Our research in China does not show gender differences in insecure attachment patterns. We believe that cultural differences between Chinese and Western societies may help to explain this phenomenon. Mating and parenting circumstances in China do not allow males to adopt a zero-investment strategy. In addition, attachment styles are transmitted across generations and last for the whole lifespan. Here, we argue that the influence of mating and parenting on the well-developed attachment patterns in childhood is relatively small.
The propositional nature of human associative learning is strongly supported by studies of trace eyeblink and fear conditioning, in which awareness of the contingency of a conditioned stimulus upon an unconditioned stimulus is a prerequisite for successful learning. Studies of animal lesion and human imaging suggest that the hippocampus is critical for establishing functional connections between awareness and trace conditioning.
A major controversy in the study of the "Analects" has been over the relation between two central concepts, ren (humanity, human excellence) and li (rites, rituals of propriety). Confucius seems to have said inconsistent things about this relation. Some passages appear to suggest that ren is more fundamental than li, while others seem to imply the contrary. It is therefore not surprising that there have been different interpretations and characterizations of this relation. Using the analogy of language grammar and mastery (...) of a language, it is proposed here that we should understand li as a cultural grammar and ren as the mastery of a culture. In this account, society cultivates its members through li toward the goal of ren, and persons of ren manifest their human excellence through their practice of li. (shrink)
Heterogeneous information network, which contains various types of nodes and links, has been applied in recommender systems. Although HIN-based recommendation approaches perform better than the traditional recommendation approaches, they still have the following problems: for example, meta-paths are manually selected, not automatically; meta-path representations are rarely explicitly learned; and the global and local information of each node in HIN has not been simultaneously explored. To solve the above deficiencies, we propose a tri-attention neural network model for recommendation task. The proposed (...) TANN model applies the stud genetic algorithm to automatically select meta-paths at first. Then, it learns global and local representations of each node, as well as the representations of meta-paths existing in HIN. After that, a tri-attention mechanism is proposed to enhance the mutual influence among users, items, and their related meta-paths. Finally, the encoded interaction information among the user, the item, and their related meta-paths, which contain more semantic information can be used for recommendation task. Extensive experiments on the Douban Movie, MovieLens, and Yelp datasets have demonstrated the outstanding performance of the proposed approach. (shrink)
It is proposed here that the Confucian li, norms of appropriate behavior, be understood as part of the dynamic process of moral self-cultivation. Within this framework li are multidimensional, as they have different functions at different stages in the cultivation process. This novel interpretation refocuses the issue regarding the flexibility of li, a topic that is still being debated by scholars. The significance of this proposal is not restricted to a new understanding of li. Key features of the various stages (...) of moral development in Confucian thought are also articulated. This account presents the picture of a Confucian paradigmatic person as critically self-aware and ethically sensitive. (shrink)