficacy, and pro-social behavior were positively correlated after controlling for the grade, gender, and age. The family atmosphere affected (...) pro-social behavior not only directly, but also indirectly through the partial mediating role of gratitude and self-efficacy. Moreover, gratitude and self-efficacy also played a full chained mediation role in the relationship between the family atmosphere and pro-social behavior of college students. Therefore, a supportive family atmosphere is conducive to promoting college students’ gratitude and self-efficacy, in turn affecting their pro-social behavior. (shrink)
The PID control plays important role in wing vibration control systems. However, how to efficiently optimize the PID parameters for different kinds of wing vibration systems is still an open issue for control designers. The problem of PID control optimization is first converted into internal mode control based PID parameters optimization problem for complex wing vibration systems. To solve this problem, a novel optimization technique, called GNPSO is proposed based on the hybridization of improved grey particle swarm optimization and new (...) Luus-Jaakola algorithm. The original GPSO is modified by using small population size/iteration number, employing new grey analysis rule and designing new updating formula of acceleration coefficients. The hybrid GNPSO benefits improved global exploration of GPSO and strong local search of new Luus-Jaakola, so as to avoid arbitrary and inefficient search of global optimum and prevent the trap in local optimum. Diverse wing vibration systems, including linear system, nonlinear system and multiple-input-multiple-output system are considered to verify the effectiveness of proposed method. Simulation results show that GNPSO optimized method obtains improved vibration control performance, stronger robustness and wide applicability on all system cases, compared to existing evolutionary algorithm based tuning methods. Enhanced optimization convergence and computation efficiency obtained by GNPSO tuning technique are also verified by statistical analysis. (shrink)
The optimization of high-dimensional functions is an important problem in both science and engineering. Wolf pack algorithm is a technique often used for computing the global optimum of a multivariable function. In this paper, we develop a new wolf pack algorithm that can accurately compute the optimal value of a high-dimensional function. First, chaotic opposite initialization is designed to improve the quality of initial solution. Second, the disturbance factor is added in the scouting process to enhance the searching ability of (...) wolves, and an adaptive step length is designed to enhance the global searching ability to prevent wolves from falling into the local optimum effectively. A set of standard test functions are selected to test the performance of the proposed algorithm, and the test results are compared with other algorithms. The high-dimensional and ultrahigh-dimensional functions are tested. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm features in good global convergence, high accuracy calculation, strong robustness, and excellent performance in high-dimensional functions. (shrink)