Leah Andress,1 Anjali Gupta,2 Nida Siddiqi,3 Kwaku Marfo2,3 1University at Buffalo School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Buffalo, 2Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for Albert Einstein College of Medicine Department of Abdominal Organ Transplant Program, Bronx, 3Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Pharmacy, Bronx, NY, USA: Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin has proven benefit as induction therapy in renal transplant recipients, achieving reduced acute rejection rates and better short-term allograft function, with slightly higher rates of complications such as (...) infections and malignancy. Compared with other agents, the most benefit from rATG induction has been observed in renal transplant recipients at high immunologic risk for rejection. However, in special populations, such as pediatrics, the elderly, and hepatitis C-positive and human immunodeficiency virus-positive renal transplant recipients, additional information is needed to delineate the absolute benefit of rATG induction compared with other induction agents. Selection of rATG as the choice of induction therapy in renal transplant recipients should be guided by a cost-effective approach in balancing efficacy, safety, and cost. This review summarizes the published literature on efficacy, safety, and cost of rATG induction in renal transplantation. Keywords: anti-thymocyte globulin, renal transplantation, induction therapy. (shrink)
There is growing evidence that words that are acquired early in life are processed faster and more accurately than words acquired later, even by adults. As neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have implicated different brain networks in the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns, the present study was aimed at contrasting reaction times to early and later-acquired action verbs and concrete nouns, in order to determine whether effects of word learning age express differently for the two types of words. Our (...) results show that while word frequency affected both types of words in the same way, distinct learning age effects were observed for action verbs and concrete nouns. A further experiment specified that this difference was observed for verbs describing actions belonging to the human motor repertoire, but not for verbs denoting actions past this repertoire (e.g., to neigh). We interpret these data within a recently emerging framework according to which language processing is associated with sensory motor programs. (shrink)
Bringing culture and personality in a combination with emotions requires bringing three different theories together. In this paper, we discuss an approach for combining Hofstedeâs cultural dimensions, BIG five personality parameters and PSI theory of emotions to come up with an emergent affective character model.
Known primarily for his popular and moralizing novels, Nazir Ahmad’s accomplishments as a scholar of Islam are often omitted from his biography. Yet in addition to working for the British Government of India, participating in Muslim social, political, and educational initiatives on the subcontinent, and demonstrating his linguistic and legal acumen by translating the law codes of British India into vernacular Urdu, Nazir Ahmad also translated religious texts and penned his own original compositions on themes of religion, society, and ethics. (...) Reviewing the ideas presented in his comprehensive three-volume al-Ḥuqūq va-l-farāʾiż and his shorter catechism Ijtihād, this article outlines Nazir Ahmad’s theory of worldly religion and introduces his concept of Islamic humanism in response to ulema-centric approaches to Islamic revival and reform in British India. (shrink)
Since its formal inception in the early 20th century, Islamic economicshas been considered a modern phenomenon, even though its foundations canbe traced back to the earliest of Muslim civilizations. However, despite Islamiceconomics being more than half a century old, there are many serious issues,such as epistemological and methodological concerns, that need to be resolved.In order to delve into such matters, a clear understanding of the origins of modernIslamic economics is necessary. Hence, some of the important questions are:who are its initiators, (...) what were they especially interested in, and how have itssubject matter, agenda and intentions changed through different time-periods.Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to focus on and evaluate the course ofthe early development of Islamic economics via two bibliographies of Siddiqi, and Zaim. In order to attain this aim, content analysis usingexcel-generated heat maps are used to facilitate contextualized interpretation.More specifically, heat maps for the two selected works mentioned above arecreated from the two bibliographies in order to make comparisons betweenthem. (shrink)
The role of leadership in the twenty-first century is challenging and varied, with changes often impacting across national borders. Leadership is a process, involving reciprocal influence. It has shortcomings and limitations, but in optimum conditions it can harmoniously harness and synthesize relevant knowledge, make sense of environmental features and changes, and co-generate new knowledge, usually in response to strategic demands and exigencies. Leadership responsibilities are all encompassing and require a holistic overview. Participatory action research is the chosen methodological vehicle, supported (...) by various research instruments. There is ongoing active engagement, including with a non-governmental organisation ABC, where the researcher has an advisory role. (shrink)
Philosophy of history; the idea of the not-being and the history, by K. M. Jamil.--Philosophy of history, by Khwaja Ashkar Husain.--Philosophy of history, by A. H. Kamali.--Philosophy of history, by B. H. Siddiqi.--Philosophy of history: explanation in history, by Kazi A. Kadir.