The paper argues that the common notion that there is a gap between a physical scope, namely, brain processes, and something immaterial such as private experiences is an illusion provoked by the conceptual conflicts of our understanding. In order to overcome this illusion, it is necessary to clarify the foundations and implications of the uses of key concepts in the cognitive field.
Os artigos que compõem este dossiê lidam com temas centrais da filosofia da mente e da filosofia da linguagem. Alguns deles abordam temas clássicos e apresentam panoramas em língua portuguesa, de modo que se fazem úteis a jovens leitores. Outros textos apresentam propostas mais ousadas e prometem incitar debate entre filósofos mais experientes. Desse modo, este volume se equilibra ao oferecer conteúdo para diversos públicos. Esta introdução pretende fornecer uma descrição sintética das contribuições deste volume, para que o leitor possa (...) ter uma visão sinóptica do conteúdo apresentado. Em filosofia da mente, há discussões sobre o consciente e o inconsciente, qualia, fisicalismo, alucinações, hipótese da mente estendida, emoções, o problema da lacuna explicativa e reducionismo nas explicações em ciências cognitivas. Em filosofia da linguagem, são tratados temas como a relação entre pensamento e linguagem, normatividade linguística e demonstrativos. Além disso, contamos com textos com abordagens históricas que tratam dos escritos de Wittgenstein acerca da psicologia e da investigação de Antístenes acerca dos nomes. (shrink)
The way health is conceptualized determines the actions taken to protect and promote it and, in turn, the actors responsible for such actions in an increasingly inter-dependent world. This essay presents a brief description of health policies in Peru during the last ten years in order to analyze the implications of paradigms of medical ethics, human rights and quality of care. These paradigms offer distinct ways of formulating, applying and evaluating health policies and understanding the relationship among different actors at (...) various levels. Building upon other detailed analyses of sexual and reproductive health policy in Peru (Coe, 2004; Miranda and Yamin, 2004), as well as critical appraisals of health services models (Gericke, Kurowski, Ranson and Mills, 2005; Krieger, Northridge, Gruskin, Quinn, Kriebel, Davey Smith, Bassett, Rehkopf and Miller, 2003), this article advocates the importance of construing and promoting health as a human right. (shrink)
Conceptual analysis has been a traditional methodology within analytic philosophy, but it also has been the target of numerous attacks. On the other hand, explication has been undergoing a revival as a methodological alternative due to the revisionary element associated with it. This allows for a scientific reconstruction of our ordinary notions, which would share virtues associated with scientific concepts. However, there is now a popular variant of conceptual analysis which resembles closely the explicative methodology: the two-step methodology advanced by (...) the advocates of the Canberra Plan. Although explication is a wider and more ambitious program, I will argue that both methodologies can be regarded as attempts to bring philosophical methodology and its products closer to scientific ones. However, I will also point out that, although the goal is advantageous, there still remain some theoretical problems. (shrink)
Latin American rigorous thought has consisted of a reconstruction of western rigorous thought. This inflexion is not only limited to literary practice, it also, and most importantly, reaches all sciences, and here visibly touches the social sciences. As such, the relation between literature and t..
“ De jure and De facto Rigidity in the General Terms for Natural Kinds”. This paper will argue that one of rigidity’s central problems in general terms for natural kinds, is consequence of not distinguishing between de jure rigid terms and de facto rigid terms on these cases. The paper claims that necessary identity sentences defended by Kripke in Naming and Necessity consider the term’s occurrence to designate a same kind (kinds which share the transworld relation of being one same (...) kind) through two rigidity terms, a de jure one, and a de facto one. This allows to explain the problems that arise from the notion of rigidity in the case of general terms for natural kinds, since it maintains the causal connection requirements, while at the same time it enunciates the identity criterion between these kinds, through the essential property(ies) of the abovementioned kind. (shrink)
How do calculative trust and relational trust influence the emergence of institutional-based trust in farmers’ markets? We fill a gap in the literature by studying how diverse forms of trust influence the way frequent consumers evaluate the institutions of a farmers’ market. We analyze a data set of 687 frequent shoppers from the U.S. state of Missouri, assessing the institutional-based trust in farmers’ markets in comparison with the level of institutional-based trust in conventional food systems. The results suggest that calculative (...) trust plays an important role in the consolidation of institutional-based trust in local food systems. More specifically, consumers who shop frequently and live closer to a farmers’ market tend to trust more in local food systems than in conventional food systems. Likewise, affinity towards conventional food systems—i.e., convenience-oriented lifestyle preferences—seems to influence the level of institutional-based trust in local food systems. Consumers who eat out more often tend to trust less in local food systems, possibly due to the lack of repeated experiences with sellers. Following the literature, we also show that consumers search for a broader set of attributes when shopping at a farmers’ market. Even though relational trust is correlated with higher levels of institutional-based trust in alternative food systems, strong ties do not increase the trust in the information found in a farmers’ market. (shrink)
Como o próprio título indica, este ensaio pretende dialogar com a recepção do sublime kantiano pela fi losofi a francesa contemporânea, sobretudo com Jean-François Lyotard. Dessa forma,ao invés de ressaltar as consequências inevitável ou sistematicamente morais do sublime kantiano, como fez, de um modo geral, o comentário mais tradicional da fi losofi a crítica de Kant, este ensaio tenta interpretar o sublime como sendo essencialmente uma experiência da arte, seguindo assim de perto aquela tradição francesa. Mas, ao mesmo tempo, tomando (...) alguma distância, este texto quer fazer uma objeção ao fundamento exclusivamente burkiano da concepção de sublime de Lyotard. Em suma, quero defender que é possível privilegiar o tempo (aspecto central do sublime de Edmund Burke, segundo Lyotard) também na experiência do sublime kantiano. (shrink)
La transition agroécologique en France et au Brésil appelle à impulser un autre développement dans les territoires ruraux dominés par l’industrialisation agricole. Deux réseaux structurés autour d’un projet politique, le réseau Agriculture durable et le Centro de Apoio e Promoção da Agroecologia œuvrent pour le développement d’une agriculture plus durable selon des gouvernances très différentes. Ces deux réseaux contribuent au développement de systèmes agroécologiques. L’acquisition d’une pensée autonome des agriculteurs est une condition de participation au Rad et non au Capa (...) : cette différence d’orientation structure le développement, le fonctionnement, les actions, les connaissances mises en circulation tout en répondant au projet politique respectif des deux réseaux. Au sein de ceux-ci, les interactions avec la recherche convergent en partie sur l’évaluation des performances des systèmes agroécologiques comme outil de promotion des projets politiques des réseaux. The agroecological transition in France and Brazil calls for an impetus for alternative development in rural areas dominated by agricultural industrialization. Two networks structured around a political project, réseau Agriculture durable and Centro de Apoio e Promoção da Agroecologia work for the development of a more sustainable agriculture under quite different governance systems. These two networks contribute to the development of agroecological, more self-sufficient farming systems. While the acquisition of autonomous thinking by the farmers is a precondition for their participation in RAD, such is not the case in CAPA: this orientates the development project, the functioning, actions, and knowledge that are put into circulation and the circulation modalities to the profit of the respective political project of the two networks. RAD supports volunteer farmers towards self-sufficiency and autonomy, and CAPA leaders aim to persuade farmers in the community to maintain a diversified agro-ecological system. Interactions with research partly converge in these two networks on the evaluation of system performance as a tool for promoting network policy projects. (shrink)
This article presents the thesis the weak thinking and nihilistic vocation of Gianni Vattimo's hermeneutics, unlike the criticisms and misunderstandings underwent, does not necessarily imply the assumption, defense and proposal of a philosophical and hermeneutical irrationality. Based on a hermeneutics of the Italian philosopher texts, it is evident the criticisms of irrationalism are contested by the author, however, like all philosophy, it is necessary to deepen and reflect on the implications this philosophy has for modern philosophy and hodiernal hermeneutics. The (...) concepts of thought and hermeneutic rationality are the axes upon which Gianni Vattimo's philosophy is analyzed and philosophically reflected in this article. (shrink)
RESUMO O propósito deste artigo é aproximar o significado do pensar calculador de Heidegger e a teoria sobre a sociedade do risco de Beck, considerando suas interpelações com o significado da técnica na modernidade. Porém, mais que tratar das aproximações entre ambos os pensadores, este estudo pretende também demonstrar a importância da filosofia da técnica de Heidegger para pensar o sentido do cálculo do risco e do risco do cálculo na sociedade do risco. Assim, argumenta-se que a teoria do risco (...) de Beck confirma e atualiza o pensamento de Heidegger sobre a técnica moderna, quando se observa que o pensar calculador, que dirige e controla o modo de ser na era do técnico, manifesta-se hoje com toda claridade na sociedade do risco global. ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to bring the meaning of Heidegger’s calculative thinking and Beck’s risk society theory closer, as well as their interpellations with the meaning of technique in modernity. Nevertheless, more than dealing with the convergences between both thinkers, this study also intends to demonstrate the importance of Heidegger’s technique philosophy in order to investigate the meaning of risk calculation and of calculation risk in risk society. Therefore, it argues that Beck’s risk theory confirms and updates Heidegger’s thinking on modern technique, as one observes that calculative thinking, which directs and controls the way of being in the age of technicality, clearly manifests itself nowadays, in the global risk society. (shrink)
The idea that the function of language is its use is commonly ascribed to the Later Wittgenstein. In this paper, I argue that there is textual evidence already coming from the early manuscripts proving that Wittgenstein's philosophical development is culminating in the idea of function as use around 1929–30. I interpret a passage from Ms‐107 in order to show that Wittgenstein's practical turn has sources in different stages of his philosophical development, each of which is dominated by different ideas: the (...) idea of a picture theory; the idea of a phenomenological language and the idea of function as use. (shrink)
Gadamer resgata o valor da tradição e explicita o desprezo feito pela Aufklärung a mesma. A questão da reabilitação da tradição enquanto fundamental para a compreensão é o que está em questão neste artigo. Um dos problemas a ser analisado é se há incompatibilidade entre razão e tradição, e se não há de que forma podemos buscar resgatar o valor da tradição como algo fundamental para a compreensão de como se dá o processo do entendimento humano. É, portanto, uma análise (...) dentro da hermenêutica filosófica de Gadamer, especificamente a segunda parte de Verdade e Método I. (shrink)
While cadaver dissection remains an unmatched learning tool for structural anatomy, recent shifts in medical culture and pedagogy indicate that developing humanistic practices and fostering empathic responses are crucial components of early medical education. The Donor Letter Project was designed to accompany a traditional dissection curriculum, and the pilot, described here, tested its quality and efficacy. In 2017, family members of recently deceased donors to the Colorado State Anatomical Board were invited to submit letters about their loved ones, and forty-seven (...) first-year medical students at the University of Colorado School of Medicine volunteered to read the letters after their human anatomy course. The students then completed a survey about their experience. Because student and donor family responses to the DLP were overwhelmingly positive, the DLP will be repeated with incoming medical school classes, and an addendum to the State Anatomical Board donation application will invite donors to submit letters along with their enrollment materials that may be read by students at the time of donation. (shrink)
El pensamiento de Unamuno es complejo y problemático. Realizar una lectura de los escritos de este autor, sin tomar previamente en consideración ciertos aspectos, puede resultar estéril y contradictoria. Examinando, a través de textos del propio autor, cómo concibe la “razón”, el “lenguaje”, la “filosofía” y la “realidad”, junto a la descripción de ciertos rasgos de su “personalidad”, queremos mostrar el talante verdaderamente filosófico de Unamuno, tantas veces puesto en cuestión. El presente artículo tiene como objeto exponer algunos puntos clave (...) que pueden servir como indicadores para descubrir la riqueza y profundidad que encierra la obra del filósofo vasco. Palabras clave: Unamuno; Razón; Lenguaje; Filosofía; Realidad. ABSTRACT The philosophical thinking of Unamuno is complex and problematic. Trying to interpret his writings previously taking into consideration certain aspects of his work could result fruitless and contradictory (paradoxical). The analysis of his conception of subjects like reason, language, philosophy and reality in his texts, together with the description of certain traits of his personality lead us to the real philosophical nature of his work, which has been repeatedly questioned by some authors. This paper is going to explain the main aspects of his work, which are the indicators to discover the true nature of the enriching and profound characteristics of the work of this Basque philosopher. Key words: Unamuno; Reason; Language; Filosofia; Reality. (shrink)
Recent work has formally linked the traditional axiomatisation of incomplete preferences à la Anscombe-Aumann with the theory of desirability developed in the context of imprecise probability, by showing in particular that they are the very same theory. The equivalence has been established under the constraint that the set of possible prizes is finite. In this paper, we relax such a constraint, thus de facto creating one of the most general theories of rationality and decision making available today. We provide the (...) theory with a sound interpretation and with basic notions, and results, for the separation of beliefs and values, and for the case of complete preferences. Moreover, we discuss the role of conglomerability for the presented theory, arguing that it should be a rationality requirement under very broad conditions. (shrink)