As bibliographical classification of published journal items affects the denominator in this equation, we investigated how the numerator and denominator of the impact factor equation were generated for representative journals in two categories of the Journal Citation Reports. We performed a full text search of the 1st-ranked journal in 2004 JCR category “Medicine, General and Internal” and 61st-ranked journal, 1st-ranked journal in category “Multidisciplinary Sciences” and journal with a relative rank of CMJ. Large journals published more items categorized by Web (...) of Science as non-research items : 63% out of total 5,193 items in Nature and 81% out of 3,540 items in NEJM, compared with 31% out of 283 items in CMJ and only 2 out of 126 items in AABC. Some items classified by WoS as non-original contained original research data. These items received a significant number of citations: 6.9% of total citations in Nature, 14.7% in NEJM and 18.5% in CMJ. IF decreased for all journals when only items presenting original research and citations to them were used for IF calculation. Regardless of the journal’s size or discipline, publication of non-original research and its classification by the bibliographical database have an effect on both numerator and denominator of the IF equation. (shrink)
The open future view is the common-sense view that there is an ontological difference between the past, the present, and the future in the sense that the past and the present are real, whereas the future is not yet a part of reality. In this paper we develop a theory in which the open future view is consistently combined with special relativity. Technically, the heart of our contribution is a logical conservativity result showing that, although the open future view is (...) not definable inside the causal geometry of Minkowski space-time, it can be conservatively added to it. (shrink)
Recent reviews show a rapid increase in the corporate social responsibility communication literature. However, while mapping the literature and the field of CSR communication, they do not fully capture the evolutionary character of this emerging interdisciplinary endeavour. This paper seeks to fill this gap by presenting a follow-up study of the CSR communication literature from a dynamic perspective, which focuses on micro-discursive changes in the field. A bibliometric approach and frame theory are used to examine continuities in the development of (...) field ‘frames’ in three consecutive periods between 2002 and 2016. The article highlights the growing fragmentation of the CSR communication field over time and the existence of 11 distinct frames during the field’s emergence, whereby the two most prominent in the three time periods are the reporting and business case frames. Regardless, they are subjected to discursive changes as well. For example, they become split into stakeholder-focused, business case and institutionalisation frame and contested by the constitutive logic, respectively. The paper argues that interdisciplinary fields like CSR communication can rarely exist without contestation. It also shows that micro-framing processes such as fragmentation, merging and extension visibly shape the identified field frames and the overall discursive dynamic of the CSR communication field while investigating their value for sustaining the field’s polyphonic state and further development. The study findings suggest that additional cross-fertilisation processes between the CSR communication literature and sustainability and digital communication research hold the potential to influence the next stage of the field’s discursive evolution. (shrink)
Several authors have argued that traumatic experiences are processed and remembered in a qualitatively different way from neutral events. To investigate this issue, we interviewed 121 Croatian war veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder about amnesia, intrusions , and the sensory qualities of their most horrific war memories. Additionally, they completed a self-report scale measuring dissociative experiences. In contrast to what one would expect on the basis of theories emphasizing the special status of traumatic memories, amnesia, and high frequency intrusions (...) were not particularly typical for our sample of traumatized individuals. Moreover, traumatic memories were not qualitatively different from neutral memories with respect to their stability and sensory qualities. The severity of PTSD symptoms was not significantly correlated with dissociative experiences. Our findings do not support the existence of special memory mechanisms that are unique to experiencing traumatic events. (shrink)
The objective of this paper is to present the research on how unlabeled advertorials are produced and interpreted by their key producers. The study uses ethnographic methods and reveals that advertorials are produced by news producers or agency practitioners and advertisers either independently or collectively. The production was based on paying for various expenses or services and making threats. Reasons for production were different within particular groups of producers. Responsibility belongs to all actors analyzed, but also to other media and (...) social actors who establish and maintain circumstances that enable this illegal and unethical practice. (shrink)
Quantitative information is one of the means used to interface science with policy. As a consequence, much effort is invested in producing quantitative information for policy and much criticism is directed toward the use of numbers in policy. In this paper, I analyze five approaches drawn from such criticisms and propose alternative uses of quantitative information for governance: valuation of ecosystem services, social multicriteria evaluation, quantification of uncertainty through the Numeral, Unit, Spread, Assessment, Pedigree approach, Quantitative Story-Telling, and the heuristic (...) use of statistics. The analysis shows the varied ways that numbers are conceptualized and how different conceptualizations matter for the science–policy interface. Alternative conceptualizations of numbers are used to challenge the model of science-speaking truth to power. Uncertainty, complexity, pluralism, malpractice, and values are mobilized to redefine the relations between science and policy. Alternative quantification may produce alternative facts, but reflexive approaches that use numbers to discuss the relevance of equity, positionality, and quality in science for policy may offer a remedy. (shrink)
"Tehnicizirana" politika, te u tom kontekstu zaborav pojma dobra kao čovjekova dobrog života, čini nužnim ponovnu procjenu pojma političkog, što rezultira ispitivanjem njegove biti. U tom se smislu antičko-grčka percepcija politike pojavljuje ključnom u potrazi za odgovorom. Aristotelova praktična filozofija kao jedinstvo etike, ekonomike i politike predstavlja se u svojoj punini upravo kao philosophia anthropina - filozofija o ljudskim stvarima. U takvom kontekstu politika ostaje izraz ljudske prirode, znakovito ukorijenjena u širini ljudskog života kao put ili način ostvarivanja njegovih najviših (...) stremljenja. Bivajući takovom, neraskidivo je povezana sa svojom svrhom - zajedničkim dobrom građana; država djeluje kao politička zajednica utemeljena na načelima slobode i pravednosti. Takova posebnost pojma politike - unutar svoje vezanosti za etiku i njezina praktičkog značenja za čovjeka - može preživjeti samo kroz suočavanje sa zaboravom njezina izvornog značenja.The “technicalized” politics, and in that context the oblivion of the concept of good as man’s goodlife, urges the reappraisal of the concept of the political, resulting in the questioning of its essence.In that sense the ancient-Greek perception of politics appears crucial in the quest for the answer.Aristotle’s practical philosophy as a union of ethics, economics and politics manifests itself in itsfullness precisely as philosophia anthropina – philosophy about human matters. In such a contextpolitics remains the expression of human nature, significantly rooted in the entirety of human life asa path or way towards the realization of his highest aspirations. Being such, it is unbreakablybonded with its purpose – the common good of citizens, the state acting as the political communitybased on the principles of freedom and righteousness. Such particularity of the concept of politicswithin its link to ethics and its practical meaning for man can survive only through confronting theoblivion of its original meaning. (shrink)
This essay reviews a number of issues regarding self-regulation and professional ethics which journalists across Europe might face in the scaling down of national borders. The dilemma of whether a pan-European ideal standards code of ethics can help journalists when working across borders and encountering other traditions is explored by referring to Slovenia, one of the new European Union (EU) members. Presenting a critique of the traditional professionalization concept, cogent arguments are found for rejecting a universal code of ethics. By (...) acknowledging the limitations and even deficiencies of such codified morality, a journalist's responsibility is emphasized and a different concept of ethics is indicated. Ethical journalists in this international context must focus on responsibility, positive tolerance, and empathy that transcends mere obedience to a code. The EU citizen's ethics rather than EU professional ethics should be advanced, based on universal principles and grounded in personal responsibility. (shrink)
Mediteran je prostor susreta. Susretanje s jedne strane znači komunikaciju, aktivnost, otvorenost, prožimanje, dok s druge strane znači i sukob, često i rat, uništenje, istrebljenje. Susretanje je, dakle, istodobno opasnost i šansa, prijetnja i prigoda, mogućnost iščeznuća i predložak za novi kvalitet, što se na Mediteranu jasno ogleda. Neprestani napon, odnosi harmonije i suprotnosti, sličnosti i različitosti, pokazuju Mediteran u bitnom upravo kao prostor posredovanja, a posredovanje kao uvjet mogućnosti nečeg takovog kao što je Mediteran.Jedno od temeljnih posredovanja, iz kojeg (...) proizlaze ostala, jest odnos čovjeka i čovjeka, što bi se, govoreći jezikom pitanja, moglo drukčije odrediti kao pitanje mogućnosti i svrhe ljudske zajednice, odnosno bîti političkog. Na Mediteranu je, između ostalog, izvorište dva, mogli bismo reći oprečna, ali određujuća pristupa ovom pitanju: tzv. tradicionalni pristup politici – antičkogrčko shvaćanje politike kao djelovanja slobodnih i jednakih građana, koji u državi kao političkoj zajednici ozbiljuju bitne svrhe ljudskoga dobroga i pravednog života te čiji najreljefniji izraz nalazimo kod Aristotela , dok je s druge strane ono što nazivamo novovjekovnim pristupom politici, koji predstavlja nasuprotni pol antičkogrčkom određenju odnosa. Radikalni obrat nastupa upravo s Machiavellijem, a raščlambom njegova djela razabiru se i utjecaji na suvremenost.The Mediterranean is a meeting point. On the one hand, meeting points imply communication, activity, openness and interlacement, while on the other, conflict, frequently even war, destruction and extermination. Meetings, therefore, represent both danger and opportunity, threat and occasion, the possibility of annihilation and a model of a new quality, which the Mediterranean clearly mirrors. Its endless tension, the relations between harmony and opposition, its similarities and differences reveal the Mediterranean, in its essence, as a zone of mediation, and mediation itself as the very prerequisite of the existence of something like the Mediterranean.One of the most fundamental mediations, out of which all the others derive, is the relationship between man and man. Once translated into the language of questions, this could be reformulated as the question of the possibility and purpose of human society, i.e. the essence of the political. The Mediterranean is, amongst other things, the source of two, one could say diametrically opposed yet determinative approaches to this issue: one is the so-called traditional approach to politics – the Ancient Greek understanding of politics as a set of actions by free and equal citizens, who fulfil the purposes of a good and virtuous life in a state as a political community, the most outstanding example of which is formulated by Aristotle – while the other is the so-called modern approach to politics, which is the polar opposite of the Ancient Greek definition of the relationship at hand. With Machiavelli a radical shift takes place, and the analyses of his work disclose his influence on contemporaneity. (shrink)
Better memory, greater motivation and concentration lead to greater productivity, efficiency and performance, all of which are features that are highly valued in a modern society focused on productivity. In the effort for better cognitive abilities, otherwise healthy individuals use cognitive enhancers, medicines for the treatment of cognitive deficits of patients with various disorders and health problems, such as Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, stroke, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ageing. The use of these is more common in professions with emphasised cognitive (...) abilities, or in occupations that require more attention, focus and alertness. Their use is also associated with the general working population, in that they are supposed to use them to alleviate the effects of sleep deprivation and to cope with increasing workloads. In the paper, we are addressing the ethical issue and the dilemmas of the use of pharmaceutical enhancements by healthy people who have no medical reason for taking such substances, in the context of improving their cognitive functions. (shrink)
This article explores the influence of the Catholic church on educational policy, more specifically on sex education, in Croatia. It explores tensions between secular and religious discourses regarding the introduction of a sex education programme supported by the Catholic church into Croatian schools. The presence of the Catholic doctrine in the educational system provided the basis for the introduction of sex education with a religious framework, namely the GROZD sex education programme. The GROZD programme triggered a public discussion that soon (...) became a polarization between liberal and traditional discourses. In the discussion, the traditional/catholic value system was used as a justification for the introduction of a sex education programme that was seen by opponents as harmful. (shrink)
1960-ih i 1970-ih godina odbačeno je viđenje znanosti kao neutralne i bez utjecaja klase, rase, roda, nacionalnosti i politike. Neki od pokreta, koji su usmjereni na društvenu upotrebu znanosti, prepoznali su znanost kao produženu ruku kapitalističkog poretka i sredstvo eksploatacije te je proglasili suučesnicom u podčinjavanju žena, manjina i nerazvijenih zemalja. Jedan od tih pokreta je feministički. Do pojave ovih kritika znanost je bila shvaćena kao objektivna i vrijednosno neutralna.1970-ih godina suvremena feministička teorija podastrijela je kritički teorijski koncept roda predstavljen (...) kao način razlikovanja društvene konstrukcije maskulinosti i femininosti od bioloških kategorija muškog i ženskog. Polazeći od toga i usvojivši socijalni konstruktivizam, feministkinje su artikulirale feminističku teoriju stajališta koja pokušava konstruirati znanje iz perspektive života žena. Navedeni su bitni momenti zbog kojih je nepristranost u znanosti dosad bila onemogućena. Ključna postavka epistemologije stajališta sadrži tezu da epistemologija neutralnog, nezainteresiranoga promatrača svijeta treba biti zamijenjena epistemologijom senzibilnom na sve specifičnosti socijalnoga konteksta, a u slučaju feminističke inačice ove teorije drži se da način na koji žene doživljavaju društveni život daje jedinstveni uvid u način funkcioniranja društva, a stajalište žena, ili feminizma, manje je pristrano i iskrivljeno, za što se navode brojni razlozi.The view of science as neutral and not subject to the influence of class, race, gendernationality and politics, was largely rejected during the 1960s and 1970s. Certainmovements that focused on the social use of science had recognized science as a vehicleof the capitalist movement and as a means of exploitation, pronouncing sciencean extended accomplice to the subordination of women, minorities, and underdevelopedcountries. One of these movements is the feminist movement. Prior tothe criticism of these movements, science was thought of as objective and valueneutral.Modern feminist theory in the 1970s submitted a critical and theoretical concept ofgender presented as a way of differentiating between the social construction of mas-culinity and femininity and the biological categories of male and female. Using thisconcept as a starting point and incorporating social constructivism, the feministshave articulated the feminist standpoint theory which attempts to construct knowledgefrom the perspective of women’s lives. They stated key moments that have preventedthe impartiality of science. The key concept of the standpoint epistemologyincorporates the thesis that there exists a need to replace the epistemology of theneutral, disinterested observer of the world with the epistemology sensitive to allspecificities of the social context. The feminist version of the theory states that theway women experience social life gives them a unique view to the way the societyfunctions, and that the women’s, or feminist’s standpoint is less biased and distorted,for which they offer a number of arguments. (shrink)
Apology An apology is the act of declaring one’s regret, remorse, or sorrow for having insulted, failed, injured, harmed or wronged another. Some apologies are interpersonal (between individuals, that is, between friends, family members, colleagues, lovers, neighbours, or strangers). Other apologies are collective (by one group to another group or by a group to an […].
An analysis is provided for one possible practical link between rhetorical and social scientific inquiry. That link is found in the rhetoric of the reasoned social scientific fact. Understanding this point of intersection involves grounding a rhetorical theory of how to create and to evaluate arguments (a rhetorical theory of invention and judgment) in the practical problems that confront contemporary social scientists during their efforts to construct reasoned social facts. The applicability of this invention and judgment framework to analysis of (...) the rhetoric of social science is illustrated with reference to a controversy over the legitimacy of rules theoretic explanations of human communication processes. Implications of the practical link between rhetorical and social scientific inquiry are then drawn out. (shrink)
The enslavement of Africans did strike the young, hopeful and radical Romantic poets of nineteenth-century England as the most blatant example of human oppression and the clearest example of humans being deprived of liberty. Although their poetry refers to and draws on the imagery of African slavery, the major poetic figures of the Romantic Movement in England rarely spoke directly against the slave trade and colonial slavery. Thus the issue of slavery, the transatlantic trade, and Britain's role in it, though (...) well established in the nineteenth-century historical context, remained a subject only partially explored by the English Romantic poets, who were, at the time, more preoccupied with British domestic policy and the enslavement of their own nation. (shrink)
This multi-faceted collection of women's perspectives on the renaissance in philosophical practices provides an international overview on the professional practice of philosophical counseling as rooted in the ancient philosophical discipline of life and its essential difference from modern mainstream philosophy.
We propose a new relational direction in higher education that acknowledges external and internal images as integrated in thinking and learning. We expand educational theory and practice that commonly rely on discrete conceptual developments that exclude images. Our argument epistemologically relies on certain semiotic views that consider the role of iconic signs and iconicity as significant in relation to knowledge and learning. The analogical and imaginative work required to discover similarity between external pictures and any educational concept is a form (...) of iconic mind work that opens a space for transformational thinking and creative solutions. The novelty of our argument lies in the schematic philosophy of mind by C.S. Peirce, and specifically, an adaptation of Peirce’s triadic sign diagram for learning, exemplified via an ‘inquiry graphic’ sign and reflective method. This outlook seeks connections in diversity, arguing for an education that acknowledges and teaches intrinsic human relatedness to other humans, beings and things in the environment, thus challenging any notions of anthropocentrism and superiority. It calls for a reaction in international higher education to acknowledge the iconicity of concepts and thinking and embrace integrated image-concept signs for deep and critical teaching-learning, towards a modest educational contribution to counteracting social and environmental crises. (shrink)
The volume draws attention to the unknown and unexplored areas, trends and ways of thinking under the communist regime. It demonstrates how various bodies of knowledge were produced, disseminated and used for a wide variety of purposes: from openly justifying dominant political views to framing oppositional and non-official discourses and practices.
We have developed a statistical method for investigating the importance of different log measurements for picking the best zones for hydraulic fracturing. We have determined the method’s applicability using data from unconventional reservoirs. The analysis began with single log measurements. Other types of measurements, including density, neutron porosity, and resistivity, were added to obtain more complex logging suites. These log measurements were the inputs for this analysis. Each input combination was referred to as a “scenario.” Parameters such as effective porosity, (...) brittleness, total organic carbon, production index, and fracture index were referred to as the outputs for the analysis. We have investigated linear and nonlinear combinations of the inputs to predict the outputs. Various scenarios, beginning with the simplest cases and ending with the most complete combination, were tested. The selection of log combinations was either based on the importance of individual logs or on industry-standard combinations. For each scenario, we computed correlation coefficients and root-mean-square errors of predicting the output parameters. The prediction accuracies generally increased as a result of increasing the number of input logs. Our analysis clearly found the importance of using SGR and resistivity logs. Based on comparison of the reconstruction results, actual values, and correlation coefficients/errors, we ranked the log combinations for predicting/modeling a specific parameter. The most challenging properties to model included TOC, PhiE, PI, and FI; the easiest properties to predict were brittleness and Young’s modulus. (shrink)