The article is a response to the criticism of “conceptual Eurocentrism” expressed in the paper by A.A. Krushinsky at the Round Table on the Geography of Rationality on April 25, 2019. It deals with the main thesis of A.A. Krushinsky that in cross-cultural philosophical studies the Western conceptual matrix currently defines a single conceptual space for all participants, the language of Western philosophy acts as a trans-civilizational language in the world philosophy. The author of the article agrees with the main (...) thesis, however she does not agree with its arguments and two consequences: it is necessary to consider Western rationality as “rationality as such,” and there is no multi-polarity in the current philosophy though there are a lot of traditions of philosophical discourse, which identify and articulate themselves by means of Western conceptuality. The arguments do not stand comparison with the search of future philosophy, conducted now by the world philosophical community. The search is aiming to equality of all philosophical traditions. The article proves that conceptual Eurocentrism is not so much a danger as an objective necessity. Its spread is a manifestation of tendency to creative mutual borrowing of cultural inventions. The tendency always had place, but it was not so obvious in the conditions of preglobal history. The consequences of Krushinskiy’s thesis are refuted by the evidence that the Western philosophers denied to use the concept universal rationality and began studies of the various types of rationality. The author also provides an example of the creative borrowing and use of European concepts “rationality,” “positive knowledge,” “truth,” “scientific method,” “hypothesis” by the Indian philosopher of science B. Seal, who applied these concepts to the Indian material. (shrink)
The “foreign speaking competence” is an urgent task in the modern society. It is felt most acutely in countries of the post-Soviet space because of changing a paradigm of foreign language education, processes of integration of these countries in the world society. Organization of teaching foreign languages in the New Ukrainian school needs determining strategies and further perspectives as to the common work of pupils, parents and whole community on problems of the content and resource base for providing high-quality teaching (...) taking into account the rich experience of teachers-practicians. The aim of the article is to use the historical experience for organizing teaching foreign languages for pupils of gymnasia. The brief analysis of substantial works of Ukrainian and foreign scientists as to the problem of organizing teaching foreign languages in tnative gymnasias at the end of ХІХ – beginning of ХХ century has been realized. Just this time there takes place a change of socio-economic conditions in the country that results in the fact that ancient foreign languages lose their popularity. German, French and English occupy their place. It causes modernization of teaching methods and new organization of this process. We have elaborated and introduced in the working practice of secondary educational institutions: the technology of a special seminar for improving the qualification of primary school teachers “Organization of teaching foreign languages for pupils: historical aspects and modern challenges” and technology of training exercises “Rozmovlyajko” for pupils of primary schools. We think that teaching foreign languages may serve as a means of reformation of the Ukrainian school and creation of a new productive and creative personality. (shrink)
The global COVID-19 pandemic has quickly and radically changed the world. The healthcare system in Russia, as in other countries, is under incredible pressure, and Russian society likewise is tested by “social distancing” practices. The unceasing adaptation and mobilization of resources has become part of our everyday lives. The struggle against the epidemic continues to emphasize the priority of global social health. Accordingly, we must address questions recently raised by The Hastings Center in “What Values Should Guide Us?”. What will (...) be the new ethical norm after the pandemic? What compromises will be in place between civil liberties and public health? Will such biomedical ethical themes concerning the... (shrink)
Interest in the Eastern religions has arisen for a long time and has not subsided so far. A common picture of many Ukrainian cities is the people in orange clothing who chant the Hare Krishna mantra and actively promote religious literature. These are members of the International Society of Krishna Consciousness, an Indian religious movement that has become more popular outside India than in India itself.
Modern Ukrainian religious studies have received considerable attention from studies of mystical scholars. This can be explained by the fact that it is mystical cognition that enables a person to fully discover his spiritual potential and experience the experience of union with the Absolute. At the same time, a number of unanswered questions arise that may be the object of study. Above all, various religions offer their own ways of attaining the mystical state and differently consider the following problems concerning (...) it: the essence of the Absolute and being, the place of man in the world, the nature of his relationship with God, the main purpose of mystical practice, practical ways and basic means of union with the Absolute. There are no contemporary scientific publications on the typology of mystical experience. (shrink)
Стаття присвячена дослідженню зарубіжного досвіду управління розвитком міських агломерацій. Визначено характеристики європейських та світових агломерацій як головних центрів, що акумулюють економічний потенціал країн та дозволяють підвищити рівень їхньої конкурентоспроможності. Встановлено, що відмінності в розвитку агломерацій у світі і в Україні детермінуються різним баченням головних складових системи управління міськими агломераціями. Систематизовано головні моделі управлінських систем агломерацій у зарубіжних країнах, виявлено їхні негативні та позитивні сторони. Наведено приклади європейського та світового досвіду регулювання розвитку агломерацій. На основі виявлених особливостей моделей управління міськими агломераціями (...) за кордоном обґрунтовано пропозиції з формування та впорядкування національної системи управління міськими агломераціями. (shrink)
У статті досліджено питання про сутність та завдання міського управління як суспільно значущого явища. Виявлено принципи міського управління в контексті диференціації визначення міста як територіальної, економічної та організаційної системи. Встановлено чинники, які впливають на об'єктний склад системи міського управління та обумовлюють напрями її подальшої трансформації. Розроблено положення з формування та закріплення організаційного підходу в забезпеченні ефективного міського управління, який передбачає розгляд міста як складноструктурованої, організаційної системи та використання поряд із традиційними практиками управління містом принципів, правил і процедур організаційного управління. На (...) основі виявлених особливостей організаційно-економічного блоку забезпечення міського управління обґрунтовано пропозиції з його вдосконалення з урахуванням сучасних умов. (shrink)
The article analyzes factors that influence the formation of the humanistic pedagogical position of future speech therapists, understood as a personal phenomenon that integrates values and senses of pedagogical activity of the humanistic directionality. The research characterizes internal and external factors of the formation of the humanistic pedagogical position of future speech therapists. Important internal factors of the formation of the humanistic pedagogical position of future specialists are: • Self-consciousness – adequate self-estimation, axiological self-attitude, reflection as an ability to understand (...) own peculiarities, report to yourself about other’s understanding of them, to form own behavior taking into account probable reactions of important people; • Personal experience – understood as cognition results, accumulated by studied people, based on their sensual practical comprehension at the educational process, in the educational environment and in the wide life context. External factors are educational process and environment, external as to the subjective humanistic pedagogical position of a future specialist: • Attitude to the problem of the formation of the aforementioned position in future speech therapists by teachers of basic educational institutions; • Content filling of curriculums, guiding teaching general and special disciplines for this category of specialists. The professional activity of a speech therapist is a complex of interconnected processes, depending on numerous and diverse factors – internal and external ones. Internal and external factors are analyzed, strong and weak sides of the organization of the educational process and environment under traditional learning conditions that brake the process of formation of the humanistic pedagogical position of future speech therapists are determined, the analysis of an influence of contents of learning programs of the disciplines “Special education. Speech therapy” that determine a strategy and tactics of their teaching was made. (shrink)
У статті розкрито механізм інтегрування культур села та міста в єдиний процес - творення радянської української культури, що ускладнювалося існуванням значних відмінностей між ними соціального, побутового та етнічного характеру. Пошуки оптимальних шляхів для подолання цих розбіжностей спричинили загострення протистояння різних політичних сил, мистецьких напрямків, позицій окремих діячів, яке часто із культурної сфери трансформувалося в площину політики.
The article touches upon the problem of concept “Indian tradition of rationality”. The author recalls a genetic link of the concept with Western philosophy. She notices the complexity of its application to Indian material, gives some examples in which the use of Western concepts of “reason”, “methods of cognition”, etc., leads to a distortion of the text’s meaning, and when an application of the criteria of Western logic to analysis of Indian philosophical discourse gives the readers an impression of its (...) absurdity. However, according to the author’s mind, the difficulties with the applying of Western concepts are not the sufficient grounds to abandon them. This conclusion follows from the presence of comparative studies by researchers belonging to both traditions, who compare successfully Western and Indian kinds of logico-epistemological type of rationality. The difficulties just bring up the questions about new instrumental concepts and methods of comparative studies more adequate to Indian culture. There are two possible directions for the studies of Indian tradition of rationality in connection with the revision of contents of the concepts in Western post- modern philosophy. In the first of them the concept of rationality can not to be used at all, then the phenomenology of practices of Indian discourse becomes the subject of research, i.e. the discourse images in different contexts, its explicit and implicit foundations and aims, which aren’t coincide with Western ones. In the second case Indian rationality can be analyzed in accordance with the criteria of transversal reason and transversal rationality. (shrink)
On the basis of the archived materials and labours of scientists pre-conditions of becoming and development of scientific school are certain from development of effective crop rotations in the systems of agriculture to central and north Steppe of Ukraine in Institute of agriculture of steppe zone of NAAS. It is set that on the modern stage basic activity of scientific school is sent to development: basic elements of the ecologically balanced crop rotations in the systems agricultures of steppe zone, that (...) provides the receipt of high-quality products, extended recreation of fertility of soil and guard of environment; scientific government of the agrarian systems and introduction of crop rotations productive potential bases in the systems of agriculture of steppe zone, adapted to the natural environment; basic elements of the ecologically balanced crop rotations in the systems of agriculture of steppe zone on the basis of data of agrarian and ecological diagnostics that will provide the stable receipt of high-quality products and extended recreation of fertility of black earth; crop rotations in the systems of agriculture during optimization of correlation of the landed lands, application of effective technologies of production of agricultural goods in the zone of Steppe. Basic directions of activity of scientists-founders of scientific school, and also their students and followers and their contribution, are set to development of science about crop rotations in the systems of agriculture in Ukraine and world. Their ponderable long-term experience and thorough knowledge from the problems of development of crop rotations matter very much and actuality for the future scientists of our state. (shrink)
Many Kantians dismiss Kant’s claim that we have a duty to promote the highest good – an ideal world that combines complete virtue with complete happiness – as incompatible with the core of his moral philosophy. This dismissal, I argue, raises doubts about Kant’s ability to justify the moral law, yet it is a mistake. A duty to promote the highest good plays an important role in the justificatory strategy of the Critique of Practical Reason. Moreover, its analysis leads to (...) a new perspective on Kant’s conception of moral objectivity. (shrink)
The problem of dualism is one of those that has always interested and will interest man. The first is the question of the possibility of connection with higher transcendental reality. In addition, it is also a question of the nature and true "nature" of human origin. Dualism is also a matter of internal contradiction that one constantly feels, which seeks to overcome and is never able to overcome completely. In general, it is a question of meaning, a question that everyone (...) faces without exception, regardless of their intellectual level and spiritual needs. (shrink)
The paper is devoted to elucidating the content and role of institutional stimuli in providing the economic sustainability and development. There is systematized the understanding of the economic content of the stimulating and coordinating function of institutions. The analysis of the essence and forms of manifestations of the dilemma “sustainability vs development” is realized. The complex of institutional sustainability and development stimuli as a complicated integrity of formal and informal alternatives, mechanisms of the economic development is separated. There is also (...) elucidated the content of anticorruption effects of using institutional stimuli. Main institutional preconditions of the theoretical model of stimulating the economic development in the context of combining quality institutions, mechanisms and effective stimuli are revealed, its base principles are substantiated. The method of institutional analysis that is a base of systematization of the understanding of the economic content of the stimulating and coordinating function of institutions is central in the study. The method of system approach is used at analyzing the essence and forms of manifestations of the dilemma “sustainability vs development”. Based on method of structuring and synthesis, there is separated the complex of institutional stimuli of sustainability and development as a complicated integrity of formal and informal alternatives. The structural logic analysis gave a possibility to separate mechanisms and instruments of the economic development. Methods of comparison and generalization are used at elucidating the content of anticorruption effects of using institutional stimuli. There is established an importance of differentiation of legal institutions of state regulation that provide observation of property rights and responsibility and institutions that structure a market behavior of partners under conditions of the effective competition at making choice between the market and dirigiste mechanisms of sustainability and development. It is elucidated, that the effectiveness of institutional stimuli is connected with strengthening property rights and decreasing a corruption level. The influence mechanism of institutional stimuli of overcoming the conflict between private and social in the macrofinancial sphere is explained. It is established, that anticorruption effects of institutional stimulation need providing the rule of law, effective enforcement, support of democratic values, formation of the market competitive environment. At the same time there is revealed the ineffectiveness of anticorruption stimuli without raising the general culture of the population, formation of the anticorruption worldview. It is established the necessity of the civic society, more independent from the state, higher degree of personal responsibility of individuals for providing institutional stimuli that support stability, development and have the motivation effect in countries with forming markets. Institutional arrangements as to transferring economies of countries with forming markets to the way of development are determined. (shrink)
Psychological radio counselling is a relatively recent development in psychological practice, where professionals provide psychological help via mass media communication. In the media context, a professional and a help-seeker face a number of communicative challenges, one of which is to close the encounter meaningfully with regard to its counselling and radio tasks. This study explicates how radio counselling encounters can be rounded off by summarising and reviewing the progress achieved in understanding the caller’s problem. At the end of the encounters, (...) the radio psychologist invited callers to look back at the conversation and to formulate possible gains from it. On one hand, the radio psychologist encouraged callers’ reflection and acknowledged the callers’ entitlement to pass judgement on the outcomes of the encounter. On the other hand, the radio psychologist checked and subsequently reviewed the caller’s understanding of his or her problem and its solutions. We discuss how the practice was used to round off the encounters in a distinct way with an orientation to their counselling and radio objectives. (shrink)