This concluding essay offers reflections on core components of the faculty fellowship program, its outcomes and results, and program design and administration. Amid the current calls for reform in legal and other professional education, the lessons we learned and perspectives we gained during this fellowship program may be relevant to any faculty members and university administrations that are seeking to create more effective and engaged professional and graduate school programs, whatever may be their subject-matter discipline.
Laws, ordinances, regulations, and executive orders create the powers and duties of public health agencies and modify the complex community conditions that affect health. Appropriately trained legal counsel serving as legal advisors on the health officer's team facilitate clear understanding of the legal basis for public health interventions and access to legal tools for carrying them out.Legal counsel serve public health agencies via different organizational arrangements — e.g., internal staff counsel, external counsel from the state attorney general's office, state health (...) department, county or city, or private counsel under contract, or in combination. As of 2011, most state health departments employ their own counsel, and 56% use AG counsel, while 17% contract with independent attorneys; most local health departments work with attorneys and legal staff assigned by local government, by the state health agency, or contract with outside attorneys and legal staff. (shrink)
E-cigarettes, sometimes referred to as ENDS, include a broad range of products that deliver nicotine via heating and aerosolization of the drug. ENDS come in a variety of forms, but regardless of form generally consist of a solution containing humectant, flavorings, and usually nicotine ; a battery-powered coil that heats the solution into an aerosol in an atomizing chamber; and a mouthpiece through which the user draws the vapor into the mouth and lungs. The devices may be closed systems containing (...) prefilled cartridges, or open systems, where the user manually refills a 1-2 ml. tank with solution. What started as closed-system cigarette-shaped devices marketed as an adjunct for smoking cessation, has transitioned rapidly to literally thousands of hip and funky-designed open-system hookah pens, vape pens, and modifiable devices. For younger people, these forms are the “in” thing, while traditional cigarette-shaped devices are “out.”. (shrink)